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Encyclopedia > Gotland
Gotland
Map
The provinces of Sweden with Gotland highlighted
Coat of Arms
Land Sweden
Main corresponding county Gotland County
Area 3,145.45 km²
Flower Common Ivy
Animal Hedgehog

Gotland  is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. At 3,140 square kilometers in area, it makes up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The region also includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, and the tiny Karlsö Islands to the west. Inhabitants number 57,600 (2004 figure), with about 22,600 living in the primary city Visby. The main sources of income to the island are tourism and agriculture. Image File history File links FC-Gotland,_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Gotland_coat_of_arms. ... Norrland Svealand Götaland Historical map: Lands of Sweden Sweden is divided into the tre lands: Götaland, Svealand, Norrland. ... A county, or län, is an administrative and political subdivision of Sweden. ... Gotland County, or Gotlands län, is a County or län of Sweden. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Binomial name Hedera helix L. Hedera helix (Ivy or Common Ivy) is a species of ivy native to most of Europe and southwest Asia. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... Image File history File links Sv-Gotland. ... A county, or län, is an administrative and political subdivision of Sweden. ... The provinces or landskap were the subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden (län). ... The Municipalities or Kommuner represent the local level of self government in Sweden. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... Gotska Sandön is a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, situated some 38 kilometres north of FÃ¥rö. It is approximately 9 kilometres long and 6 kilometres wide, and its area is approximately 36 km². Gotska Sandön is mostly composed of sand and its scenery is dominated by... The Karlsö Islands are two small Swedish islands close to Gotland, see Stora Karlsö and Lilla Karlsö. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ...


The region is considered by some historians to be, or be part of, the original homeland of the Goths.[1] Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...

Contents

Geography

Gotland
Gotland

The island province of Gotland is represented by the current administrative entity, Gotland County. This county consists of the sole municipality (kommun) Gotland Municipality. Gotland, map File links The following pages link to this file: Gotland Fårö Categories: GFDL images ... Gotland, map File links The following pages link to this file: Gotland Fårö Categories: GFDL images ... Gotland County, or Gotlands län, is a County or län of Sweden. ... Gotland is the single Municipality of Gotland County, in Sweden. ...


Visby, with about two fifths of the island's population (approximately 22,600), is the seat of the county and municipal councils. Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ...


Gotland is located about 90 km east of the Swedish mainland and about 130 km from the Baltic States. The island Gotland is obviously just one island, but the historical province of Gotland also includes adjacent islands, which are often considered part of the Gotlandic culture: The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... The Karlsö Islands are two small Swedish islands close to Gotland, see Stora Karlsö and Lilla Karlsö. ... Stora Karlsö is a small Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, situated about 6 km west of Gotland. ... Lilla Karlsö is a small Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, situated about 3 km west of Gotland and 4. ... Gotska Sandön is a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, situated some 38 kilometres north of Fårö. It is approximately 9 kilometres long and 6 kilometres wide, and its area is approximately 36 km². Gotska Sandön is mostly composed of sand and its scenery is dominated by... The national parks of Sweden are managed by the Swedish National Environmental Protection Agency, or Naturvårdsverket. ...

Geology

Gotland is made up of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of a Silurian age, dipping to the south-east. The main Silurian succession of limestones and shales comprises thirteen units spanning 200-500 m of stratigraphic thickness, being thickest in the south, and overlies a 75-125 m thick Ordovician sequence.[2] It was deposited in a shallow, hot and salty sea, on the edge of an equatorial continent.[3] The water depth never exceeded 175–200 m,[4] and shallowed over time as bioherm detritus, and terrestrial sediments, filled the basin. Reef growth started in the Llandovery, when the sea was 50–100 m deep, and reefs continued to dominate the sedimentary record.[2] Some sandstones are present in the youngest rocks towards the south of the island, which represent sand bars deposited very close to the shore line.[5] Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... -1... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Llandovery (Welsh: Llanymddyfri) is a market town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, lying on the River Tywi and the A40 road. ...


