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Encyclopedia > Goths
One of the floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace of Constantinople and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king.
One of the floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace of Constantinople and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king.

The Goths (Gothic: g u t a n s, Gutans) were East Germanic tribes who, in the 3rd and 4th centuries, harried the Roman Empire and later adopted Arianism (a form of Christianity). In the 5th and 6th centuries, divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, they established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy, respectively. This article is about the late 20th / early 21st century subculture. ... Look up Gothic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greatpalacemosaic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greatpalacemosaic. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

Contents

Etymology of the name "Goth" (*Gut-)

The names Gutar (Gotlanders) and Goths are etymologically the same ethnonym. Related, but not the same is also the Scandinavian tribal name Geat. Goths and Gutar were *Gutaniz while Geat was originally Proto-Germanic *Gautoz (plural *Gautaz). *Gautoz and *Gutaniz are two ablaut grades of a Proto-Germanic word (*geutan) with the meaning "to pour" (modern Swedish gjuta, modern Dutch gieten, modern German gießen, Gothic giutan) while designating the tribes as "pourers of semen", i.e. "men, people".[1] Gapt, the earliest Gothic hero, recorded by Jordanes, is generally regarded as a corruption of Gaut. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In linguistics, the term ablaut designates a system of vowel gradation (i. ... Gaut, Gauti, Guti, Gothus are name forms based on the same Proto-Germanic root. ...


Interestingly Old Norse records do not separate the Goths from the Gutar (Gotlanders) and both are called Gotar in Old West Norse. The Old East Norse term for both Goths and Gotlanders seems to have been Gutar (for instance in the Gutasaga and in the runic inscription of the Rökstone). However the Geats are clearly distinguished from the Goths/Gutar in both Old Norse and Old English literature. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... The Gutasaga was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm. ... ... Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ...


A second but perhaps less strong theory connects the people with the name of a river flowing through Västergötland in Sweden, the Göta älv, which drains Lake Vänern into the Kattegat. In prehistoric times it had a stronger flow than now. The "man" interpretation, however, fits a general Indo-European naming analogy; e.g., Dutch, Deutsch, man, human, etc., and was preferred by Jordanes, who viewed the Goths as pouring forth from Scandinavia. The Wolfram source below also contains a discussion.   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... Waterfalls in Trollhättan/Göta älv The Göta älv (river) drains lake Vänern into Kattegat, and the North Sea, at the city of Gothenburg on the western coast of Sweden. ... Map of Sweden; Vänern in the middle south. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ...

The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, the only significant relic of true Gothic architecture.
The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, the only significant relic of true Gothic architecture.

The Indo-european root of the pour derivation would be *gheu-d- as it is listed in the American Heritage Dictionary (AHD). *gheu-d- is a centum form. The AHD relies on Julius Pokorny for the same root (p. 447). Image File history File linksMetadata RavennaMausoleum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RavennaMausoleum. ... Entrance to the Mausoleo di Teodorico. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ... Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ...


At some time in prehistory, consonant changes according to Grimm's Law created a *g from the *gh and a *t from the *d. This same law more or less rules out *ghedh-, root of English good in the sense of goodman, as has been suggested by some. The *dh in that case would become a *d instead of a *t. When and where the ancestors of the Goths assigned this name to themselves and whether they used it in Indo-european or proto-Germanic times remain unsolved questions of historical linguistics and prehistoric archaeology. Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


According the rules of Indo-European ablaut, the full grade, *gheud-, might be replaced with the zero-grade, *ghud-, or the o-grade, *ghoud-, accounting for the various forms of the name. The use of all three grades suggests that the name derives from an Indo-European stage; otherwise, it would be from a line descending from one grade. In linguistics, the term ablaut designates a system of vowel gradation (i. ...


A compound name, Gut-þiuda, the "Gothic people", appears in the Gothic Calendar (aikklesjons fullaizos ana gutþiudai gabrannidai). Besides the Goths, this way of naming a tribe is only found in Scandinavia.[2]


As mentioned above the name of the Goths is identical to that of the Gutar, the inhabitants of Gotland, an island in the Baltic Sea. The number of similarities that existed between the Gothic language and Old Gutnish, made the prominent linguist Elias Wessén consider Old Gutnish to be a form of Gothic. The most famous example is that both Gutnish and Gothic used the word lamb for both young and adult sheep. Still, some claim that Gutnish is not closer to Gothic than any other Germanic dialect. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Elias Wessén (1889-1981) was a prominent Swedish linguist and a professor of North Germanic languages at Stockholm University (1928-1956). ... Gutnish is a language of the eastern branch of the North Germanic languages, spoken on the island of Gotland. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Gutnish is a language of the eastern branch of the North Germanic languages, spoken on the island of Gotland. ...


