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Encyclopedia > Gothic Revival architecture
Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin
San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. Engineering designs were from Gustave Eiffel.
San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. Engineering designs were from Gustave Eiffel.

The Gothic Revival was an architectural movement which originated in mid-18th century England. In the nineteenth century, increasingly serious and learned neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval forms, in distinction to the classical styles which were prevalent at the time. The movement had significant influence throughout the United Kingdom as well as in Europe and North America, and perhaps more Gothic architecture was built in nineteenth and twentieth centuries than had originally ever been built. The Victoria Tower, Parliament, seen from Victoria Tower Gardens. ... The Victoria Tower, Parliament, seen from Victoria Tower Gardens. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Sebastian Church I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) San Sebastian Church I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines was designed by Gustave Eiffel. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced in the German manner ) was a French engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (920 × 696 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (920 × 696 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The Cathedral of Learning, a local and national landmark[2][3], is the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburghs main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, and inspired a 19th century genre of medieval poetry which stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian." Poems like "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival also had a grounding in literary fashions.[1] Medievalism divides into both serious academic study of the medieval world and also leisure-time romanticism about that world. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer, and architectural innovator He was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... The Idylls of the King (1856 - 1885) are a cycle of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that express the legend of King Arthur in terms of the psychology and concerns of nineteenth-century England. ... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ...

Contents

History

Survival and revival

Gothic architecture is generally considered to have begun at the Abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris, in 1140 and ended with a last great flourish at Henry VIIs Chapel at Westminster in the early 16th century. However, Gothic architecture did not die out completely in 1520 but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects and the construction of churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Spain, Germany and the Polish Commonwealth. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults (completed 1658) for the Basilica of San Petronio which had been under construction since 1390; there, the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode. Similarly, Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the later 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were apparently considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church College, Oxford University, and, later, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic revival. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (407x807, 186 KB) Summary Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (407x807, 186 KB) Summary Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Henry VII may refer to: Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (c. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Carlo Rainaldi (1611, Rome - 1691, Rome) was an Italian architect of the Baroque period. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Tom Tower seen from the quad Tom Tower seen from St Aldates Tom Tower is a bell tower in Oxford, England. ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...

Imitation fan-vaulting in the Gothick Long Gallery at Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill
Imitation fan-vaulting in the Gothick Long Gallery at Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill

In the mid 18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased interest and awareness of the Middle Ages among some influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected medieval arts, beginning with church architecture, the tomb monuments of royal and noble personages, stained glass, and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts. Other Gothic arts continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however: tapestries and metalwork, as examples. Sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival, as purely aesthetic concerns. A few Britons, and soon some Germans, began to appreciate the picturesque character of ruins — "picturesque" becoming a new aesthetic quality — and those mellowing effects of time that the Japanese call wabi-sabi and which Horace Walpole independently admired, mildly tongue-in-cheek, as "the true rust of the Barons' wars." The "Gothick" details of Walpole's Twickenham villa, "Strawberry Hill," (illustrated, right) appealed to the rococo tastes of the time, and by the 1770s, thoroughly neoclassical architects such as Robert Adam and James Wyatt were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries, and chapels, for a romantic vision of a Gothic abbey, Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire. Inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746 with design input from William Adam, displays early revival of Gothic features in Scotland. The "Gothick" style was an architectural manifestation of the artificial "picturesque" seen elsewhere in the arts: these ornamental temples and summer-houses ignored the structural logic of true Gothic buildings and were effectively Palladian buildings with pointed arches. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to "improve" Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions. Image File history File linksMetadata Strawberry_Hill_Illustrated_London_News_1842. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Strawberry_Hill_Illustrated_London_News_1842. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Strawberry Hill is the name of several places: Strawberry Hill, London, England Strawberry Hill (Kansas City, Kansas) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Murder of PrzemysÅ‚aw II in Rogoźno by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. ... Though the concept of the sublime had roots in the connoisseurship of Antiquity, the picturesque was a new category in the incipient Romantic sensibility of the 18th century. ... A Japanese tea house which reflects the Wabi-Sabi aesthetic Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centred on the acceptance of transience. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Twickenham is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London. ... Strawberry Hill is the name of several places: Strawberry Hill, London, England Strawberry Hill (Kansas City, Kansas) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Fonthill Abbey Fonthill Abbey — also known as Beckfords Folly — was a large Gothic-style building built in the turn of the 19th century in Wiltshire, England. ... Inveraray Castle is a castle in western Scotland. ... William Adam (1689–June 24, 1748) was a Scottish architect, mason, and entrepreneur. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ... Batty Langley (Twickenham, Middlesex, baptised 14 September 1696 – London 1751) was an English garden designer and prolific writer, who produced a number of engraved designs for Gothick structures, summerhouses and garden seats in the years before the mid-18th century. ...


