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Encyclopedia > Gothic architecture
The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France.
The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France.
Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice.
Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice.

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It was preceded by Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 519 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 519 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Facade of Notre-Dame de Reims Notre-Dame de Reims is the Reims Cathedral, where the kings of France used to be crowned. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1440 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Venezia, interno della gotica Basilica dei santi Giovanni e Paolo, detta in dialetto San Zanipolo. - Foto di Giovanni DallOrto, 2 luglio 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1440 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Venezia, interno della gotica Basilica dei santi Giovanni e Paolo, detta in dialetto San Zanipolo. - Foto di Giovanni DallOrto, 2 luglio 2006. ... The church of San Zanipolo. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ...


Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum), with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance as a stylistic insult. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ...


Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities, and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings. For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... City Hall is a 1996 film directed by Harold Becker. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... For other uses, see House (disambiguation). ...


It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeal to the emotions. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The term "Gothic"

Parts of the Gothic cathedral
Parts of the Gothic cathedral

The term "Gothic", when applied to architecture, has nothing to do with the historical Goths. It was a pejorative term that came to be used as early as the 1530s by Giorgio Vasari to describe culture that was considered rude and barbaric.[1] At the time in which Vasari was writing, Italy had experienced a century of building in the Classical architectural vocabulary revived in the Renaissance and seen as the finite evidence of a new Golden Age of learning and refinement. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up Gothic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Renaissance had then overtaken Europe, overturning a system of culture that, prior to the advent of printing, was almost entirely focused on the Church and was perceived, in retrospect, as a period of ignorance and superstition. Hence, François Rabelais, also of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his Utopian Abbey of Thélème, "Here enter no hypocrites, bigots..." slipping in a slighting reference to "Gotz" and "Ostrogotz."[2] This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... The Abbey of Thélème is a metaphorical society found in the fantasy Gargantua and Pantagruel written by François Rabelais in the sixteenth century. ...


In English 17th century usage, "Goth" was an equivalent of "vandal", a savage despoiler with a Germanic heritage and so came to be applied to the architectural styles of northern Europe from before the revival of classical types of architecture. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ...

Milan Cathedral, the east end.
Milan Cathedral, the east end.

According to a 19th century correspondent in the London Journal Notes and Queries: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 473 KB) Esterno duomo, Milano, Italia Foto scattata da me, Aprile 2005 --Paolo da Reggio 20:21, 21 Apr 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Duomo di Milano Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 473 KB) Esterno duomo, Milano, Italia Foto scattata da me, Aprile 2005 --Paolo da Reggio 20:21, 21 Apr 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Duomo di Milano Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Notes and Queries (originally subtitled a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc) is a correspondence magazine where scholars and interested amateurs exchange miscellaneous knowledge. ...

There can be no doubt that the term 'Gothic' as applied to pointed styles of ecclesiastical architecture was used at first contemptuously, and in derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature. Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old mediæval style, which they termed Gothic, as synonymous with every thing that was barbarous and rude.[3][4] Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ...

On 21 July 1710, the Académie d'Architecture met in Paris, and among the subjects they discussed, the assembled company noted the new fashions of bowed and cusped arches on chimneypieces being employed "to finish the top of their openings. The Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic."[5] is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ...


Influences

Regional

At the end of the 12th century Europe was divided into a multitude of city-states and kingdoms. The area encompassing modern Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, eastern France and much of northern Italy, excluding Venice, was nominally under the authority of the Holy Roman Empire, but local rulers exercised considerable autonomy. France, Spain and Sicily were independent kingdoms, as was England, whose Plantagenet kings ruled large domains in France.[6] Norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by Germany. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns,[7][8] especially in Germany and the Lowlands and in northern Italy. had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with each other, or united for mutual weal, as in the Hanseatic League. Civic building was of great importance to these towns as a sign of wealth and pride. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their dukes, rather than grand town halls for their burghers. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...

Bad Doberan Münster is in colouful brick, 1386.
Bad Doberan Münster is in colouful brick, 1386.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Map of Germany showing Bad Doberan Bad Doberan is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...

Materials

A further regional influence was the availability of materials. In France, limestone was readily available in several grades, the very fine white limestone of Caen being favoured for sculptural decoration. England had coarse limestone, red sandstone as well as dark green Purbeck marble which was often used for architectural features. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Purbeck is a local government district in Dorset, England, named for the Isle of Purbeck. ...


In Northern Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Baltic countries and northern Poland local building stone was unavailable but there was a strong tradition of building in brick. The resultant style, Brick Gothic, is called "Backsteingotik" in Germany and Scandinavia. Holstentor in Lübeck - background left , right St. ...


In Italy, stone was used for fortifications, but brick was preferred for other buildings. Because of the extensive and varied deposits of marble, many buildings were faced in marble, or were left with undecorated facades so that this might be achieved at a later date.


The availability of timber also influenced the style of architecture. It is thought that the magnificent hammer-beam roofs of England were devised as a direct response to the lack of long straight seasoned timber by the end of the Medieval period, when forests had been decimated not only for the construction of vast roofs but also for ship building.[7][9] This photograph from 1896 shows the hammerbeam roof of Westminster Hall. ...

The Romanesque Abbey Church at Cluny (the remaining transept shown) provided a model for many monastic precincts and had a lasting influence on Gothic architecture
The Romanesque Abbey Church at Cluny (the remaining transept shown) provided a model for many monastic precincts and had a lasting influence on Gothic architecture

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1155 × 1566 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1155 × 1566 pixel, file size: 516 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify...

Religious

The early Medieval period had seen a rapid growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent and spreading their influence widely. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in England. Part of their influence was that they tended to build within towns, unlike the Cistercians whose ruined abbeys are seen in the remote countryside. The Cluniac and Cistercian Orders were prevalent in France, the great monastery at Cluny having established a formula for a well planned monastic site which was then to influence all subsequent monastic building for many centuries. The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Cluniac Reform was the time of the purification and scourging of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ...


In the 13th century St. Francis of Assisi established the Franciscans, or so-called "Grey Friars", a mendicant order. Its off-shoot, the Dominicans, founded by St. Dominic in Toulouse and Bologna, were particularly influential in the building of Italy's Gothic churches.[7][8] Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


Architectural

Gothic architecture grew out of the previous architectural genre, Romanesque. For the most part, there was not a clean break, as there was later to be in Renaissance Florence with the sudden revival of the Classical style by Brunelleschi in the early 15th century. South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The word classical has several meanings: Pertaining to the societies of the classical antiquity, ancient Greece or Rome. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ...