History

Major sources for Gothic history include Ammianus Marcellinus' Historiae, mentioning Gothic involvement in the civil war between emperors Procopius and Valens of 365 AD and recounting the Gothic refugee crisis and revolt of 376-382 AD and Procopius' de bello gothico, describing the Gothic War of 535-552 AD. The Goths, Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians were East Germanic groups who appear in Roman records in Late Antiquity. ... Ammianus Marcellinus, thought by some to be the last Roman historian of worth, was born about A.D. 325‑330 likely at Antioch (the likelihood hingeing on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a fellow citizen of Antioch). ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Events Emperor Fei succeeds Emperor Ai as emperor of China. ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths, local rebels, Alanic raiders, Hunnish raiders Commanders Valens, Theodosius Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, Farnobius See also Gothic War (535–552) for the war in Italy. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ...



In the 3rd century, there were at least two groups of Goths, the Thervingi, and the Greuthungi. The Thervingi launched one of the first major "barbarian" invasions of the Roman Empire from 262, sacking Byzantium[not in citation given] in 267.[3] A year later, they suffered a devastating defeat at the Battle of Naissus and were driven back across the Danube River by 271. This group then settled north of the Danube and established an independent kingdom centered on the abandoned Roman province of Dacia. Both the Greuthungi and Thervingi became heavily Romanized during the 4th century by the influence of trade with the Byzantines, and by their membership of a military covenant centered in Byzantium to assist each other militarily. They converted to Arianism during this time. Hunnic domination of the Ostrogoth kingdom began in the 370s,[citation needed] and under pressure of the Huns, Therving king[citation needed] Fritigern in 376 asked the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Valens permitted this, and even helped the Goths cross the river,[citation needed] probably at the fortress of Durostorum, but following a famine the Gothic War (376-382) erupted, and Valens was killed at the Battle of Adrianople. The Thervingi were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Greuthungi, another Gothic people from east of the Dnestr River, as well as the Late Roman Empire (or early Byzantine Empire). ... The Greuthungi were a Gothic people of the Black Sea steppes (and forest steppes) in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Thervingi, another Gothic people from west of the Dnestr River. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths Commanders Gallienus Aurelius Claudius (commander in chief) Domitius Aurelianus (cavalry commander) Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown 30,000 to 50,000 The Battle of Naissus took place in September of 268 between the armies of the Goths and forces of the Roman Empire, led by Emperor... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Frithugairns (Gothic for desiring peace) or Fritigern (died ca. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Silistra (a. ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths, local rebels, Alanic raiders, Hunnish raiders Commanders Valens, Theodosius Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, Farnobius See also Gothic War (535–552) for the war in Italy. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman...


The Visigoths under Alaric I sacked Rome in 410. Honorius granted the Visigoths Aquitania, where they defeated the Vandals and by 475 ruled most of the Iberian peninsula An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... An anachronistic fifteenth-century miniature depicting the sack of 410. ... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page... History In Roman times, the province of Gallia Aquitania originally comprised the region of Gaul between the Pyrenees Mountains and the Garonne River, but Augustus Caesar added to it the land between the Garonne and the Loire River. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


The Ostrogoths in the meantime freed themselves of government of the Huns following the Battle of Nedao in 454. At the behest of emperor Zeno, Theoderic the Great from 488 conquered all of Italy. The Goths were briefly reunited under one crown in the early sixth century under Theodoric the Great, who became regent of the Visigothic kingdom following the death of Alaric II at the Battle of Vouillé in 507. Procopius, writing at this time, interpreted the name Visigoth to mean "western Goths", and the name Ostrogoth as "eastern Goth" which corresponded to the current distribution of the Gothic realms. The Battle of Nedao, the Nedava, a tributary of the Sava, was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Tomb of Theodoric in Ravenna Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the East Goths, the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...