A younger generation who took Gothic architecture more seriously provided the readership for J. Britten's series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt… to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, "a text-book for the architectural student". Its long title is descriptive: Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings. The categories he used were Norman, Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular. It went through numerous editions and was still being republished in 1881. Thomas Rickman (June 8, 1776 - January 4, 1841), English architect, was born on the 8th of June 1776 at Maidenhead, Berkshire, where he assisted his father (a Quaker) in business as a grocer and druggist until 1797. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ... Salisbury Cathedral, built c. ... The West Front of Exeter Cathedral The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral The Decorated Period, in architecture (also known as the Decorated Gothic, or simply Decorated) period is a historical division of English Gothic architecture. ... Winchester Cathedral Sherborne Abbey The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. ...


Romanticism and nationalism

French neo-Gothic had its roots in a minor aspect of Anglomanie, starting in the late 1780s. In 1816, when French scholar Alexandre de Laborde said "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own," the idea was novel to most French readers. Starting in 1828, Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for Louis-Philippe's royal chapel at Dreux. It would be hard to find a large, significant commission in Gothic taste that preceded this one, save for some Gothic features in a handful of jardins à l'anglaise. Alexandre de Laborde Comte[1] Louis-Joseph-Alexandre de Laborde (Paris 17 September 1773 — Paris 20 October 1842) was a French antiquary, liberal politician and writer, a member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques[2] (1832), under the rubric political economy. ... A stone grinder for turning quartz, feldspar, kaolin and other stones into fine powder for making ceramic paste Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory located in Sèvres, France. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Dreux is a town and commune in northwest France, in the Eure-et-Loir département. ...

Saint Clotilde Basilica completed 1857, Paris

The French Gothic revival was set on sounder intellectual footings by a pioneer, Arcisse de Caumont, who founded the Societé des Antiquaires de Normandy at a time when antiquaire still meant a connoisseur of antiquities, and who published his great work on Norman architecture in 1830 (Summerson 1948). The following year Victor Hugo's Notre Dame de Paris appeared, in which the great Gothic cathedral of Paris was at once a setting and a protagonist in a hugely popular work of fiction. Hugo intended his book to awaken a concern for the surviving Gothic architecture, however, rather than to initiate a craze for neo-Gothic in contemporary life. In the same year that Nôtre-Dame de Paris appeared, the new French monarchy established a post of Inspector-General of Ancient Monuments, a post filled in 1833 by Prosper Merimée, who became the secretary of a new Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1837. This was the Commission that instructed Eugène Viollet-le-Duc to report on the condition of the abbey of Vézelay in 1840. Following this, Viollet le Duc set to restore most of the symbolic buildings in France - Notre Dame de Paris, Vézelay, Carcassone, Roquetaillade castle, Mont Saint-Michel, Pierrefonds, Palais des Papes à Avignon . . . . When France’s first prominent neo-Gothic church[2] was built, the Basilica of Sainte-Clothilde,[3] Paris, begun in September 1846 and consecrated 30 November 1857, the architect chosen was, significantly, of German extraction, François-Christian Gau (1790–1853); the design wassignificantly modified by Gau's assistant, Théodore Ballu, in the later stages, to produce the pair of flêches that crown the west end. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by [email protected], October 2005. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by [email protected], October 2005. ... The west front of the church The Saint Clotilde Basilica (Basilique Ste-Clotilde) is a church in Paris, located on the Rue Las Cases, in the area of Saint-Germain-de-Pres. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (in French, Notre-Dame de Paris) was a novel first published in 1831 by the French literary giant Victor Hugo. ... Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Roquetaillade castle Built in 1306 by Pope Clement Vth, with the permission of King Edward II, Roquetaillade is still lived in by the same family for over 700 years. ...


Meanwhile, in Germany, interest in the Cologne Cathedral, which had begun construction in 1248 and was still unfinished at the time of the revival, began to reappear. The 1820s Romantic movement brought back interest, and work began once more in 1824, significantly marking a German return of Gothic architecture.[4] The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ...


Because of Romantic nationalism in the early 19th century, the Germans, French and English all claimed the original Gothic architecture of the 12th century as originating in their own country. The English boldly coined the term "Early English" for Gothic, a term that implied Gothic architecture was an English creation. In his 1832 edition of Notre Dame de Paris Victor Hugo said "Let us inspire in the nation, if it is possible, love for the national architecture", implying that Gothic was France's national heritage. In Germany with the completion of Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s, at the time the world's tallest building, the cathedral was seen as the height of Gothic architecture. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Facade For the novel by Victor Hugo, see The Hunchback of Notre Dame. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ...


In Florence, the Duomo's temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new facade suitable to Arnolfo di Cambio's structure and the fine campanile next to it. This competition was won by Emilio De Fabris, and work on his polychrome design and panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed in 1887. The tabernacle over the high altar of St. ... A campanile (pronounced []) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, bell), often adjacent to a church or cathedral. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ...


