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Encyclopedia > Gothic revival
Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin
Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin

The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. In the 19th century, increasingly serious and learned neo-Gothic styles sought to revive mediæval forms, in distinction to the classical styles which were prevalent at the time. The movement had significant influence in Europe and North America, with perhaps more Gothic architecture built in the 19th and 20th centuries than had originally ever been built. The Victoria Tower, Parliament, seen from Victoria Tower Gardens. ... The Victoria Tower, Parliament, seen from Victoria Tower Gardens. ... The Palace of Westminster lies on the bank of the River Thames in the heart of London. ... St. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 - September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... Architectural style constitutes a mode of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Notre-Dame Cathedral seen from the River Seine. ...


The Gothic Revival in architecture combined with the mood of Romanticism to create the atmospheric genre of the Gothic novel, beginning with Walpole's Castle of Otranto, and to inspire a 19th-century genre of poetry on medieval themes, which grew from roots in the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian." Poems like Alfred Tennyson's "Idylls of the King" recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole. ... Ossian, alternatively spelled Oisín, son of Fingal (Fionn mac Cumhail), is a poet and warrior of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... The Idylls of the King is a sequence of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson which portrays the Coming of Arthur, the knights of the Round Table, Guinevere, the decline of Camelot and finally The Passing of Arthur, the poem Tennyson wrote first, and which inspired the sequence. ...


This article will cover the Gothic revival in architecture and the arts of design. A separate article discusses the Gothic novel and other neo-Gothic literature. Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...

Contents


History

Survival and revival

Gothic architecture did not die out completely in the 15th century but lingered on, solely in some on-going cathedral-building projects and for churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Spain and Germany. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults (completed 1658) for the Basilica of San Petronio which had been building since 1390; there the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode [1]. Similarly, an urbane Gothic survival in the later 17th century can be traced in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were apparently considered more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church College, Oxford University, and, later, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic revival. Notre-Dame Cathedral seen from the River Seine. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Carlo Rainaldi (1611, Rome - 1691, Rome) was an Italian architect of the Baroque period. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In arts, the Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the style that dominated it. ... Christopher Wren by Godfrey Kneller, 1711 . Sir Christopher Wren (October 20, 1632 - February 25, 1723) was an English architect of the 17th century, famous for his role in the re-building of Londons churches after the Great Fire of London of 1666. ... Christ Church, called in Latin Ædes Christi (i. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster (Westminster Abbey), a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English monarchs. ...

The Chesma palace church (1780), St Petersburg is a rare example of the Russian Gothic style.
The Chesma palace church (1780), St Petersburg is a rare example of the Russian Gothic style.

In the mid 18th century with the rise of Romanticism, an increased interest and awareness of the Middle Ages among some influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected medieval arts, beginning with church architecture and the tomb monuments of royal and noble personnages, and stained glass and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts. Other Gothic arts continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however: tapestries and metalwork, for examples. Sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival as purely esthetic concerns. A few English, and soon some Germans, began to appreciate the picturesque character of ruins— "picturesque" becoming a new esthetic category— and those mellowing effects of time that the Japanese call wabi-sabi— and which Horace Walpole independently admired, mildly tongue-in-cheek, as "the true rust of the Barons' wars." The "Gothick" details of Walpole's Twickenham villa, "Strawberry Hill," appealed to the rococco tastes of the time, and by the 1770s thoroughly neoclassical architects like Robert Adam and, especially, James Wyatt were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries and chapels, or a romantic vision of a Gothic abbey, Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire. The "Gothick" style was an architectural manifestation of the artificial "picturesque" seen elsewhere in the arts: these ornamental temples and summer-houses ignored the structural logic of true Gothic buildings and were effectively Palladian buildings with pointed arches. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to "improve" Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions. The church of the Chesma palace is a rare sample of Gothic Revival in Russia. ... The church of the Chesma palace is a rare sample of Gothic Revival in Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have portrayed the Middle Ages. ... Though the concept of the sublime had roots in the connoisseurship of Antiquity, the picturesque was a new category in the incipient Romantic sensibility of the 18th century. ... Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Twickenham is a town in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in the south-west of London It is best known as the home of Twickenham Stadium - the headquarters of the Rugby Football Union. ... Strawberry Hill is the name of several places: Strawberry Hill, London, England Strawberry Hill (Kansas City, Kansas) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section should include material from Rococo Furniture Style. ... For information about the economic theory, see neoclassical economics. ... Kedleston Hall. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Fonthill Abbey Fonthill Abbey — also known as Beckfords Folly — was a large Gothic-style building built in the turn of the 19th century in Wiltshire, England. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ...