The lime rocks have been weathered into characteristic karstic rock formations known as rauks. Fossils, mainly of rugose corals and brachiopods, are abundant throughout the island; palæo-sea-stacks are preserved in places.[6] Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... See Formation of rocks for processes by which rocks are formed. ... Raukar on the island of FÃ¥rö. Rauk (Swedish plural: raukar) is a Swedish term for a stone column created by natural erosion. ... Suborders Columnariina† Cystiphyllina† Streptelasmatina† The Rugosa, also called the Tetracoralla, are an extinct order of coral that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ... Stack, near Old Harry Rocks Old Harry Rocks A stack is a geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast. ...

Picture of the Visby city wall, near the North gate.
Picture of the Visby city wall, near the North gate.

Image File history File linksMetadata Visby_Wall. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Visby_Wall. ...

History

The island is the home of the Gutar (the Gotlanders) and sites such as Ajvide show that it has been occupied since prehistory. Early on Gotland became a commercial center and the town of Visby was the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. The island had in late medieval time twenty district courts (tings), each represented at the island-ting, called landsting, by its elected judge. New laws were decided at the landsting, which also took other decisions regarding the island as a whole. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... The site of Ajvide is located on the western coast of Gotland in the parish of Eksta. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


The Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutar, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gotlanders voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that it is based on mutual agreements, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden. wtf! The Gutasaga was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm. ... Thjálfi (Old Norse) or Thjelvar (Old Gutnish) is a person (or two) from Norse mythology who appear(s) twice in Snorris Edda and once in the Gutasaga. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ...


It gives Awair Strabain as the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden, and the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes: As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Wulfstan of Hedeby (Latin Haithabu) was a late 9th century traveller and trader. ...

Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth. [1] Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The small lands of SmÃ¥land. ... For the Finnish island, see Ã…land. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Throughout history, there has been different usage of the term (ON.) Wendland, Vendland, Ventheland or (Lat. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ...

The city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately and a civil war caused by conflicts between the German wtf! merchants in Visby and the trading peasants on the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Waldemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold headquarters on their own in Visby. At last Gotland came as a fiefdom of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invasion army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus II Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, (1316–1377), King of Sweden, Norway and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric and Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon V of Norway. ... Valdemar Atterdag (c. ... The Victual Brothers resp. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ...


The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved North through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, and the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help Northern Europe, especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries. An Arab (Arabic: ) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... For the software, see hoard memory allocator. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ...


The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors. In late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule. Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... The Treaty of Brömsebro of August 13, 1645 ended the Torstenson War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, which had begun in 1643. ...


Heraldry

Gotland was granted its arms in about 1560, even though the island was at the time occupied by Danish forces. The coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Azure a ram statant Argent armed Or holding on a cross-staff of the same a banner Gules bordered and with five tails of the third."


The Gotlandic flag displays the Gotlandic national coat of arms, white on red ground, known from the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gotlandic Republic with the proud ram. It reads: "Gutenses signo xpistus signatur in agno". This can be translated as follows: "I (the ram) am the sign of the Gotlanders, but with the lamb symbolize Christ".


Culture

Iron age axe from Gotland
Iron age axe from Gotland

The medieval town of Visby has been entered as a site of the UNESCO World heritage program. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress wall that surrounds the old city, dating from the time of the Hanseatic League. PD image, from Swedish Wikipedia This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... PD image, from Swedish Wikipedia This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


The inhabitants of Gotland traditionally spoke their own language, known as Gutnish. Today however, they have adapted a dialect of Swedish that is known as "Gotländska". In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called "The Gotlandic law" (Guta lagen), was published in the ancient Gutnish language. Gutnish is the old language of the island of Gotland (in present day Sweden). ...


Gotland is famous for its 94 medieval[7] churches, most of which are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque and Gothic. The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150–1250 A.D. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250 to 1400 A.D. The oldest painting inside one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th Century. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Traditional games of skill like Kubb, Pärk, and Varpa are played on Gotland. They are part of what has become called "Gutniska Lekar", and are performed preferably on the Midsummer’s Eve celebration on the island, but also throughout the summer months. The games have widespread renown; some of them are played by people as far away as in the United States. Kubb is a lawn game where the object is to knock over wooden blocks by throwing wooden sticks at them. ... Pärk or Paerk is a game, somewhat similar to tennis, that has been played for centuries on the island of Gotland in Baltic Sea. ... Varpa is an old outdoor game. ...