Pugin, Ruskin and the Gothic as a moral force

The House of Lords in the Palace of Westminster designed by A.W.N. Pugin This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
The House of Lords in the Palace of Westminster designed by A.W.N. Pugin
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
Oxford University Museum of Natural History

In the late 1820s, A.W.N. Pugin, still a teenager, was working for two highly visible employers, providing Gothic detailing for luxury goods. For the Royal furniture makers Morel and Seddon he provided designs for redecorations for the elderly George IV at Windsor Castle in a Gothic taste suited to the setting. For the royal silversmiths Rundell Bridge and Co., Pugin provided designs for silver from 1828, using the 14th-century Anglo-French Gothic vocabulary that he would continue to favour later in designs for the new Palace of Westminster (see left) [1]. Between 1821 and 1838 Pugin and his father published a series of volumes of architectural drawings, the first two entitled, Specimens of Gothic Architecture, and the following three, Examples of Gothic Architecture, that were to remain both in print and the standard references for Gothic revivalists for at least the next century. Image File history File links House_of_Lords. ... Image File history File links House_of_Lords. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812–September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In Contrasts (1836), Pugin expressed his admiration not only for mediæval art but the whole mediæval ethos, claiming that Gothic architecture was the product of a purer society. In The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841), he suggested that modern craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should also reproduce its methods. Pugin believed Gothic was true Christian architecture, and even claimed "The pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith". Pugin's most famous building is The Houses of Parliament in London, which he designed in two campaigns, 18361837 and again in 1844 and 1852, with the classicist Charles Barry as his co-architect. Pugin provided the external decoration and the interiors, while Barry designed the symmetrical layout of the building, causing Pugin to remark, "All Grecian, Sir; Tudor details on a classic body". Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jan. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, Barrys most famous building. ...


John Ruskin supplemented Pugin's ideas in his two hugely influential theoretical works, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and The Stones of Venice (1853). Finding his architectural ideal in Venice, Ruskin proposed that Gothic buildings excelled above all other architecture because of the "sacrifice" of the stone-carvers in intricately decorating every stone. By declaring the Doge's Palace to be "the central building of the world", Ruskin argued the case for Gothic government buildings as Pugin had done for churches, though only in theory. When his ideas were put into practice, Ruskin despised the spate of public buildings built with references to the Ducal Palace, including the University Museum in Oxford. Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Stones of Venice is John Ruskins original three-volume masterpiece on Venetian art and architecture, first published from 1851-53. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Doges Palace. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ...


Ecclesiology

Main article: Ecclesiology

In England, the Church of England was undergoing a revival of Anglo-Catholic and ritualist ideology in the form of the Oxford Movement and it became desirable to build large numbers of new churches to cater for the growing population. This found ready exponents in the universities, where the ecclesiological movement was forming. Its proponents believed that Gothic was the only style appropriate for a parish church, and favoured a particular era of Gothic architecture — the "decorated". The Ecclesiologist, the publication of the Cambridge Camden Society, was so savagely critical of new church buildings that were below its exacting standards that a style called the 'archaeological Gothic' emerged, producing some of the most convincingly mediæval buildings of the Gothic revival. However, not every architect or client was swept away by this tide. Although Gothic Revival succeeded in becoming an increasingly familiar style of architecture, the attempt to associate it with the notion of high church superiority, as advocated by Pugin and the ecclesiological movement, was anathema to those with ecumenical or nonconformist principles. They looked to adopt it solely for its aesthetic romantic qualities, to combine it with other styles, or look to northern Europe for Gothic of a more plain appearance; or in some instances all three of these, as at the ecumenical Abney Park Cemetery for whom the architect William Hosking FSA was engaged. In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... The West Front of Exeter Cathedral The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral The Decorated Period, in architecture (also known as the Decorated Gothic, or simply Decorated) period is a historical division of English Gothic architecture. ... The Cambridge Camden Society, known also as the Ecclesiological Society, was a learned architectural society founded in 1839 by undergraduates at Cambridge University to promote the study of Gothic Architecture, and of Ecclesiastical Antiques. ... Abney Park Cemetery—every turn of the path reveals a new and unique landscape (September 2005). ... The Royal Academy where William Hosking exhibited in the 1820s William Hosking FSA (November 26, 1800 - August 2, 1861) was a writer, lecturer, and architect who had an important influence on the growth and development of London in Victorian times. ...