Hartwell Church, Buckinghamshire designed by Henry Keene and completed in 1755. Described by Pevsner as one of the most important early Gothic revival churches in England. It is octagonal with twin towers.
Hartwell Church, Buckinghamshire designed by Henry Keene and completed in 1755. Described by Pevsner as one of the most important early Gothic revival churches in England. It is octagonal with twin towers.

A younger generation who took Gothic more seriously provided the readership for Britten's series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817 Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, "a text-book for the architectural student". Its long title is descriptive: Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings. The categories he used were Norman, Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular. It went through numerous editions and was still being republished in 1881 [2]. Hartwell Church,Buckinghamshire. ... Hartwell Church,Buckinghamshire. ... Hartwell Church Hartwell is a village in central Buckinghamshire, England. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nikolaus Pevsner (January 30, 1902 - August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ... An octagon is a polygon that has eight sides. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer and pianist. ... Thomas Rickman (June 8, 1776 - January 4, 1841), English architect, was born on the 8th of June 1776 at Maidenhead, Berkshire, where he assisted his father (a Quaker) in business as a grocer and druggist until 1797. ...


Romanticism and nationalism

French neo-Gothic had its roots in a minor aspect of Anglomanie starting in the late 1780s. In 1816, when French scholar Alexandre de Laborde said "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own" the idea was novel to most French readers. Starting in 1828 Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for Louis-Philippe's royal chapel at Dreux. It would be hard to find a large, significant commission in Gothic taste that preceded this one, save for some Gothic features in a handful of jardins à l'anglaise. Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850), reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... Dreux is a town and commune in northwest France, in the Eure-et-Loir département. ...


The French Gothic revival was set on sounder intellectual footings by a pioneer, Arcisse de Caumont, who founded the Societé des Antiquaires de Normandy at a time when antiquaire still mean a connoisseur of antiquities, and who published his great work on Norman architecture in 1830 (Summerson 1948). The following year Victor Hugo's Notre Dame de Paris appeared, in which the great Gothic cathedral of Paris was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction. In the same year the new French monarchy established a post of Inspector-General of Ancient Monuments, a post filled in 1833 by Prosper Merimée, who became the secretary of a new Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1837. This was the Commission that instructed Eugène Viollet-le-Duc to report on the condition of the abbey of Vézelay in 1840. Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (in French, Notre-Dame de Paris) was a novel first published in 1831 by the French literary giant Victor Hugo. ... Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ...


Meanwhile in Germany, at Cologne Cathedral, started in 1248 and unfinished for over 500 years, in the 1820s the Romantic movement brought back interest, and work was started again in 1824, significantly marking a German return of Gothic architecture. The rear of the cathedral, viewed from across the Rhine Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark for centuries. ...

Schloss Braunfels
Schloss Braunfels

Because of Romantic nationalism in the early 19th century, the Germans, French and English all claimed the original Gothic architecture of the 12th century as originating in their own country. The English boldy coined the term "Early English" for Gothic, a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his 1832 edition of Notre Dame de Paris Victor Hugo appealed "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that Gothic was France's national heritage. In Germany with the completion of Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s, at the time the world's tallest building, it was truly seen as the height of Gothic architecture. Download high resolution version (2551x1913, 1439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2551x1913, 1439 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of a... Notre Dame de Paris, Western Facade. ... Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ...

Gothic and neo-Gothic in Florence: the Gothic campanile and the Gothic Revival façade of the Duomo
Gothic and neo-Gothic in Florence: the Gothic campanile and the Gothic Revival façade of the Duomo

In Florence, the Duomo's façade was demolished in 1587-1588, but then stood bare. In 1864 a competition was held to design a new facade suitable to Arnolfo di Cambio's structure and the fine campanile next to it, and was won by Emilio De Fabris. Work to his polychrome design that includes panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed in 1887 (illustration right). Santa Maria del Fiore from WP-NL -gif +jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Santa Maria del Fiore from WP-NL -gif +jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... St. ... Santa Maria del Fiore Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Duomo) is Florences cathedral, noted for its distinctive dome. ... Events February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in England after she is implicated in a plot to murder her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. July 22 - Colony of Roanoke: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the... Events May 12 - Day of the Barricades in Paris. ... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Arnolfo di Lapo, also known as Arnolfo di Cambio, ( 1245 - 1310) was a Florentine architect and sculptor. ... St. ... Mosaic is a medium of art that may embody the most meaningful iconography in a cultures most important settings, as in the cathedral of Monreale (below), or it may be a technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ...