Romanesque tradition

Romanesque architecture, or Norman architecture as it is generally termed in England because of its association with the Norman invasion, had already established the basic architectural forms and units that were to remain in slow evolution throughout the Medieval period. The basic structure of the cathedral church, the parish church, the monastery, the castle, the palace, the great hall and the gatehouse were all established. Ribbed vaults, buttresses, clustered columns, ambulatories, wheel windows, spires and richly carved door tympanums were already features of ecclesiastical architecture.[10] South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest was the conquest of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Monastery of St. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... A great hall was the main room of a royal palace, a noblemans castle or a large manor house in the Middle Ages, and in the country houses of the 16th and early 17th centuries. ... A gatehouse is a feature of European castles and mansions. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ...


The widespread introduction of a single feature was to bring about the stylistic change that separates Gothic from Romanesque. This is the pointed arch. With its use came the development of many other features, previously put to the test in scattered buildings and then called into service to meet the structural, aesthetic and ideological needs of the new style. These include the flying buttresses, pinnacles and traceried windows which typify Gothic ecclesiastical architecture.[7]


Islamic influence

The influence of Islamic architecture on the Gothic can be most clearly seen in Spain, as here at Salamanca Cathedral.
The influence of Islamic architecture on the Gothic can be most clearly seen in Spain, as here at Salamanca Cathedral.

The pointed arch had its origins in ancient Assyrian architecture where it occurs in a number of structures as early as 720 BC. It passed into Sassanian-Persian architecture and from the conquest of Persia in 641 AD, became a standard feature of Islamic architecture.[7] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...


The Norman conquest of Sicily in 1090, the Crusades which began in 1096 and the Islamic presence in Spain all brought about a knowledge of this significant structural device. It is probable also that decorative carved stone screens and window openings filled with pierced stone also influenced Gothic tracery. In Spain in particular individual decorative motifs occur which are common to both Islamic and Christian architectural mouldings and sculpture.[11][12] Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Concurrent with its introduction and early use as a stylistic feature in French churches, it is believed that the pointed arch evolved naturally in Western Europe as a structural solution to a purely technical problem. (See below: Pointed arch, Origins)

The ambulatory at the Abbey of Saint-Denis.
The ambulatory at the Abbey of Saint-Denis.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 383 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 2298 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 383 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 2298 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Abbot Suger

Abbot Suger, friend and confidante of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII, decided in about 1127, to rebuild the great Church of Saint-Denis, attached to an abbey which was also a royal residence. Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 - August 1, 1137) was king of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Louis VII may refer to: Louis VII of France the Younger (1120–1180). ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ...


Suger began with the West front, reconstructing the original Carolingian facade with its single door. He designed the façade of Saint-Denis to be an echo of the Roman Arch of Constantine with its three-part division and three large portals to ease the problem of congestion. The rose window is the earliest-known example above the West portal in France. The Arch of Constantine The arch seen from Via Triumphalis Detail of the arch (southern side, left) The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. ... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ...


Leaving the Carolingian nave in use, Abbot Suger moved on to the eastern end. Inspired to create a physical representation of the Heavenly Jerusalem, Suger designed a choir (chancel) that would be suffused with light. To achieve his aim, he drew on the several new features which evolved or been introduced to Romanesque architecture, the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, the ambulatory with radiating chapels, the clustered columns supporting ribs springing in different directions and the flying buttresses which enabled the insertion of large clerestorey windows. In combining all these features within a single structure, Abbot Suger literally invented Gothic architecture. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


The new structure was finished and dedicated on June 11, 1144, in the presence of the King. The Abbey of Saint-Denis thus became the proto-type for further building in the royal domain of northern France. A hundred years later, the old nave of Saint-Denis was rebuilt in the Gothic style, gaining, in its transepts, two spectacular rose windows.[13] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ...


Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the style was introduced to England and spread throughout France, the Low Countries, Germany, Spain and northern of Italy and Sicily.[6][8] Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Characteristics of Gothic churches and cathedrals

The structure of a typical cathedral
The structure of a typical cathedral

In Gothic architecture, new technology stands behind the new building style. That new technology was the ogival or pointed arch. Other characteristics developed as the consequence of the use of the pointed arch. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ...


The Gothic style, when applied to an ecclesiastical building, emphasizes verticality and features almost skeletal stone structures with great expanses of glass, ribbed vaults, clustered columns, sharply pointed spires, flying buttresses and inventive sculptural detail such as gargoyles. The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Gargoyles redirects here. ...


A Gothic cathedral or abbey was, prior to the 20th century, generally the landmark building in its town, rising high above all the domestic structures and often surmounted by one or more towers and perhaps spires.[7][13] For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ...


Plan

Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. There are several regional variations on this plan. Image File history File links AmiensDB363. ... Image File history File links AmiensDB363. ... The cathedral in Amiens Close-up of a stained glass window The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame dAmiens), or just Amiens Cathedral, is the tallest complete cathedral in France with the greatest interior volume, estimated at 200,000 m³. The vaults of the... Image File history File links WellsCathPlanDehio. ... Image File history File links WellsCathPlanDehio. ... The west front, completed c. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... The traditional form of the Christian cross, known as the Latin cross The Christian cross is a familiar religious symbol of most Christianity. ... Cathedral ground plan. ...


The nave is generally flanked on either side by aisles, usually singly, but sometimes double. The nave is generally considerably taller than the aisles, having clerestorey windows which light the central space. Gothic churches of the Germanic tradition, like St. Stephen of Vienna, often have nave and aisles of similar height and are called hallenkirke. In the South of France there is often a single wide nave and no aisles, as at Sainte-Marie in Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges. // St. ... Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges is a commune of the Haute-Garonne département, in France. ...


In some churches with double aisles, like Notre Dame, Paris, the transept does not project beyond the aisles. In English cathedrals transepts tend to project boldly and there may be two of them, as at Salisbury Cathedral, though this is not the case with lesser churches. Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ...