Viollet-le-Duc and Iron Gothic

The upper chapel of the Sainte Chapelle, restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century
The upper chapel of the Sainte Chapelle, restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century

If France had not been quite as early on the neo-Gothic scene, she produced a giant of the revival in Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. As well as being a powerful and influential theorist, Viollet-le-Duc was a leading architect whose genius lay in restoration. He believed in restoring buildings to a state of completion that they would not have known even when they were first built, theories he applied to his restorations of the walled city of Carcassonne and Notre-Dame and Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In this respect he differed from his English counterpart Ruskin as he often replaced the work of mediaeval stonemasons. His rational approach to Gothic was in stark contrast to the revival’s romanticist origins, and considered by some to be a prelude to the structural honesty demanded by Modernism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1330x2000, 1007 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sainte-Chapelle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1330x2000, 1007 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sainte-Chapelle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Throughout his career he remained in a quandary as to whether iron and masonry should be combined in a building. Iron had in fact been used in Gothic buildings since the earliest days of the revival. It was only with Ruskin and the archaeological Gothic's demand for structural truth that iron, whether it was visible or not, was deemed improper for a Gothic building. This argument began to collapse in the mid-19th century as great prefabricated structures such as the glass and iron Crystal Palace and the glazed courtyard of the Oxford University Museum were erected, which appeared to embody Gothic principles through iron. Between 1863 and 1872 Viollet-le-Duc published his Entretiens sur l’architecture, a set of daring designs for buildings that combined iron and masonry. Though these projects were never realised, they influenced several generations of designers and architects, notably Antoni Gaudi in Spain and, in England, Benjamin Bucknall, Viollet's foremost English follower and translator, whose masterpiece was Woodchester Mansion. The 1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park . ... Antoni Gaud i Cornet (more widely known in the English speaking world under the Spanish version of his first name, as Antonio Gaud , or, just simply, Gaudi), (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect famous for his unique designs expressing sculptural and individualistic qualities. ... Woodchester Mansion is an unfinished, gothic mansion located in Woodchester, Gloucestershire in the United Kingdom. ...

Cast-iron gothic tracery supports a bridge by Calvert Vaux, Central Park, New York City
Cast-iron gothic tracery supports a bridge by Calvert Vaux, Central Park, New York City

The flexibility and strength of cast iron freed neo-Gothic designers to create new structural gothic forms impossible in stone, as in Calvert Vaux's cast-iron bridge in Central Park, New York (1860s; illustration, right). Vaux enlists openwork forms derived from Gothic blind-arcading and window tracery to express the spring and support of the arching bridge, in flexing forms that presage Art Nouveau. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (4752 × 3306 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (4752 × 3306 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres or 3. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres or 3. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


By 1872 the Gothic Revival was mature enough in the United Kingdom that Charles Locke Eastlake, an influential professor of design, could produce A History of the Gothic Revival, but the first extended essay on the movement that was written within the maturing field of art history was Kenneth Clark, The Gothic Revival. An Essay, which appeared in 1928. Charles Locke Eastlake (1836 – 1906) was an architect and furniture designer. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Kenneth Clark presenting the BBC TV series Civilisation. ...


Gothic Revival in the decorative arts

The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture. Whimsical Gothick detailing in English furniture is traceable as far back at Lady Pomfret's house in Arlington Street, London (1740s), and gothic fretwork in chairbacks and glazing patterns of bookcases is a familiar feature of Chippendale's Director (1754, 1762), where, for example the three-part bookcase employs gothick details with Rococo profusion, on a symmetrical form. Sir Walter Scott's Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the "Regency gothic". By the mid-nineteenth century Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, and gothic blind arcading could decorate a ceramic pitcher. The illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery. A provincial Chippendale-style chair with elaborate Gothick tracery back Thomas Chippendale (June 5, 1718 – November 13, 1779), born at Farnley near Otley, West Yorkshire, was a London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles. ... Abbotsford may refer to: Abbotsford, a city in British Columbia, Canada Abbotsford, an electoral district surrounding the Canadian city Abbotsford, a city in Wisconsin, USA Abbotsford, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia Abbotsford, a suburb of Dunedin, New Zealand Abbotsford House, home of Scottish novelist Sir Walter Scott This is a... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ... The Great Exhibition: Paxtons Crystal Palace enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park. ...


Vernacular Adaptations

Carpenter gothic Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California (built 1905) showing gothic arches, steep gables, and a tower. The tower includes examples of abat-sons.
Carpenter gothic Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California (built 1905) showing gothic arches, steep gables, and a tower. The tower includes examples of abat-sons.

Carpenter gothic houses and small churches became common in North America in the late nineteenth century.[5] These structures adapted gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, and towers to traditional American light-frame construction. The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the high gothic. But in most cases, carpenter gothic buildings were relatively unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables. Arguably, the most famous example of carpenter gothic is not even a real building. It appears in the background of the painting American Gothic by Grant Wood. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 715 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California building exterior I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 715 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California building exterior I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Unitarian Universalists of San Mateo, California. ... Illustration of an abat-son An abat-son (usually plural abat-sons) is an architectural device constructed to reflect sound in a particular direction. ... It has been suggested that Stick-frame construction be merged into this article or section. ... A scroll saw is small electric or pedal operated saw useful for cutting intricate curves where a jigsaw or coping saw is not appropriate. ... The word fenestration finds its root in the Latin word for window, fenestra. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... American Gothic (1930) Stained glass window in Cedar Rapids, Iowa 2004 Iowa state quarter Grant Wood, born Grant DeVolson Wood (February 13, 1891 – February 12, 1942) was an American painter, born in Anamosa, Iowa. ...