The Ostrogothic kingdom persisted until 553 under Teia, when Italy briefly fell back under Byzantine control, until the conquest of the Langobards in 568. The Visigothic kingdom lasted longer, until 711 under Roderic, when it had to yield to the Umayyad invasion of Andalusia. Events The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius. ... Teia (d. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... See also: phone number 711. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ...


Archaeology

The green area is the traditional extent of Götaland and the dark pink area is the island of Gotland. The red area is the extent of the Wielbark culture in the early 3rd century, and the orange area is the Chernyakhov culture, in the early 4th century. The purple area is the Roman Empire
The green area is the traditional extent of Götaland and the dark pink area is the island of Gotland. The red area is the extent of the Wielbark culture in the early 3rd century, and the orange area is the Chernyakhov culture, in the early 4th century. The purple area is the Roman Empire

In today's Poland, the earliest material culture identified with the Goths is the Wielbark Culture,[4] which replaced the local Oksywie culture in the 1st century. This replacement happened when a Scandinavian settlement was established in a buffer zone between the Oksywie culture and the probably Vandal Przeworsk culture.[5] Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), DÄ™bczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple) Wielbark culture (German: , Polish: , Ukrainian Ukrainian: ) was an archaeological culture identified with the Goths which appeared during the first half of... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... Image File history File links my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... Image File history File links my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), DÄ™bczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple) Wielbark culture (German: , Polish: , Ukrainian Ukrainian: ) was an archaeological culture identified with the Goths which appeared during the first half of... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), DÄ™bczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple) Wielbark culture (German: , Polish: , Ukrainian Ukrainian: ) was an archaeological culture identified with the Goths which appeared during the first half of... The Oksywie Culture, existed in the area of modern day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river, from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD. The Oksywie culture is named after the village Oksywie, part of the city of Gdynia in northern Poland, where the first archaeological... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ...


However, as early as the late Nordic Bronze Age and early Pre-Roman Iron Age (ca 1300 BC–ca 300 BC), this area had influences from southern Scandinavia.[6] In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from ca 1300 BC (period III) and onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture.[7] Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Pommern redirects here. ...


During the period ca 600 BC–ca 300 BC the warm and dry climate of southern Scandinavia deteriorated considerably, which not only dramatically changed the flora, but forced people to change their way of living and to leave settlements.


The Goths are believed to have crossed the Baltic Sea sometime between the end of this period, ca 300 BC, and 100. According to earlier research, in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland, archaeological evidence shows that there was a general depopulation during this period.[8] However, this is not confirmed in the recent publications[9] The settlement in today's Poland probably corresponds to the introduction of Scandinavian burial traditions, such as the stone circles and the stelae, especially common on the island of Gotland and other parts of southern Sweden, which indicates that the early Goths preferred to bury their dead according to Scandinavian traditions. The Polish archaeologist Tomasz Skorupka states that a migration from Scandinavia is regarded as a matter of certainty: The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... A minor stone circle in Brändåsen, Hardemo parish, Närke. ... An Iron Age menhir Menhirs continued to be raised in Scandinavia during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and later, over the graves of deceased. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...

Despite many controversial hypotheses regarding the location of Scandia (for example, in the island of Gotlandia and the provinces of Västergötland and Östergötland), the fact that the Goths arrived on today's Polish land from the North after crossing the Baltic Sea by boats is certain.[10]

However, the Gothic culture also appears to have had continuity from earlier cultures in the area,[11] suggesting that the immigrants mixed with earlier populations, perhaps providing their separate aristocracy. The Oxford scholar Heather suggests that it was a relatively small migration from Scandinavia.[12] This scenario would make their migration across the Baltic similar to many other population movements in history, such as the Anglo-Saxon Invasion, where migrants have imposed their own culture and language on an indigenous one. The Willenberg/Wielbark culture shifted south-eastwards towards the Black Sea area from the mid-2nd century. It was the oldest part of the Wielbark culture, located west of the Vistula and which had Scandinavian burial traditions, that pulled up its stakes and moved.[13] In Ukraine , they imposed themselves as the rulers of the local, probably Slavic,[citation needed] Zarubintsy culture forming the new Chernyakhov Culture (ca 200–ca 400).   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Zarubintsy culture was one of the major archaeological cultures which flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Vistula Basin from the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC until the 2nd century AD. It was identified ca 1899... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ...