The eastern arm shows considerable diversity. In England it is generally long and may have two distinct sections, both choir and presbytery. It is often square ended or has a projecting Lady Chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In France the eastern end is often polygonal and surrounded by a walkway called an ambulatory and sometimes a ring of chapels called a chevette. While German churches are often similar to those of France, in Italy, the eastern projection beyond the transept is usually just a shallow apsidal chapel containing the sanctuary, as at Florence Cathedral.[7][10][13] The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Giottos belltower (campanile) in Florence Façade of the Duomo of Florence. ...

Salisbury Cathedral has the tallest spire in England.
Salisbury Cathedral has the tallest spire in England.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Height

A characteristic of Gothic church architecture is its height, both real and proportional. A section of the main body of a Gothic church usually shows the nave as considerably taller than it is wide. In England the proportion is sometimes greater than 2:1, while the extreme is reached at Cologne Cathedral with a ratio of 3.6:1. The extreme of actual internal height was achieved at Beauvais Cathedral at 157' 6".[7] The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ... Beauvais Cathedral The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais is an incomplete cathedral, located in Beauvais, in northern France. ...


Externally, towers and spires are characteristic of Gothic churches both great and small, the number and positioning being one of the greatest variables in Gothic architecture. In Italy, the tower, if present, is almost always detached from the building, as at Florence Cathedral, and is often from an earlier structure. In France and Spain, two towers on the front is the norm. In England, Germany and Scandinavia this is often the arrangement, but an English cathedral may also be surmounted by an enormous tower at the crossing. Smaller churches usually have just one tower, but this may also be the case at a very large cathedral like Salisbury or Ulm Cathedral, which has the tallest spire in the world,[14] slightly exceeding that of Lincoln Cathedral, the tallest which was actually completed during the medieval period, at 527 feet (160 metres). Giottos belltower (campanile) in Florence Façade of the Duomo of Florence. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ... Ulm Münster is a Lutheran church and the tallest church in the world with its steeple measuring 161. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ...

The Gothic east end of Cologne Cathedral represents the extreme of verticality. (nave- 19th century)
The Gothic east end of Cologne Cathedral represents the extreme of verticality. (nave- 19th century)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x1500, 1192 KB) Cologne Cathedral, Interior. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x1500, 1192 KB) Cologne Cathedral, Interior. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ...

Vertical emphasis

The pointed arch lends itself to a suggestion of height. This appearance is characteristically further enhanced by both the architectural features and the decoration of the building.[13]


On the exterior, the verticality is emphasised in a major way by the towers and spires and in a lesser way by strongly projecting vertical buttresses, by narrow half-columns called attached shafts which often pass through several storeys of the building, by long narrow windows, vertical mouldings around doors and figurative sculpture which emphasises the vertical and is often attenuated. The roofline, gable ends, buttresses and other parts of the building are often terminated by small pinnacles, Milan Cathedral being an extreme example in the use of this form of decoration. , The Duomo di Milano from the Square. ...


On the interior of the building attached shafts often sweep unbroken from floor to ceiling and meet the ribs of the vault, like a tall tree spreading into branches. The verticals are generally repeated in the treatment of the windows and wall surfaces. In many Gothic churches, particularly in France, and in the Perpendicular period of English Gothic architecture, the treatment of vertical elements in gallery and window tracery creates a strongly unifying feature that counteracts the horizontal divisions of the interior structure.[13] Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century. ...

Sainte Chapelle, photo Didier
Sainte Chapelle, photo Didier

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1330 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1330 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sainte-Chapelle surrounded by the Palais de Justice. ...

Light

One of the most distinctive characteristics of Gothic architecture is the expansive area of the windows as at Sainte Chapelle and the very large size of many individual windows, as at Gloucester Cathedral and Milan Cathedral. The increase in size between windows of the Romanesque and Gothic periods is related to the use of the ribbed vault, and in particular, the pointed ribbed vault which channeled the weight to a supporting shaft with less outward thrust than a semicircular vault. Walls did not need to be so weighty.[10][13] Sainte-Chapelle surrounded by the Palais de Justice. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... , The Duomo di Milano from the Square. ...


A further development was the flying buttress which arched externally from the springing of the vault across the roof of the aisle to a large buttress projecting well beyond the line of the external wall.

The clerestorey windows at Saint-Omer Cathedral.
The clerestorey windows at Saint-Omer Cathedral.

The internal columns of the arcade with their attached shafts, the ribs of the vault and the flying buttresses, with their associated vertical buttresses jutting at right-angles to the building, created a stone skeleton. Between these parts, the walls and the infill of the vaults could be of lighter construction. Between the narrow buttresses, the walls could be opened up into large windows.[7] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Saint-Omer Cathedral Saint-Omer Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Saint-Omer) is a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a national monument of France, located in Saint-Omer. ...


Through the Gothic period, due to the versatility of the pointed arch, the structure of Gothic windows developed from simple openings to immensely rich and decorative sculptural designs. The windows were very often filled with stained glass which added a dimension of colour to the light within the building, as well as providing a medium for figurative and narrative art.[13] Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 823 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) France, Paris, Façade ouest de la cathédrale Notre Dame de Paris author: jerome Dumonteil, photo du 6/08/2006 File historyClick on a date... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 823 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) France, Paris, Façade ouest de la cathédrale Notre Dame de Paris author: jerome Dumonteil, photo du 6/08/2006 File historyClick on a date... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...

Majesty

The facade of a large church or cathedral, often referred to as the West Front, is generally designed to create a powerful impression on the approaching worshipper, demonstrating both the might of God, and the might of the institution that it represents. One of the best known and most typical of such facades is that of Notre Dame de Paris. Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...


Central to the facade is the main portal, often flanked by additional doors. In the arch of the door is often a significant piece of sculpture, most frequently Christ in Majesty. If there is a central door jamb, then it frequently bears a statue of the Madonna and Child. There may be much other carving, often of figures in niches set into the mouldings around the portals, or in sculptural screens extending across the facade.


In the centre of the middle level of the facade, there is a large window, which in countries other than England and Belgium, is generally a rose window like that at Reims Cathedral The gable above this is usually richly decorated with arcading or sculpture, or in the case of Italy, may be decorated, with the rest of the facade, with polychrome marble and mosaic, as at Orvieto Cathedral The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ... Facade of Notre-Dame de Reims Notre-Dame de Reims is the Reims Cathedral, where the kings of France used to be crowned. ... Facade of the Duomo di Orvieto The Duomo di Orvieto is a large fourteenth century Roman Catholic cathedral situated in the Italian town of Orvieto in Umbria. ...