The 20th century and beyond

Gothic detailing on the Tribune Tower in Chicago
Gothic detailing on the Tribune Tower in Chicago
The Lady Chapel of Liverpool Cathedral, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott overseen by G F Bodley
The Lady Chapel of Liverpool Cathedral, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott overseen by G F Bodley
Collegiate Gothic buildings of Boston College.
Collegiate Gothic buildings of Boston College.
The Reynolds Club, a building on the campus of the University of Chicago
The Reynolds Club, a building on the campus of the University of Chicago

. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x941, 395 KB) The Lady Chapel of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott overseen by G F Bodley. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x941, 395 KB) The Lady Chapel of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott overseen by G F Bodley. ... North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ... Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (November 9, 1880—February 8, 1960) was an English architect known for his work on such buildings as Liverpool Cathedral and Battersea Power Station. ... George Frederick Bodley (1827 - 21 October 1907) was an English architect working in the Gothic revival style. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1203x816, 1255 KB)Sunset on the Heights - Boston College - Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Ford Memorial Tower, Burns Library, Bapst Library and Gasson Hall on BCs historic middle campus Photo © 2005 Harvey D. Egan, SJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1203x816, 1255 KB)Sunset on the Heights - Boston College - Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Ford Memorial Tower, Burns Library, Bapst Library and Gasson Hall on BCs historic middle campus Photo © 2005 Harvey D. Egan, SJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ...


At the turn of the 20th Century, technological developments such as the light bulb, the elevator, and steel framing caused many to see architecture that used load-bearing masonry as obsolete. Steel framing supplanted the non-ornamental functions of rib vaults and flying buttresses. Some architects used Neo-Gothic tracery as applied ornament to an iron skeleton underneath, for example in Cass Gilbert's 1907 Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York and Raymond Hood's 1922 Tribune Tower in Chicago. But over the first half of the century, Neo-Gothic became supplanted by Modernism. Some in the Modern Movement saw the Gothic tradition of architectural form entirely in terms of the "honest expression" of the technology of the day, and saw themselves as the rightful heir to this tradition, with their rectangular frames and exposed iron girders. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... In architecture, a flying buttress is a structural feature used to transmit the thrust of a vault across an intervening space, such as an aisle, chapel or cloister, to a buttress built outside the latter. ... Woolworth Building (New York City), was the worlds tallest building at the time it was built, in 1909. ... The Woolworth Building, at sixty stories, is one of the oldest — and one of the most famous — skyscrapers in New York City. ... NY redirects here. ... Raymond M. Hood (March 29, 1881 - August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ...


In spite of this, the Gothic revival continued to exert its influence, simply because many of its more massive projects were still being built well into the second half of the 20th century, such as Giles Gilbert Scott's Liverpool Cathedral. In the USA, James Gamble Rodgers' reconstruction of the campus of Yale University and Charles Donagh Maginnis's early buildings at Boston College helped establish the prevalence of Collegiate Gothic architecture on American university campuses. Charles Klauder's Gothic revival skyscraper on the University of Pittsburgh's campus, the Cathedral of Learning, for example, used very Gothic stylings both inside and out, while using modern technologies to make the building taller. Ralph Adams Cram became a leading force in American Gothic, with his most ambitious project the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York (claimed to be the largest Cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at Princeton University. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance." In addition to Princeton University, Lehigh University and Boston College, some of the buildings on West Chester University's campus are also built in the Collegiate Gothic style. Also, Atlanta's historic Oglethorpe University continues to build in the Collegiate Gothic style to this day. Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (November 9, 1880—February 8, 1960) was an English architect known for his work on such buildings as Liverpool Cathedral and Battersea Power Station. ... North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ... A tribute to Rogers in a Yale residential college James Gamble Rogers (b. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Considered the father of American Gothic architecture, Charles Donagh Maginnis was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland on January 7, 1867. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Charles Klauder was an American architect known for his work on university buildings. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The Cathedral of Learning, a local and national landmark[2][3], is the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburghs main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Ralph Adams Cram, circa 1890 Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an important American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings, often in the gothic style. ... The Cathedral of St. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... Lehigh University is a private, co-educational university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of the United States. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... West Chester University, located in West Chester, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1871. ... Oglethorpe University is a private liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ...


Though the number of new Gothic revival buildings declined sharply after the 1930s, they continue to be built. The cathedral of Bury St. Edmunds was constructed between the late 1950s and 2005 [2]. In 2002, Demetri Porphyrios was commissioned to design a neo-Gothic residential college at Princeton University to be known as Whitman College. Porphyrios has won several commissions after votes by student bodies[citation needed], not university design committees, suggesting that neo-gothic architecture may be more popular among the general public than among those in the architectural profession. Bury St Edmunds Cathedral or St Edmunsbury Cathedral is the cathedral for the Church of Englands Diocese of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich and is the seat of the Bishop of Saint Edmundsbury and Ipswich and is in Bury St Edmunds. ... Model of Whitman college, neo-Gothic building under construction at Princeton University Demetri Porphyrios (born 1949) is a Greek architect and author. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ...