Pugin, Ruskin and the Gothic as a moral force

In the late 1820s, A.W.N. Pugin, still a teenager, was working for two highly visible employers, providing Gothic detailing for luxury goods. For the Royal furniture makers Morel and Seddon he provided designs for redecorations for the elderly George IV at Windsor Castle in a Gothic taste suited to the setting. For the royal silversmiths Rundell Bridge and Co., Pugin provided designs for silver from 1828, using the 14th-century Anglo-French Gothic vocabulary that he would continue to favor later in designs for the new Palace of Westminster (see below) [3]. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 - September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... An early 18th century view of Windsor Castle by Kip and Knyff. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In Contrasts (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for mediæval art but the whole mediæval ethos, claiming that Gothic architecture was the product of a purer society. In The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841), he suggested that modern craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should also reproduce its methods. Pugin believed Gothic was true Christian architecture, boldly saying "The pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith". Pugin's most famous building is The Houses of Parliament in London, which he designed in two campaigns, 1836 — 1837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist Charles Barry as his co-architect. Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body". 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Palace of Westminster lies on the bank of the River Thames in the heart of London. ... St. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ...

Enlarge
Ruskin's chapter The Nature of Gothic from The Stones of Venice printed as an essay by William Morris' Kelmscott Press

John Ruskin supplemented Pugin's ideas in his two hugely influential theoretical works, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (1853). Finding his architectural ideal in Venice, Ruskin proposed that Gothic buildings excelled above all other architecture because of the "sacrifice" of the stone-carvers in intricately decorating every stone. By declaring the Doge's Palace to be "the central building of the world", Ruskin argued the case for Gothic government buildings as Pugin had done for churches, though only in theory. When his ideas were put into practice, Ruskin despised the spate of public buildings built with references to the Ducal Palace, including the University Museum in Oxford. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (590x853, 231 KB) Kelmscott Press - The Nature of Gothic by John Ruskin (first page of text, with ornamented border). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (590x853, 231 KB) Kelmscott Press - The Nature of Gothic by John Ruskin (first page of text, with ornamented border). ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the arts & crafts movement William Morris, publisher Davids Charge to Solomon (1882), a stained-glass window by Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris in Trinity Church, Boston, Massachusetts. ... This page is about William Morris the writer, designer and socialist. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... Doges Palace The Doges Palace (Ital. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ...

G.E. Street's Royal Courts of Justice in The Strand, London, 1882, his masterwork, proclaim the medieval source of Common Law
G.E. Street's Royal Courts of Justice in The Strand, London, 1882, his masterwork, proclaim the medieval source of Common Law

In England, the Church of England was undergoing a revival of Anglo-Catholic ideology in the form of the Oxford Movement and it became desirable to build large numbers of new churches to cater for the growing population. This found ready exponents in the universities, where the ecclesiological movement was forming. Its proponents believed that Gothic was the only style appropriate for a parish church, and favoured a particular era of Gothic architecture — the "decorated". The movement's magazine, The Ecclesioligist, was so savagely critical of new church buildings that were below its exacting standards that a style called the 'archaeological Gothic' emerged, producing some of the most convincingly mediæval buildings of the Gothic revival. Image File history File links G.E. Streets neo-Gothic Royal Courts of Justice in The Strand, London Source antmoose, 10 May 2005 Released through Creative Commons by the photographer File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links G.E. Streets neo-Gothic Royal Courts of Justice in The Strand, London Source antmoose, 10 May 2005 Released through Creative Commons by the photographer File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The term Anglican (from the Angles or English) describes those people and churches following the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. ... For the 20th century Oxford Movement or Group see Moral Rearmament The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ...


Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic

If France had not been quite as early on the neo-Gothic scene, she produced a giant of the revival in Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. As well as being a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built, theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of Carcassonne and Notre-Dame and Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic was in stark contrast to the revival’s romanticist origins, and considered by some to be a prelude to the structural honesty demanded by Modernism. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879 in Lausanne) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... The walled city of Carcassonne Location within France Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French city, in the Aude département, of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It was only with Ruskin and the archaeological Gothic's demand for structural truth that iron, whether it was visible or not, was deemed improper for a Gothic building. This argument began to collapse in the mid-19th century as great prefabricated structures such as the glass and iron Crystal Palace and the glazed courtyard of the Oxford University Museum were erected which appeared to embody Gothic principles through iron. Between 1863 and 1872 Viollet-le-Duc published his Entretiens sur l’architecture, a set of daring designs for buildings that combined iron and masonry. Though these projects were never realised, they influenced several generations of designers and architects, notably Antonio Gaudi. Crystal Palace has a number of meanings: The Crystal Palace was a Victorian iron and glass building, originally in Hyde Park, London for the Great Exhibition, and subsequently rebuilt in south London. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (more widely known in the English speaking world under the Spanish version of his first name, as Antonio Gaudí, or, just simply, Gaudi), (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect famous for his unique designs expressing sculptural and individualistic qualities. ...