The West Front of a French cathedral and many English, Spanish and German cathedrals generally has two towers, which, particularly in France, express an enormous diversity of form and decoration.[7][8]


Structure: the pointed arch

Origins

Norman blind-arcading at Canterbury Cathedral.
Norman blind-arcading at Canterbury Cathedral.

The defining characteristic of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. Arches of this type were used in Islamic architecture before they were used structurally in European architecture, and are thought to have to been the inspiration for their use in France, as at Autun Cathedral, which is otherwise stylistically Romanesque.[7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (1214 × 708 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (1214 × 708 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Autun Cathedral. ...


However, it appears that there was probably simultaneously a structural evolution towards the pointed arch, for the purpose of vaulting spaces of irregular plan, or to bring transverse vaults to the same height as diagonal vaults. This latter occurs at Durham Cathedral in the nave aisles in 1093. Pointed arches also occur extensively in Romanesque decorative blind arcading, where semi-circular arches overlap each other in a simple decorative pattern, and the points are accidental to the design. The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city...


Functions

The Gothic vault, unlike the semi-circular vault of Roman and Romanesque buildings, can be used to roof rectangular and irregularly shaped plans such as trapezoids. The other structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture.[7] The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


While, structurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character to Romanesque, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven.


In Gothic Architecture the pointed arch is used in every location where a vaulted shape is called for, both structural and decorative. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. Gothic vaulting above spaces both large and small is usually supported by richly molded ribs. The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


Rows of pointed arches upon delicate shafts form a typical wall decoration known as blind arcading. Niches with pointed arches and containing statuary are a major external feature. The pointed arch leant itself to elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming the structural support of the large windows that are characteristic of the style.[10][9]

The south transept facade at York Minster presents a composition in untraceried pointed arches.
The south transept facade at York Minster presents a composition in untraceried pointed arches.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ...

Basic shapes of Gothic arches and stylistic character

The way in which the pointed arch was draughted and utilised developed throughout the Gothic period. There were fairly clear stages of development, which did not, however, progress at the same rate, or in the same way in every country. Moreover, the names used to define various periods or styles within the Gothic differs from country to country.


Lancet arch

The simplest shape is the long opening with a pointed arch known in England as the lancet. Lancet openings are often grouped, usually as a cluster of three or five. Lancet openings may be very narrow and steeply pointed.


Salisbury Cathedral is famous for the beauty and simplicity of its Lancet Gothic, known in England as the Early English Style. York Cathedral has a group of lancet windows each fifty feet high and still containing ancient glass. They are known as the Five Sisters. These simple undecorated grouped windows are found at Chartres and Laon Cathedrals and are used extensively in Italy.[7][9] Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ... York Minster is an imposing Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ... Notre-Dame of Laon is a cathedral located in Laon, France. ...

Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster show the equilateral arch with typical circular motifs in the tracery.
Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster show the equilateral arch with typical circular motifs in the tracery.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): York Minster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): York Minster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ...

Equilateral arch

Many Gothic openings are based upon the equilateral form. In other words, when the arch is draughted, the radius is exactly the width of the opening and the centre of each arch coincides with the point from which the opposite arch springs. This makes the arch higher in relation to its width than a semi-circular arch which is exactly half as high as it is wide.[7] For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ...


The Equilateral Arch gives a wide opening of satisfying proportion useful for doorways, decorative arcades and big windows.


The structural beauty of the Gothic arch means, however, that no set proportion had to be rigidly maintained. The Equilateral Arch was employed as a useful tool, not as a Principle of Design. This meant that narrower or wider arches were introduced into a building plan wherever necessity dictated. In the architecture of some Italian cities, notably Venice, semi-circular arches are interspersed with pointed ones.[15] For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


The Equilateral Arch lends itself to filling with tracery of simple equilateral, circular and semi-circular forms. The type of tracery that evolved to fill these spaces is known in England as Geometric Decorated Gothic and can be seen to splendid effect at many English and French Cathedrals, notably Lincoln and Notre Dame in Paris. Windows of complex design and of three or more lights or vertical sections, are often designed by overlapping two or more equilateral arches.[9]


Flamboyant arch

Flamboyant tracery at Limoges Cathedral.
Flamboyant tracery at Limoges Cathedral.

The Flamboyant Arch is one that is draughted from four points, the upper part of each main arc turning upwards into a smaller arc and meeting at a sharp, flame-like point. These arches create a rich and lively effect when used for window tracery and surface decoration. The form is structurally weak and has very rarely been used for large openings except when contained within a larger and more stable arch. It is not employed at all for vaulting.[7] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 632 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 632 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the style of architecture. ... The Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges is a national monument of France located in the town of Limoges. ... This article is about the style of architecture. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


Some of the most beautiful and famous traceried windows of Europe employ this type of tracery. It can be seen at St Stephen's Vienna, Sainte Chapelle in Paris, at the Cathedrals of Limoges and Rouen in France, and at Milan Cathedral in Italy. In England the most famous examples are the West Window of York Minster with its design based on the Sacred Heart, the extraordinarily rich seven-light East Window at Carlisle Cathedral and the exquisite East window of Selby Abbey.[10][9] // St. ... Sainte-Chapelle surrounded by the Palais de Justice. ... The Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges is a national monument of France located in the town of Limoges. ... Rouen Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen) is a Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. ... , The Duomo di Milano from the Square. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... Typical illustration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Sacred Heart is a religious devotion to Jesus physical heart. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Selby Abbey is one of the relatively few surviving abbey churches of the medieval period, and, although not a cathedral, is one of the biggest. ...


Doorways surmounted by Flamboyant mouldings are very common in both ecclesiastical and domestic architecture in France. They are much rarer in England. A notable example is the doorway to the Chapter Room at Rochester Cathedral.[7][9] Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ...


The style was much used in England for wall arcading and niches. Prime examples in are in the Lady Chapel at Ely, the Screen at Lincoln and externally on the facade of Exeter Cathedral. In German and Spanish Gothic architecture it often appears as openwork screens on the exterior of buildings. The style was used to rich and sometimes extraordinary effect in both these countries, notably on the famous pulpit in Vienna Cathedral.[8] Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... The west front. ... // St. ...