Famous examples

Asia (Region)

The Saint Andrews Cathedral is the largest Cathedral in Singapore. ... North Bridge Road at Kampong Glam. ... The San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines was designed by Gustave Eiffel. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... St. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Perak Establishment Around 1880 Government  - Mayor Mohamad Rafiai Moktar Area  - City 643 km²  (248. ...

Australia

Vaucluse House Sydney Vaucluse House is a historic estate in Gothic Revival style in the harbourside suburb of Vaucluse in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Sydney Conservatorium of Music (formerly the New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music), informally known as ‘The Con’, is one of the oldest music schools in Australia. ... Government House is located in Sydney and was the official residence of the Governor of New South Wales, Australia. ... St Andrews Cathedral, Sydney is the cathedral church of the Anglican diocese of Sydney, and the seat of the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney and Metropolitan of NSW, The Most Rev Dr Peter Jensen. ... St Marys Cathedral is the largest Roman Catholic church in Australia (and reputedly the Southern Hemisphere). ... The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia, and it is located in Sydney, the capital city of the state of New South Wales. ... St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne, is the cathedral church of the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne and the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, currently His Grace, Archbishop Denis Hart. ... St Pauls Cathedral: the north face and the spire St Pauls Cathedral, Melbourne, is the cathedral church of the Anglican diocese of Melbourne, Victoria, and the seat of the Anglican Archbishop of Melbourne, Most Reverend Peter Watson. ... The University of Melbourne, located in Melbourne, in Victoria, is the second oldest university in Australia (the University of Sydney is the oldest). ... St Davids Cathedral, Hobart The Cathedral Church of St David, Hobart, is the principal Anglican church in Tasmania. ... Government House, Hobart is the home and official residence of the Governor of Tasmania, Australia. ...

Austria

The Votivkirche in Vienna is one of the most important neo-Gothic religious architectural sites in the world. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Belgium

Maredsous Abbey is a Benedictine monastery at Denee near Namur in Belgium. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Castle of Loppem The Castle of Loppem, is situated in the town of Loppem in the municipality of Zedelgem near Bruges in the Flemish Region of Belgium. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Canada

St. ... Jan. ... The Cathedral of St. ... St. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada Parliament Hill, (French Colline du Parlement), -The Hill for locals- is a scenic location on the banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - MPs List... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Church of Our Lady Immaculate (also know as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception) is a Roman Catholic Church located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Faith, Fidelity and Progress Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario County Wellington County City Wards There are 6 Wards Founded April 23, 1827 Incorporated April 23, 1879 Government  - Mayor Karen Farbridge (elected November 2006)  - Governing Body Guelph City Council  - MPs Brenda Chamberlain (LPC)  - MPPs Liz Sandals (OLP) Area  - City... The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

Czech Republic

St. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

France

  • The central spire of the Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris.

Germany

This article is about the capital of Germany. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Hungary

Conference Hall The Hungarian Parliament Building (hu: Országház) is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of the worlds greatest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Italy

  • Castello di Pollenzo, Brà (near Cuneo), Piedmont.

New Zealand

The hospital in what has been called a Gothic-themed fantasy castle design. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ...

Norway

View of the cathedral Tromsø Cathedral (Tromsø domkirke) in Tromsø, Norway is the seat for the Diocese of Nord-HÃ¥logaland, the only Norwegian cathedral made in wood, and an unusual example of wooden Gothic revival. ... County Troms District Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by...

Romania

  • Palace of Culture in Iaşi

Palace of Culture Palace of Culture (Romanian: Palatul Culturii) is one of the largest buildings of Romania, located in the city of IaÅŸi. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ...

Russia

The Church of Saint John at Chesme Palace (or Chesme Church) is a small Russian Orthodox church completed by architect Yury Velten in 1780 at the direction of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Ukraine

Overlooking the cape of Ai–Todor, the romantic Swallows Nest castle is situated on top of a 40-metre (130 ft) high Aurora Cliff. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...