Gotland also has a rich heritage of folklore, including myths about the bysen, Di sma undar jordi, Hoburgsgubben and the Martebo lights. This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Church in Martebo The Martebo lights (in Swedish, Marteboljusen or Marteboljuset) are ghost lights which have been seen since the early 1900s on a road in Martebo on the Swedish island of Gotland. ...


Notable Gotlanders

  • Christopher Polhem (1661–1751), the father of Swedish mechanical physics was born in Visby. He was also called the "Archimedes of the North".
  • Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman lived on Fårö, the small island directly north of Gotland Island.
  • Former ice hockey player in the NHL Håkan Loob.
  • Lennart Eriksson, also known as Fjodor, the old punk star from Ebba Grön moved to Gotland soon after he left the band in 1982.
  • Singer Susanne Alfvengren, famous in Sweden during the 1980s.
  • Babben Larsson, stand-up comedian
  • Tommy "Keno" Wahlgren

Christopher Polhem on the Swedish 500 kronor bank note. ... Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: c. ...   (IPA: in Swedish, but usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Hakan Loob is a former ice hockey player in the National Hockey League and Swedish Elite League. ... Fjodor Lennart Eriksson (Fjodor) was the bass player in the rebellious Swedish punk rock band Ebba Grön. ... ThÃ¥ström, Fjodor and Gurra Ebba Grön was a Swedish punk band formed in 1977. ... Susanne Alfvengren, born Susanne Irene Lund on February 12, 1959 in Visby, Gotland, Sweden is a Swedish singer. ...

Dukes of Gotland

Since 1772, Swedish Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces. This is solely a nominal title.

  • Prince Oscar (from his birth in 1859 until his loss of succession rights in 1888)

Prince Oscar of Sweden and Norway, Oscar Carl August (November 15, 1859 - October 4, 1953), Duke of Gotlandia, was the second son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway. ...

References in popular culture

The Long Ships, or "Red Orm" (original title: "Röde Orm"), a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson, contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking period. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way at Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their voyage. Gotlanders of the Viking Era are depicted as city people, more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills. The Long Ships or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm) is a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 1894-1954. ... Frans Gunnar Bengtsson (October 4, 1894 - December 19, 1954) was a Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer. ...


References

  1. ^ See Goths and Scandza for more information on this matter.
  2. ^ a b Laufeld, S. (1974). Silurian Chitinozoa from Gotland, Fossils and Strata. Universitetsforlaget. 
  3. ^ Creer 1973
  4. ^ Gray, Laufield & Boucot, 1974
  5. ^ Long, D.G.F. (1993). "The Burgsvik beds, an Upper Silurian storm generated sand ridge complex in southern Gotland". Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholms Förhandlingar (GFF) 115: 299–309. ISSN 0016-786X. 
  6. ^ Laufeld, Sven; Martinsson, Anders (22–28 August, 1981). "Reefs and ultrashallow environments. Guidebook to the field excursions in the Silurian of Gotland". Project Ecostratigraphy Plenary Meeting. 
  7. ^ Gotland is famous for its 94 medieval churches

Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

External links

Look up Gotland in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Coordinates: 57°30′N, 18°33′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (716 words)
The island province of Gotland is represented by the current administrative entity, Gotland County.
The Gotlandic flag with the Gotlandic national coat of arms, white on red ground, known from the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gotlandic Republic with the proud ram.
Gotland is famous for its 92 medieval churches, most of which are restored and in active use.
Gotland County - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (353 words)
Gotland County, or Gotlands län, is a County or län of Sweden.
Gotland is located in the Baltic sea to the east of Öland, and is the largest of Sweden's islands.
Gotland is the only Swedish county that does not have a county council, as well as having only one municipality and one area code.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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