There is archaeological and historic evidence of continued contacts between the Goths and southern Sweden during their migrations, into the 6th century.[14][15] The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Chernyakhov settlements cluster in open ground in river valleys. The houses include sunken-floored dwellings, surface dwellings, and stall-houses. The largest known settlement (Budesty) is 35 hectares.[16] Most settlements are open and unfortified; some forts are also known. [citation needed]


Chernyakhov cemeteries include both cremation and inhumation burials; among the latter the head is to the north. Some graves were left empty. Grave goods often include pottery, bone combs, and iron tools, but almost never any weapons.[17] The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ...


Religion

Main article: Gothic Christianity

The original religion of the Goths remains largely unknown. Roman prisoners brought Christianity to the Goths. This spread fast enough that several Therving kings and their supporters persecuted the Christian Thervingi, many of whom fled to Moesia in the Roman Empire. Wulfila translated the Bible into Gothic during this exile.[18] queth queth ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Wulfila or Ulfilas was the son or grandson of Christian captives from Sadagolthina in Cappadocia. In 337 or 341, Wulfila became the first bishop of the (Christian) Goths. By 348, one of the (Pagan) Gothic kings (reikos) began persecuting the Christian Goths, and Wulfila and many other Christian Goths fled to Moesia Secunda in the Roman Empire.[19][20] Other Christians, including Wereka, Batwin, and Saba, died in later persecutions. Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Events The Council of Encaenia is held in Antioch. ... Events Births Saint Jerome, Christian writer Deaths Categories: 348 ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Moesia. ... Wereka and Batwin (or Ouerkas and Bathouses) were two of several Christian Gothic martyrs burned alive in church by *Wingureiks (or Wingourichos) in the 370s. ... Sabbas (Sava or Savva) the Goth, also known as Sava the Romanian, is the earliest known native born martyr on Romanian soil. ...


Between 348 and 383, Wulfila translated the Bible into Gothic.[21][22] Thus some Arian Christians in the west used the vernacular languages, in this case including Gothic and Latin, for services, as did Eastern Orthodox Christians, while Roman Catholic ones in the west only used Latin. Events Births Saint Jerome, Christian writer Deaths Categories: 348 ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ...


Languages

Main articles: Gothic language and Gothic alphabet

Gothic is an archaic Germanic language with definite ties to the languages of North-Central Europe. It is the only well-recorded East Germanic language. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ...


According to at least one theory, there are closer linguistic connections between Gothic and Old Norse (especially the Old Gutnish dialect) than between Gothic and the West Germanic languages (see East Germanic languages and Gothic). Moreover, there were two tribes that probably are closely related to the Goths[23] and remained in Scandinavia, the Gutar (Gotlanders), whose name is identical to Goths, and the Geats. These tribes were considered to be Goths by Jordanes (see Scandza). Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ...


The fact is that virtually all of those phonetic and grammatical features that characterize the North Germanic languages as a separate branch of the Germanic language family (not to mention the features that distinguish various Norse dialects) seem to have evolved at a later stage than the one preserved in Gothic. Gothic in turn, while being an extremely archaic form of Germanic in most respects, has nevertheless developed a certain number of unique features that it shares with no other Germanic language. The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...


However, this does not exclude the possibility of the Goths, the Gutar and the Geats being related as tribes. Similarly, the Saxon dialects of Germany are hardly closer to Anglo-Saxon than any other West Germanic language that hasn't undergone the High German consonant shift (see Grimm's law), but the tribes themselves are definitely identical. The Jutes (Dan. jyder) of Jutland (Dan. Jylland, in Western Danmark) are at least etymologically identical to the Jutes that came from that region and invaded Britain together with the Angles and the Saxons in the 5th century AD. Nevertheless, there are no remaining written sources to associate the Jutes of Jutlandia with anything but North Germanic dialects, or the Jutes of Britain with anything but West Germanic dialects. Thus, language is not always the best criterion for tribal or ethnic tradition and continuity. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ...


The Gutar (Gotlanders) themselves had oral traditions of a mass migration towards southern Europe, written down in the Gutasaga. If the facts are related, that would be a unique case of a tradition that survived in more than a thousand years and that actually pre-dates most of the major splits in the Germanic language family. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... The Gutasaga was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm. ...