United Kingdom

Strawberry Hill is the name of several places: Strawberry Hill, London, England Strawberry Hill (Kansas City, Kansas) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Gladstones Hawarden Castle circa 1880. ... Hawarden (pronounced Harden; Welsh: Penarlâg) is a small town in Flintshire, north Wales, a few miles from the city of Chester. ... This article is about the country. ... Fonthill Abbey Fonthill Abbey — also known as Beckfords Folly — was a large Gothic-style building built in the turn of the 19th century in Wiltshire, England. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Abergele is an old Roman trading town, situated near the north Wales coast between the popular holiday resorts of Colwyn Bay and Rhyl, in the county borough of Conwy, traditional county of Denbighshire. ... This article is about the country. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Penrhyn Castle circa 1880. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the country. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Cyfarthfa Castle, commissioned in 1819 by the ironmaster William Crawshay. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... This article is about the country. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Barclay Church Barclay Church (not to be confused with Dalmuir Barclay Church) is a parish church of the Church of Scotland in the Presbytery of Edinburgh. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Scott Monument (alternate view) The Scott Monument is a victorian gothic monument to Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Woodchester Mansion is an unfinished, gothic mansion located in Woodchester, Gloucestershire in the United Kingdom. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Tyntesfield, south side Tyntesfield is a Victorian Gothic Revival estate near Wraxall, North Somerset, England, in the Vale of Nailsea, seven miles from Bristol. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Norman keep Burgess summer smoking room Cardiff Castle (Welsh: Castell Caerdydd) in Wales was founded by the Normans in 1091, on the site of a Roman fort whose remains can still be seen. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Gothic Revival facade and clock tower of the disused Midland Hotel are the most visible part of St Pancras station. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Media:Example. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group, Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... “Glaswegian” redirects here. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... College name Keble College Named after John Keble Established 1870 Sister College Selwyn College Warden Prof. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Castell Coch. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, England, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Manchester Town Hall Manchester Town Hall is a building in Manchester, England that houses the citys government and administrative functions. ... Manchester shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Greater Manchester Admin HQ Manchester City Centre Founded 13th Century City Status 1853 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Manchester City Council Area  - Borough & City 115. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Gregorys Abbey, commonly known as Downside Abbey, is a Benedictine monastery of the English Benedictine Congregation. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The John Rylands Library (inaugurated October 1899) is a collection of historic books and manuscripts in Manchester, England. ... Manchester shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Greater Manchester Admin HQ Manchester City Centre Founded 13th Century City Status 1853 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Manchester City Council Area  - Borough & City 115. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... , The Wills Memorial Building also known as the Wills Memorial Tower[1][2] is a building situated near the top of Park Street on Queens Road in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... This article is about the English city. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

United States

St. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Woolworth Building, at sixty stories, is one of the oldest — and one of the most famous — skyscrapers in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial in the cathedral: Woodrow Wilson. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - District Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Harkness Tower Harkness Tower is a prominent Gothic structure at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, built from 1917 to 1921. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA New Haven Region South Central Region Settled 1638 Incorporated (city) 1784 Consolidated 1895 Government  - Type Mayor-board of aldermen  - Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lehigh University has many buildings on its three campuses: // Asa Packer Campus Alumni Memorial Building (1925) A Gothic building near the center of campus, it houses the Visitor Center, the Office of Admissions, and the Alumni Association. ... Lehigh University is a private, co-educational university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of the United States. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania Counties Lehigh and Northampton Founded 1741  - Mayor John B. Callahan Area    - City  19. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Duke Chapel Duke Chapel, located at the heart of the campus of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, is an ecumenical Christian chapel and the center of religion at Duke. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Country United States State North Carolina County Durham County Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The church tower Nave The Cathedral of Hope is the home of the East Liberty Presbyterian Church in the East Liberty neighborhood on the east end of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Cathedral of Learning, a local and national landmark[2][3], is the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburghs main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Heinz Memorial Chapel Heinz Memorial Chapel is a landmark building along Bellefield Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Healy Hall amid the autumn foliage Healy Hall is a classroom and office building at Georgetown University. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - District Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... PPG Place is one of the major distinctive and recognizable features of the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania skyline. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... The carillon tower of the Rockefeller Chapel. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The Salt Lake Temple is the largest (of more than 120) and best-known temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,889 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The St. ... Saint Peter Episcopal Church was an early example of the archaeological phase of Gothic Revival architechture, designed by the Philadelphia architect, John Notman. ... Nickname: Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Allegheny Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18, 1816 (city) Government  - Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area  - City 151. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is a public land-grant, space-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... Downtown Clock Tower, housing the restored clock bell from the 1885 courthouse Gainesville is the largest city and county seat of Alachua County, Florida. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Country United States State North Carolina County Durham County Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as City) is a senior college of the City University of New York, in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The University of Richmond is a private, nonsectarian, liberal arts university located on the border of the city of Richmond and Henrico County, Virginia. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college situated in Poughkeepsie, New York. ... Poughkeepsie City of Poughkeepsie Town of Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie, Arkansas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section should include material from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. ... Blacksburgs location within Virgina Virginias location within the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Montgomery Founded 1798 Government  - Mayor Ron Rordam Area  - Town  19. ...