The depressed arch supported by fan vaulting at King's College Chapel, England.
The depressed arch supported by fan vaulting at King's College Chapel, England.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 2203 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 2203 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... Kings College Chapel (partially obscured by the Gibbs Building), seen from The Backs Fan vaulting diagram Kings College Chapel is the chapel to Kings College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic or Perpendicular -style. ...

Depressed arch

The Depressed or four-centred arch is much wider than its height and gives the visual effect of having been flattened under pressure. Its structure is achieved by draughting two arcs which rise steeply from each springing point on a small radius and then turn into two arches with a wide radius and much lower springing point.[7]


This type of arch, when employed as a window opening, lends itself to very wide spaces, provided it is adequately supported by many narrow vertical shafts. These are often further braced by horizontal transoms. The overall effect produces a grid-like appearance of regular, delicate, rectangular forms with an emphasis on the perpendicular. It is also employed as a wall decoration in which arcade and window openings form part of the whole decorative surface.


The style, known as Perpendicular, that evolved from this treatment is specific to England, although very similar to contemporary Spanish style in particular, and was employed to great effect through the fifteenth century and first half of the sixteenth as Renaissance styles were much slower to arrive in England than in Italy and France.[7] Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ...


It can be seen notably at the East End of Gloucester Cathedral where the East Window is said to be as large as a tennis court. There are three very famous royal chapels and one chapel-like Abbey which show the style at its most elaborate- King's College Chapel, Cambridge; St George's Chapel, Windsor; Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster Abbey and Bath Abbey.[9] However very many simpler buildings, especially churches built during the wool boom in East Anglia, are fine examples of the style. Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... Kings College Chapel (partially obscured by the Gibbs Building), seen from The Backs Fan vaulting diagram Kings College Chapel is the chapel to Kings College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic or Perpendicular -style. ... This article is about the city in England. ... St. ... The Henry VII Lady Chapel is a large chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Bath Abbey at sunset Bath Abbey is the last in a series of monastic churches built in Bath and is still in active use. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ...


Symbolism and ornamentation

The Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral.
The Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral.

The Gothic cathedral represented the universe in microcosm and each architectural concept, including the loftiness and huge dimensions of the structure, were intended to convey a theological message: the great glory of God. The building becomes a microcosm in two ways. Firstly, the mathematical and geometrical nature of the construction is an image of the orderly universe, in which an underlying rationality and logic can be perceived. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1063 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chartres Cathedral Westfront Photo:Nina Aldin Thune [[User:Nina-no)) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1063 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chartres Cathedral Westfront Photo:Nina Aldin Thune [[User:Nina-no)) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... The term Poor Mans Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created to illustrate the teachings of the Bible for a largely illiterate population. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Secondly, the statues, sculptural decoration, stained glass and murals incorporate the essence of creation in depictions of the Labours of the Months and the Zodiac[16] and sacred history from the Old and New Testaments and Lives of the Saints, as well as reference to the eternal in the Last Judgment and Coronation of the Virgin. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... The term Labours of the Months refers to cycles seen in Medieval and early Renaissance art depicting in twelve scenes the rural activities that commonly took place in the months of the year. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... This article is about the Christian concept. ...

The Devil tempting the Foolish Virgins at Strasbourg.
The Devil tempting the Foolish Virgins at Strasbourg.

The decorative schemes usually incorporated Biblical stories, emphasizing visual typological allegories between Old Testament prophecy and the New Testament.[8] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Devil tempting the foolish virgins (Matthew 25:1-13) on the gate of Strasbourg Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Devil tempting the foolish virgins (Matthew 25:1-13) on the gate of Strasbourg Cathedral. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Christs baptism in the bottom panel. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Many churches were very richly decorated, both inside and out. Sculpture and architectural details were often bright with coloured paint of which traces remain at Chartres cathedral. Wooden ceilings and panelling were usually brightly coloured. Sometimes the stone columns of the nave were painted, and the panels in decorative wall arcading contained narratives or figures of saints. These have rarely remained intact, but may be seen at the Chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey.[9] The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Some important Gothic churches could be severely simple such as the Basilica of Mary Magdalene in Saint-Maximin, Provence where the local traditions of the sober, massive, Romanesque architecture were still strong. St. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Var ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ...


Regional differences

Interior of Coutances Cathedral, France.

Wherever Gothic architecture is found, it is subject to local influences, and frequently the influence of itinerant stonemasons and artisans, carrying ideas between cities and sometimes between countries. Certain characteristics are typical of particular regions and often override the style itself, appearing in buildings hundreds of years apart. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1136, 486 KB) Summary FR : Vue intérieure de la cathédrale de Coutances, Manche, France EN : Interior view of Coutances cathedral, department of Manche, France Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : November 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1136, 486 KB) Summary FR : Vue intérieure de la cathédrale de Coutances, Manche, France EN : Interior view of Coutances cathedral, department of Manche, France Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : November 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this... The interior of Coutances Cathedral Coutances Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Coutances) is a Gothic Roman Catholic cathedral in the town of Coutances, France. ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ...


France

Main article: French Gothic architecture

The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strong influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality. Each French cathedral tends to be stylistically unified in appearance when compared with an English cathedral where there is great diversity in almost every building. They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels. The west fronts are highly consistent, having three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers. Sometimes there are additional towers on the transept ends. The east end is polygonal with ambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiating chapels. In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles.[7] French Gothic architecture is the style of architecture that was prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500. ...

The longitudinal emphasis in the nave of Wells is typically English.
The longitudinal emphasis in the nave of Wells is typically English.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Intérieur de la cathédrale de Wells, Somerset, Angleterre. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Intérieur de la cathédrale de Wells, Somerset, Angleterre. ... The west front, completed c. ...

England

Main article: English Gothic architecture

The distinctive characteristic of English cathedrals is their extreme length and their internal emphasis upon the horizontal, which may be emphasised visually as much or more than the vertical lines. Each English cathedral (with the exception of Salisbury) has an extraordinary degree of stylistic diversity, when compared with most French, German and Italian cathedrals. It is not unusual for every part of the building to have been built in a different century and in a different style, with no attempt at creating a stylistic unity. Unlike French cathedrals, English cathedrals sprawl across their sites, with double transepts projecting strongly and Lady Chapels tacked on at a later date. In the west front, the doors are not as significant as in France, the usual congregational entrance being through a side porch. The West window is very large and never a rose, which are reserved for the transept gables. The west front may have two towers like a French Cathedral, or none. There is nearly always a tower at the crossing and it may be very large and surmounted by a spire. The distinctive English east end is square, but it may take a completely different form.[7][9] Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century. ...