Symbolic legacy

The Goths' relationship with Sweden became an important part of Swedish nationalism, and until the 19th century the view that the Swedes were the direct descendants of the Goths was common. Today Swedish scholars identify this as a cultural movement called Gothicismus, which included an enthusiasm for things Old Norse. A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... Gothicismus (Swedish: Göticism, i. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Ever since the 1540s it has been included in the title of the King of Sweden. "We N.N. by Gods Grace of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King"


In Medieval and Modern Spain, the Visigoths were thought to be the origin of the Spanish nobility (compare Gobineau for a similar French idea). The Spanish nobility is the system of titles and honours of Spain and of the former kingdoms that constitute it. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ...


Somebody acting with arrogance would be said to be "haciéndose los godos" ("making himself to come from the Goths"). Because of this, in Chile, Argentina and the Canary Islands, godo was an ethnic slur used against European Spaniards, who in the early colony period would feel superior to the people born locally (criollos). Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... The following is a list of ethnic slurs that are, or have been, used to refer to members of a given ethnicity (or in some cases, nationality, region, or religion) in a derogatory or pejorative manner. ... In the Spanish colonial caste system (castas), a criollo was a person of unmixed Spanish ancestry born in the colonies. ...


This claim of Gothic origins led to a clash with the Swedish delegation at the Council of Basel, 1434. Before the assembled cardinals and delegations could undertake the theological discussions, they had to decide how to sit during the proceedings. The delegations from the more prominent nations were to sit closest to the Pope, and there were also disputes about who was to have the finest chairs and who was to have their chairs on mats. In some cases they compromised so that some would have half a chair leg on the rim of a mat. In this infected conflict, the bishop of Växjö, Nicolaus Ragvaldi claimed that the Swedes were the descendants of the great Goths, and that the people of Västergötland (Westrogothia in Latin) were the Visigoths and the people of Östergötland (Ostrogothia in Latin) were the Ostrogoths. The Spanish delegation then retorted that it was only the lazy and unenterprising Goths who had remained in Sweden, whereas the heroic Goths, on the other hand, had left Sweden, invaded the Roman empire and settled in Spain.[24][25] The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Diocese of Växjö is one of the 13 dioceses or regional units of the Lutheran Church of Sweden. ... Nicolaus Ragvaldi (latinized form of Swedish Nils Ragvaldsson) (born in the early 1380s and died on February 17, 1448) was Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, 1438-1448. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ...


See also

Arheimar was the capital of the Goths according to the Hervarar saga. ... Gizur challenges the Huns Hlöðskviða or The Battle of the Goths and Huns is sometimes counted among the Eddic poems. ... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Geatish kings existed since the provinces of Götaland/Gautland/Geatland are considered to have been more or less independent with their own petty kings. ... Reidgotaland, Hreidgotaland or Hreiðgotaland was a land in Scandinavian mythology. ... Sabbas (Sava or Savva) the Goth, also known as Sava the Romanian, is the earliest known native born martyr on Romanian soil. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Andersson (1996).
  2. ^ See Suiones and Suiþioð.
  3. ^ Hermannus Contractus, quoting Eusebius, has "263: Macedonia, Graecia, Pontus, Asia et aliae provinciae depopulantur per Gothos".
  4. ^ The Goths in Greater Poland
  5. ^ [Andrzej Kokowski "Archäologie der Goten" 1999 (ISBN 83-907341-8-4)
  6. ^ Gothic Connections
  7. ^ Dabrowski 1989:73
  8. ^ Oxenstierna 1945
  9. ^ Kaliff 2001
  10. ^ Jewellery of the Goths
  11. ^ The Goths in Greater Poland
  12. ^ Heather 1996:25.
  13. ^ Jewellery of the Goths
  14. ^ Arhenius, B. Connections between Scandinavia and the East Roman Empire in the Migration Period, in From the Baltic to the Black Sea: Studies in Medieval Archaeology, ed. by David Austin and Leslie Alcock (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990), 118-37 (pp. 119, 134).
  15. ^ Heather, Peter: The Goths (Blackwell, 1996), p. 27.
  16. ^ Heather, Peter & Matthews, John, 1991, The Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, pp. 52-54.
  17. ^ Heather, Peter & Matthews, John, 1991, Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, pp. 54-56.
  18. ^ Philostorgius, Church History, book 2, chapter 5.
  19. ^ Auxentius of Durostorum, Letter of Auxentius, quoted in Heather and Matthews, Goths in the Fourth Century, pp. 141-142.
  20. ^ Philostorgius via Photius, Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius, book 2, chapter 5.
  21. ^ Auxentius of Durostorum, Letter of Auxentius, quoted in Heather and Matthews, Goths in the Fourth Century, p. 140.
  22. ^ Philostorgius via Photius, Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius, book 2, chapter 5.
  23. ^ Stål, Harry. (1976). Ortnamn och ortnamnsforskning. Almquist & Wiksell, Uppsala. p.131.
  24. ^ Ergo 12-1996.
  25. ^ Söderberg, Werner. (1896). "Nicolaus Ragvaldis tal i Basel 1434", in Samlaren. p. 187-195.

Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Suiones, Swedes, Svíar or Svear, were an ancient Germanic tribe in Scandinavia. ... Hermannus Contractus (also called Hermannus Augiensis, Hermann of Reichenau) (1013 July 18 – 1054 September 24) was an 11th century scholar, composer, and music theorist. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Auxentius of Durostorum and Milan aka Mercurinus was the foster-son of Ulfilas (Wulfila), the apostle to the Goths. ... Philostorgius (364?-?) was a scholar who subscribed to Arianism, a heresy that questioned the Trinitarian account of the relationship between God the Father and Christ. ... Auxentius of Durostorum and Milan aka Mercurinus was the foster-son of Ulfilas (Wulfila), the apostle to the Goths. ... Philostorgius (364?-?) was a scholar who subscribed to Arianism, a heresy that questioned the Trinitarian account of the relationship between God the Father and Christ. ...

References

  • Andersson, Thorsten. (1996) "Göter, goter, gutar" in Journal Namn och Bygd, Uppsala.
  • Bell-Fialkoff, A.: The Role of Migration in the History of the Eurasian Steppe, London: Macmillan, 2000.
  • Bradley, Henry. The Goths: from the Earliest Times to the End of the Gothic Dominion in Spain, London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1888.
  • Dabrowski, J. (1989) Nordische Kreis un Kulturen Polnischer Gebiete. Die Bronzezeit im Ostseegebiet. Ein Rapport der Kgl. Schwedischen Akademie der Literatur Geschichte und Alter unt Altertumsforschung über das Julita-Symposium 1986. Ed Ambrosiani, B. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 22. Stockholm.
  • Findeisen, Joerg-Peter: Schweden - Von den Anfaengen bis zur Gegenwart, Regensburg: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 1998.
  • Oxenstierna, Graf E.C. : Die Urheimat der Goten. Leipzig, Mannus-Buecherei 73, 1945 (later printed in 1948).
  • Heather, Peter: The Goths (Blackwell, 1996)
  • Hermodsson, Lars: Goterna - ett krigafolk och dess bibel, Stockholm, Atlantis, 1993.
  • Kaliff, Anders: Gothic Connections. Contacts between eastern Scandinavia and the southern Baltic coast 1000 BC – 500 AD. Occasional Papers in Archaeology (OPIA) 26. Uppsala 2001.
  • Mastrelli, Carlo Alberto in Volker Bierbauer et al, I Goti, Milan: Electa Lombardia, Elemond Editori Associati, 1994.
  • Nordgren, I.: Goterkällan - om goterna i Norden och på kontinenten, Skara: Vaestergoetlands museums skriftserie nr 30, 2000.
  • Nordgren, I.: The Well Spring of the Goths : About the Gothic peoples in the Nordic Countries and on the Continent (2004)
  • Rodin, L. - Lindblom, V. - Klang, K.: Gudaträd och västgötska skottkungar - Sveriges bysantiska arv, Göteborg: Tre böcker, 1994.
  • Schaetze der Ostgoten, Stuttgart: Theiss, 1995. Studia Gotica - Die eisenzeitlichen Verbindungen zwischen Schweden und Suedosteuropa - Vortraege beim Gotensymposion im Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm 1970.
  • Tacitus: Germania, (with introduction and commentary by J.B. Rives), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.
  • Wenskus, Reinhard: Stammesbildung und Verfassung. Das Werden der Frühmittelalterlichen Gentes (Köln 1961).
  • Wolfram, Herwig: History of the Goths. New and completely revised from the second German edition. Translated by Thomas J. Dunlap. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988. LC number D137.W6213 1987 940.1.

External links

Ancient Germanic culture Portal

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