Download high resolution version (450x614, 142 KB)View from Linden Lane toward Gasson Tower on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts File links The following pages link to this file: Gothic architecture Boston College Gothic revival Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (450x614, 142 KB)View from Linden Lane toward Gasson Tower on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts File links The following pages link to this file: Gothic architecture Boston College Gothic revival Categories: GFDL images ... Gasson Hall is an iconic building on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... Boston College is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts in the New England region of the United States. ... Boston College and the Chestnut Hill Reservoir Located 6 miles west of Boston, Chestnut Hill is a leafy suburb notable for its stately old houses, scenic landscape and the historic campus of Boston College. ... Considered the father of American Gothic architecture, Charles Donagh Maginnis was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland on January 7, 1867. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Link title1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...

The 20th century and beyond

At the turn of the 20th Century, technological developments such as the light bulb, the elevator, and steel framing caused many to see architecture that used load-bearing masonry as obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of rib vaults and flying buttresses. Some architects used Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornament to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in Cass Gilbert's 1907 Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York and Raymond Hood's 1922 Tribune Tower in Chicago. But over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic became supplanted by Modernism. Some in the Modern Movement saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entirely in terms of the "honest expression" of the technology of the day, and saw themselves as the rightful heir to this tradition, with their rectangular frames and exposed iron girders. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... US Supreme Court Building, Washington DC, East Pediment, 1928 - 1935 Cass Gilbert (November 29, 1859 - May 17, 1934) attended MIT and worked for a time with the firm of McKim, Mead, and White. ... Woolworth Building The 60-story Woolworth Building is one of the oldest – and one of the most famous – skyscrapers in New York City. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki (R) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Biography Raymond Hood (March 29, 1881 - August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ...

Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (RC), Kensington Church Street, London. Late neo-Gothic by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, 1954-59.
Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (RC), Kensington Church Street, London. Late neo-Gothic by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, 1954-59.

In spite of this, the Gothic revival continued to exert its influence, simply because many of its more massive projects were still being built well into the second half of the 20th century, such as Giles Gilbert Scott's Liverpool Cathedral. In the USA, Charles Donagh Maginnis's early buildings at Boston College helped establish the prevalence of Collegiate Gothic architecture on American university campuses. Ralph Adams Cram became a leading force in American Gothic, with his most ambitious project the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York (claimed to be the largest Cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at Princeton University. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance." Download high resolution version (761x694, 147 KB)Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (RC), Kensington Church Street, London. ... Download high resolution version (761x694, 147 KB)Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church (RC), Kensington Church Street, London. ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... St. ... Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (November 9, 1880—February 8, 1960) was an English architect known for his work on such buildings as Liverpool Cathedral and Battersea Power Station. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (November 9, 1880—February 8, 1960) was an English architect known for his work on such buildings as Liverpool Cathedral and Battersea Power Station. ... Liverpool Anglican Cathedral Liverpool Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral built on St James Mount in the centre of Liverpool England. ... Considered the father of American Gothic architecture, Charles Donagh Maginnis was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland on January 7, 1867. ... Boston College is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts in the New England region of the United States. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 13, 1926) Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings of a gothic style. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine in New York City is the seat of the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. ... For other Princetons, see Princeton. ...


Though the number of new Gothic revival buildings declined sharply after the 1930s, they continue to be built. The cathedral of Bury St. Edmunds was constructed between the late 1950s and 2005 [4]. In 2002, Demetri Porphyrios was commisioned to design a neo-Gothic residential college at Princeton University to be known as Whitman College (illustration, right). Interestingly, Porphyrios has won several commissions after votes by student bodies, not university design committees, confirming what archiects have suspected: that neo-gothic architecture may be more popular among the public than among the architectural establishment. // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... Bury St Edmunds is a town in the county of Suffolk, England. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Model of Whitman college, neo-Gothic building under construction at Princeton University Demetri Porphyrios (born 1949) is a Greek architect and author. ... For other Princetons, see Princeton. ...