The spacious interior of Regensburg Cathedral.
The spacious interior of Regensburg Cathedral.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Regensburg Cathedral (German: ), dedicated to St Peter, is the most important church of the city of Regensburg, and cathedral of the Diocese of Regensburg. ...

Germany and the Holy Roman Empire

Main article: Gothic architecture in Germany

Romanesque architecture in Germany is characterised by its massive and modular nature. This is expressed in the Gothic architecture of the Holy Roman Empire in the huge size of the towers and spires, often proposed, but not always completed.[17] The west front generally follows the French formula, but the towers are very much taller, and if complete, are surmounted by enormous openwork spires that are a regional feature. Because of the size of the towers, the section of the facade that is between them may appear narrow and compressed. The eastern end follows the French form. The distinctive character of the interior of German Gothic cathedrals is their breadth and openness. This is the case even when, as at Cologne, they have been modelled upon a French cathedral. German cathedrals, like the French, tend not to have strongly projecting transepts. There are also many hallenkirke without clerestorey windows.[7][13] South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Barcelona Cathedral has a wide nave with the clerestorey windows nestled under the vault.
Barcelona Cathedral has a wide nave with the clerestorey windows nestled under the vault.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1562 × 1152 pixel, file size: 467 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1562 × 1152 pixel, file size: 467 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Façade of Santa Eulàlia The Cathedral of Santa Eulàlia (also called La Seu) is the Gothic cathedral seat of the catholic Archbishop of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ...

Spain

Main article: Spanish Gothic architecture

The distinctive characteristic of Spanish Gothic cathedrals is their spacial complexity, with many areas of different shapes leading from each other. They are comparatively short and wide, and are often completely surrounded by chapels. Like English Cathedrals, Spanish Cathedrals are stylistically diverse. This expresses itself in the addition of chapels and in the application of decorative details drawn from different sources. Among the influences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture, and towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner. The West front, as at Leon Cathedral typically resembles a French west front, but wider in proportion to height and often with greater diversity of detail and a combination of intricate ornament with broad plain surfaces. At Burgos Cathedral there are spires of German style. The roofline often has pierced parapets with comparatively few pinnacles. There are often towers and domes of a great variety of shapes and structural invention rising above the roof.[7] Spanish Gothic architecture is the style of architecture prevalent in Spain in the Late Medieval period. ... Leon Cathedral Santa María de León Cathedral, also called The House of Light or the Pulchra Leonina is situated in the city of León in north-west Spain. ... Burgos Cathedral The Burgos Cathedral is a Gothic cathedral. ...


Italy

The clear proportions of Florence Cathedral are defined by dark stone against the colour-washed plastered brick.
The clear proportions of Florence Cathedral are defined by dark stone against the colour-washed plastered brick.
Main article: Gothic architecture in Italy

The distinctive characteristic of Italian Gothic is the use of polychrome decoration, both externally as marble veneer on the brick facade and also internally where the arches are often made of alternating black and white segments, and where the columns may be painted red, the walls decorated with frescoes and the apse with mosaic. The plan is usually regular and symmetrical. With the exception of Milan Cathedral which is Germanic in style, Italian cathedrals have few and widely spaced columns. The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, and except in Venice where they loved flamboyant arches, the arches are almost always equilateral. Colours and moldings define the architectural units rather than blending them. Italian cathedral facades are often polychrome and may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors. The facades have projecting open porches and occular or wheel windows rather than roses, and do not usually have a tower. The crossing is usually surmounted by a dome. There is often a free-standing tower and baptistry. The eastern end usually has an apse of comparatively low projection. The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are often found, the favourite narrative medium for the interior is the fresco.[7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 498 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 510 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 498 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 510 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Giottos belltower (campanile) in Florence Façade of the Duomo of Florence. ... Basilica di San Francesco, Assisi. ... , The Duomo di Milano from the Square. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...


Secular Gothic architecture

See also Castles.
The facade of the Palais des Papes
The facade of the Palais des Papes

Many examples of secular, non-military structures in Gothic style survive in fairly original condition. The Palais des Papes in Avignon is the best complete large royal palace, with partial survivals in the great hall at the Palace of Westminster, London, an 11th century hall renovated in the late 1300s with gothic windows and a wooden hammerbeam roof, and the famous Conciergerie, former palace of the kings of France, in Paris. In addition to monumental secular architecture, examples of the Gothic style, can be seen in surviving medieval portions of cities across Europe, above all the distinctive Venetian Gothic. The house of the wealthy early 15th century merchant Jacques Coeur in Bourges, is the classic Gothic bourgeois mansion, full of the asymmetry and complicated detail beloved of the Gothic Revival.[18] Other cities with a concentration of secular Gothic include Bruges and Sienna. Most surviving small secular buildings are relatively plain and straightforward; most windows are flat-topped with mullions, with pointed arches and vaulted ceilings often only found at a few focal points. The country-houses of the nobility were slow to abandon the appearance of being a castle, even in parts of Europe, like England, where defence had ceased to be a real concern. The living and working parts of many monastic buildings survive, for example at Mont Saint-Michel. This article describes the fortified buildings. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 153 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 153 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This photograph from 1896 shows the hammerbeam roof of Westminster Hall. ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... Ca dOro façade overlooking the Grand Canal Ca dOro (correctly the Palazzo Santa Sofia) is one of the most beautiful palazzos on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy and surely the most famous. ... Jacques CÅ“ur Jacques CÅ“ur (c. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... This page is not about Siena, Italy. ... Mullion, Cornwall is also the name of a village in Cornwall off the Lizard. ... For the car ferry, see MV Mont St Michel. ...


There are many excellent examples of secular Gothic buildings in brick, notably Malbork, a castle of the Teutonic Knights in Poland. Brick Gothic buildings were associated with the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Knights. There are over one hundred brick Gothic castles in northern Poland, Baltic states, and western Russia, and many smaller buildings. Malbork Castle (German: ) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally Marys Castle). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...


Gothic survival and revival

Chateau d'Abbadie, Hendaye, France: a Gothic pile for the natural historian and patron of astronomy Antoine d'Abbadie, 1860–1870; Viollet-le-Duc, architect
Chateau d'Abbadie, Hendaye, France: a Gothic pile for the natural historian and patron of astronomy Antoine d'Abbadie, 1860–1870; Viollet-le-Duc, architect

In 1663 at the Archbishop of Canterbury's residence, Lambeth Palace, a Gothic hammerbeam roof was built to replace that destroyed when the building was sacked during the English Civil War. Also in the late 17th century, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at Oxford and Cambridge, notably on the Tom Tower at Christ Church College, Oxford, by Christopher Wren. It is not easy to decide whether these instances were Gothic survival or early appearances of Gothic revival. Chateau dAbbadie, Viollet-le-Duc From French Wikipedia Description: Chateau dAbbadie, août 2004 Source: Bouba Licence: GFDL Bouba File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chateau dAbbadie, Viollet-le-Duc From French Wikipedia Description: Chateau dAbbadie, août 2004 Source: Bouba Licence: GFDL Bouba File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Antoine Thomson dAbbadie (January 3, 1810 – March 19, 1897), and Arnaud Michel dAbbadie (July 24, 1815 – November 13, 1893) were two brothers notable for their travels in Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 - Lausanne 1879) was a French architect, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... This photograph from 1896 shows the hammerbeam roof of Westminster Hall. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Tom Tower seen from the quad Tom Tower seen from St Aldates Tom Tower is a bell tower in Oxford, England. ... Christ Church (in full: The Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry VIII) is one of the largest and wealthiest of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ...


In England in the mid-eighteenth century, the Gothic style was more widely revived, first as a decorative, whimsical alternative to Rococo that is still conventionally termed 'Gothick', of which Horace Walpole's Twickenham villa "Strawberry Hill" is the familiar example. North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Strawberry Hill is an affluent area of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames near Twickenham. ...


19th and 20th century Gothic Revival

Main article: Gothic Revival

Partly in response to a philosophy propounded by the Oxford Movement and others in England, from about 1830 Gothic became the preferred style for ecclesiastical, civic and institutional architecture, resulting in a Gothic revival, sometimes termed Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic. The Houses of Parliament in London are an example of this Gothic revival style, designed by Sir Charles Barry with interiors by a major exponent of the early Gothic Revival, Augustus Welby Pugin. Neo-Gothic was often applied to university buildings such as the main building of the University of Glasgow designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott. Gothic was also widely used in upper and middle-class housing, and Gothic details often appear even in working-class housing, especially if subsidised by philanthropy. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ... ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 – March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses. ... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ...

In France, simultaneously, the towering figure of the Gothic Revival was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, who outdid historical Gothic constructions to create a Gothic as it ought to have been, notably at the fortified city of Carcassonne in the south of France and in some richly fortified keeps for industrial magnates. Viollet-le-Duc compiled and coordinated an Encyclopédie médiévale that was a rich repertory his contemporaries mined for architectural details. He effected vigorous restoration of crumbling detail of French cathedrals, including the Abbey of Saint-Denis and famously at Notre Dame, where many of whose most "Gothic" gargoyles are Viollet-le-Duc's. He taught a generation of reform-Gothic designers and showed how to apply Gothic style to modern structural materials, especially cast iron. Download high resolution version (450x614, 142 KB)View from Linden Lane toward Gasson Tower on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts File links The following pages link to this file: Gothic architecture Boston College Gothic revival Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (450x614, 142 KB)View from Linden Lane toward Gasson Tower on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts File links The following pages link to this file: Gothic architecture Boston College Gothic revival Categories: GFDL images ... Gasson Hall is an iconic building on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation)#Education. ... Boston College and the Chestnut Hill Reservoir Located 6 miles west of Boston, Chestnut Hill is a wealthy suburb notable for its stately old houses, scenic landscape and the historic campus of Boston College. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... For other uses, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...


In Germany, the great cathedrals of Cologne and Ulm, left unfinished for 600 years, were brought to completion, while in Italy, Florence Cathedral finally received its polychrome Gothic facade. New churches in the Gothic style were created all over the world, including Japan, Thailand, India, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and South Africa. The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ... Ulm Münster is a Lutheran church and the tallest church in the world with its steeple measuring 161. ... Giottos belltower (campanile) in Florence Façade of the Duomo of Florence. ...


As in Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand utilised Neo-Gothic for the building of universities, a fine example being Sydney University by Edmund Blacket. In Canada, the Canadian Parliament Buildings in Ottawa designed by Thomas Fuller and Chilion Jones with its huge centrally-placed tower draws influence from Flemish Gothic buildings. The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia, and it is located in Sydney, the capital city of the state of New South Wales. ... Edmund Thomas Blacket (25 August 1817 – 9 February 1883) was an Australian architect, best known for his designs for the University of Sydney, St. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Thomas Fuller (March 8, 1823-September 28, 1893) was a Canadian architect. ... Chilion Jones was the business partner of architect Thomas Fuller in nineteenth-century Canada. ...


Although falling out of favour for domestic and civic use, Gothic for churches and universities continued into the 20th century with buildings such as Liverpool Cathedral and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York. The Gothic style was also applied to iron-framed city skyscapers such as Cass Gilbert's Woolworth Building and Raymond Hood's Tribune Tower. North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ... The Cathedral of St. ... The Woolworth Building in New York City was the worlds tallest building when it was built in 1913. ... The Woolworth Building, at sixty stories, is one of the oldest — and one of the most famous — skyscrapers in New York City. ... Raymond M. Hood (March 29, 1881 - August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ...


Post-Modernism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen some revival of Gothic forms in individual buildings, such as the Gare do Oriente in Lisbon, Portugal. Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Gare do Oriente is one of the main transport hubs in Lisbon, Portugal. ...


See also

The Basilica of Mary Magdalene, Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume, Provence, begun in 1295, building work continued for more than 100 years, maintaining the 13th century style.
The Basilica of Mary Magdalene, Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume, Provence, begun in 1295, building work continued for more than 100 years, maintaining the 13th century style.