Gothic revival architects

Richard Carpenter are Richard Carpenter (Film), British Author Richard Carpenter, an American musician and composer - see: Carpenters ... The parish church at Earl Shilton designed by Richard Cromwell Carpenter. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 13, 1926) Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings of a gothic style. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 - Lausanne 1879) was a French architect, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Francis Goodwin (May 23, 1784 - August 30, 1835) was an English architect, best known for his many provincial churches in the Gothic revival style and for his aggressive business methods. ... Considered the father of American Gothic architecture, Charles Donagh Maginnis was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland on January 7, 1867. ... Benjamin Mountfort around 1875. ... ... James Gamble Rogers is an architect that designed many of the gothic structures at Yale University in the 1910s and 1920s. ... The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 - March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals. ... William Strickland was a noted architect in 19th Century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Alfred Waterhouse (July 19, 1830 - August 22, 1905) was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic revival. ...

Gothic revival buildings

Gothic drinking fountain, Regent's Park, London.
Gothic drinking fountain, Regent's Park, London.

smaller version of Image:Center_Regents_Park. ... smaller version of Image:Center_Regents_Park. ... For other meanings, see Regents Park (disambiguation) Regents Park (officially The Regents Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. ... St. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Washington, D.C., short for the District of Columbia (also known as the the District or, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America. ... The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, England, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. ... St. ... The Cathedral of Jesus Heart, Eastern Sarajevo The Cathedral of Jesus Heart in eastern Sarajevo is the largest cathedral in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Sarajevo at night. ... Christ Church Cathedral, with the Place de la Cathédrale office tower behind it Christ Church Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal. ... Main article: History of Montreal Algonquin, Huron, and Iroquois have inhabited the Montreal area for some eight thousand years. ... Fonthill Abbey Fonthill Abbey — also known as Beckfords Folly — was a large Gothic-style building built in the turn of the 19th century in Wiltshire, England. ... Gasson Hall is an iconic building on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... Boston College is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts in the New England region of the United States. ... Boston College and the Chestnut Hill Reservoir Located 6 miles west of Boston, Chestnut Hill is a leafy suburb notable for its stately old houses, scenic landscape and the historic campus of Boston College. ... Manchester Town Hall Manchester Town Hall is a building in Manchester, England that houses the citys government and administrative functions. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... The Palace of Westminster lies on the bank of the River Thames in the heart of London. ... St. ... Parliament Hill is a scenic location on the banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada location. ... St Marys Cathedral is the largest Roman Catholic church in Australia (and reputedly the Southern Hemisphere). ... The coat of arms of Sydney Sydney Harbour looking south from the vicinity of the Sydney Harbour Bridge towards the CBD skyline; the Opera House is visible in the background on the left. ... St. ... Chatham, New Brunswick, Canada, a former town on the south bank of the Miramichi River, was subsumed in 1995 into the new city of Miramichi. ... The Gothic Revival facade and clock tower of the disused Midland Hotel are the most visible part of St Pancras station. ... St. ... St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne, is the cathedral church of the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne and the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, currently Dennis Hart. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3,600,650 in the Melbourne metropolitan area (June 2004) and 61,670 in the City of... Founded in 1823 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Saint Stephens Church is an Episcopal church erected on the site where Benjamin Franklin flew his famous kite. ... Independence Hall Philadelphia (sometimes referred to as Philly or the City of Brotherly Love) is the fifth most populous city in the United States and the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, both in area and population. ... Scott Monument (alternate view) The Scott Monument is a victorian gothic monument to Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. ... It has been suggested that Areas of Edinburgh be merged into this article or section. ... Tower Bridge Sequence showing the bridge opening Tower Bridge is a bridge in London, over the River Thames. ... St. ... The University of Glasgow is the largest of the three universities in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Glasgows location in Scotland Glasgow (or Glaschu in Gaelic) is Scotlands largest city, situated on the River Clyde in the countrys west central lowlands. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...

External link

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Further reading

  • Clark, Sir KennethThe Gothic Revival: An Essay in the History of Taste ISBN 0719502330
  • Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope, Of knights and spires: Gothic revival in France and Germany, , 1989 ISBN 0916849059
  • Summerson, Sir John, 1948. "Viollet-le-Duc and the rational point of view" collected in Heavenly Mansions and other essays on Architecture.

This article is about Kenneth Clark the art historian, not Kenneth Clarke the politician. ... Sir John Newenham Summerson (1904-1902) was one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century. ...

Related topics


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gothic Revival (0 words)
Gothic Revival borrowed decorative elements from Churches and town halls that were built in Europe between 1100 and 1500.
Gothic Revival structures were built of stone and brick with lots of wooden trim, or they could be frame with clapboard siding and lots of wooden decorative trim.
Gothic Revival buildings combined verticality, the use of fretcut wooden trimwork and rambling building designs to create some of the most picturesque buildings constructed in the decades surrounding the Civil War.
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