Monastery of Batalha in Portugal Burgos Cathedral in Castile The choir of Westminster Abbey in London as depicted in 1848 The Cathedral of Reims, by Domenico Quaglio Town Hall, Leuven, Belgium Magdeburg Cathedral,viewed from across the Elbe Cologne Cathedral, viewed from across the Rhine Cathedral of Uppsala Sweden as... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... Image File history File links STmaximin-Solitude. ... Image File history File links STmaximin-Solitude. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Var ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... French Gothic architecture is the style of architecture that was prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500. ... Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century. ... Basilica di San Francesco, Assisi. ... Spanish Gothic architecture is the style of architecture prevalent in Spain in the Late Medieval period. ... Portuguese Gothic architecture is the Architectural style prevalent in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages. ... Gothic style came to Poland in the 13. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Murder of Przemysław II in Rogoźno by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Sondergotik (German for special Gothic) is the style of Late Gothic architecture prevalent in Austria, Bavaria, and Bohemia between 1350 and 1550. ... Hawaiian architecture is a distinctive style of architectural arts developed and employed primarily in the Hawaiian Islands of the present-day United States — buildings and various other structures indicative of the people of Hawaii and the environment and culture in which they live. ... Gargoyles redirects here. ...

Gallery

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 547 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cathédrale de Wells, Somerset, Angleterre. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1329 × 1772 pixel, file size: 1,001 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Cathédrale of Rouen - Photographer Richard Groult (2001) Copyleft : cette Å“uvre est libre, vous pouvez la redistribuer et/ou la modifier selon les termes de la Licence Art Libre. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 414 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1642 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Valencia (city) ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 999 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 968 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Notes

The flattened surface of this vault is supported by a multitude of decorative ribs called tierceron vaulting.
The flattened surface of this vault is supported by a multitude of decorative ribs called tierceron vaulting.
  1. ^ Banister Fletcher quotes Vasari as using this term.
  2. ^ "Gotz" is rendered as "Huns" in Thomas Urquhart's English translation.
  3. ^ Notes and Queries, No. 9. December 29, 1849
  4. ^ Christopher Wren, 17th century architect of St. Paul's Cathedral.
  5. ^ "pour terminer le haut de leurs ouvertures. La Compagnie a désapprové plusieurs de ces nouvelles manières, qui sont défectueuses et qui tiennent la plupart du gothique." Quoted in Fiske Kimball, The Creation of the Rococo, 1943, p 66.
  6. ^ a b "L'art Gothique", section: "L'architecture Gothique en Angleterre" by Ute Engel: L'Angleterre fut l'une des premieres régions à adopter, dans la deuxième moitié du XIIeme siècle, la nouvelle architecture gothique née en France. Les relations historiques entre les deux pays jouèrent un rôle prépondérant: en 1154, Henri II (1154–1189), de la dynastie Française des Plantagenêt, accéda au thrône d'Angleterre." (England was one of the first regions to adopt, during the first half of the XIIth century, the new gothic architecture born in France. Historic relationships between the two countries played a determining role: in 1154, Henry II (1154–1189), of the French Plantagenet dynasty, assended to the throne of England).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method.
  8. ^ a b c d e f John Harvey, The Gothic World
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Alec Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England
  10. ^ a b c d e Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture.
  11. ^ Christopher Wren (1750). Parentalia: or, Memoirs of the family of the Wrens, viz. of Mathew Bishop, printed for T. Osborn; and R. Dodsley, London.
  12. ^ Christopher Wren and the Muslim Origin of Gothic Architecture (2003), Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Wim Swaan, The Gothic Cathedral
  14. ^ The open-work spire was completed in 1890 to the original design.
  15. ^ This does not happen in French or English Gothic and so to the British or French eye, to be a strange disregard for style.
  16. ^ The Zodiac comprises a sequence of twelve constellations which appear overhead in the Northern Hemisphere at fixed times of year. In a rural community with neither clock nor calendar, these signs in the heavens were crucial in knowing when crops were to be planted and certain rural activities performed.
  17. ^ Freiburg, Regensburg, Strasbourg, Vienna, Ulm, Cologne, Antwerp.
  18. ^ Begun in 1443.House of Jacques Cœur at Bourges (Begun 1443), aerial sketch. fromoldbooks. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. []

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ... The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Notes and Queries (originally subtitled a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc) is a correspondence magazine where scholars and interested amateurs exchange miscellaneous knowledge. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Boney, Jean (1985). French Gothic Architecture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. ISBN 0-520-05586-1. 
  • Bumpus, T. Francis (1928). The Cathedrals and Churches of Belgium. T. Werner Laurie. 
  • Clifton-Taylor, Alec (1967). The Cathedrals of England. Thames and Hudson. 
  • Fletcher, Banister (2001). A History of Architecture on the Comparative method. Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. 
  • Gardner, Helen; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya (2004). Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0-15-505090-7. 
  • Harvey, John (1950). The Gothic World, 1100–1600. Batsford. 
  • Harvey, John (1961). English Cathedrals. Batsford. 
  • Holbeche Bloxam, Matthew (1841). Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture, Elucidated by Question and Answer. [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/19737, from Project Gutenberg
  • Huyghe, Rene (ed.) (1963). Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine and Medieval Art. Paul Hamlyn. 
  • Icher, Francois (1998). Building the Great Cathedrals. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-4017-5. 
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus (1964). An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. 
  • Summerson, John (1983). in Pelican History of Art: Architecture in Britain, 1530–1830. ISBN 0-14-0560-03-3. 
  • Swaan, Wim (1988). The Gothic Cathedral. Omega Books. ISBN 0-9078593-48-X. 
  • Swaan, Wim. Art and Architecture of the Late Middle Ages. Omega Books. ISBN 0-907853-35-8. 
  • Tatton-Brown, Tim; John Crook (2002). The English Cathedral. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-84330-120-2. 
  • von Simson, Otto Georg (1988). The Gothic cathedral: origins of Gothic architecture and the medieval concept of order. ISBN 0-691-09959-6. 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gothic architecture
  • Moore, Charles (1890). Development & Character of Gothic Architecture. Macmillan and Co.. 

The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

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Gothic architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2126 words)
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period.
The Gothic cathedral was supposed to be a microcosm representing the world, and each architectural concept, mainly the loftiness and huge dimensions of the structure, were intended to pass a theological message: the great glory of God versus the smallness and insignificance of the mortal being.
In England, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at Oxford and Cambridge in the late 17th century, and at the archbishop of Canterbury's residence Lambeth Palace, a Gothic hammerbeam roof was built in 1663 to replace a building that had been sacked during the English Civil War.
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