Gothic revival architects

James Piers St Aubyn, an English architect of the Victorian era who was often referred to simply as J P St Aubyn was born at Powick Vicarage, Worcestershire, the home of his maternal grandfather, on 6 April 1815. ... Edmund Thomas Blacket (25 August 1817 – 9 February 1883) was an Australian architect. ... George Frederick Bodley (1827 – 21 October 1907) was an English architect working in the Gothic revival style. ... David Bryce (1803-1876) was a Scottish architect. ... William Burges William Burges (1827-1881) was an English architect and designer with influences which continue today. ... St Mary Brookfield William Butterfield (7 September 1814 – 23 February 1900), born in London, architect of the Gothic revival, and associated with the Oxford Movement (aka the Tractarian Movement). ... Richard Herbert Carpenter was an eminent Victorian architect. ... The parish church at Earl Shilton designed by Richard Cromwell Carpenter. ... Charles Klauder was an American architect known for his work on university buildings. ... Sir John Ninian Comper, (June 10, 1864 – December 22, 1960), was a Scottish architect of church buildings and furnishings. ... Image:Cope. ... Ralph Adams Cram, circa 1890 Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an important American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings, often in the gothic style. ... Lantern and exterior chancel wall at Old South Church in Boston. ... The Federal Customs House (now Federal Hall, New York City, with Ithiel Town, 1833 – 42 Alexander Jackson Davis (A.J. Davis) (New York City July 24, 1803 – January 14, 1892) was the most successful and influential American architect of his generation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Andrew Jackson Downing (born October 31, 1815 - died July 28, 1852) was an American landscape designer and writer from Newburgh, New York and the editor and publisher of The Horticulturist magazine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Watson Fothergill was an architect of the Gothic Revival and Old English vernacular styles between the years 1870 - 1912. ... Thomas Fuller (March 8, 1823-September 28, 1893) was a Canadian architect. ... Frank Heyling Furness (1839 - 1912) was a noted American architect. ... Thomas Garner was a Victorian Arts and Crafts architect, usually mentioned in relation to his twenty year partnership with George Frederick Bodley. ... Goodhue by Lee Lawrie, holding the Rockefeller Chapel, Chicago, Illinois Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (April 28, 1869 - April 23, 1924) was a renowned American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. ... Francis Goodwin (May 23, 1784 - August 30, 1835) was an English architect, best known for his many provincial churches in the Gothic revival style and for his aggressive business methods. ... Charles Francis Hansom was a prominent Roman Catholic Victorian architect who primarily designed in the Gothic Revival style. ... A Hansom cab. ... Considered the father of American Gothic architecture, Charles Donagh Maginnis was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland on January 7, 1867. ... Benjamin Mountfort around 1875. ... John Notman (1810-1865), a well known American Architect, was born in Scotland and educated at the Royal Scottish Academy. ... George Halford Fellowes Prynne was born on April 2nd 1853 at Wyndham Square, Plymouth, Devon. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 - September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... A tribute to Rogers in a Yale residential college James Gamble Rogers (b. ... John Dando Sedding (1838-1891) was a noted Victorian church architect, working on new buildings and repair work, with an interest in a ‘crafted Gothic’ style. ... The chapel of St Johns College, Cambridge is characteristic of Scotts many church designs Sir George Gilbert Scott (July 13, 1811 – March 27, 1878) was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses. ... George Edmund Street (20 June 1824 – 18 December 1881), English architect, was born at Woodford in Essex. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... William Strickland was a noted architect in 19th Century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 - Lausanne 1879) was a French architect, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... William Wilkinson Wardell 1824 - 1899 ASN Co Building , The Rocks, Sydney. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... William White, F.S.A. (1825 - 1900) was an architect, famous for his part in the 19th Century Gothic revival. ... William Pitt (1855-1918) was an architect working in Melbourne, Australia in the later part of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Columbia High School, Maplewood, New Jersey. ... Sanderson Miller (1717-1780) was a pioneer of Gothic revival architecture, and a designer of gardens and garden buildings. ... Imre Steindl (October 29, 1839 – August 31, 1902) was a Hungarian architect. ... Frederick Thomas Pilkington (1832-98), was a Scottish architect, practising in the Victorian High Gothic revival style. ...

Notes

  1. ^ W. D. Robson-Scot, The Literary Background of the Gothic Revival in Germany.
  2. ^ In Montreal, Canada, the earlier neo-Gothic Basilica of Notre Dame (1842) belongs to the Gothic Revival exported from Great Britain.
  3. ^ The choice of the canonized wife of Clovis was especially significant for the Bourbons.
  4. ^ The importance of the Cologne completion project in German-speaking lands has been explored by Michael J. Lewis, The Politics of the German Gothic Revival: August Reichensperger.
  5. ^ What Style Is It?, Poppeliers, et. al., National Trust for Historic Preservation

Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ...

See also

The following is a list of buildings in the Gothic Revival style. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Murder of Przemysław II in Rogoźno by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... Hart House at the University of Toronto designed by Henry Sproatt Gothic Revival architecture in Canada is an historically influential style, with many prominent examples. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Further reading

  • Clark, Sir KennethThe Gothic Revival: An Essay in the History of Taste, 1928. ISBN 0-7195-0233-0
  • Phoebe B Stanton, The Gothic Revival & American Church Architecture; An Episode in Taste, 1840-1856 (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1968) OCLC: 385717 (Worldcat link: [3])
  • Phoebe B Stanton, Pugin (New York, Viking Press 1972, ©1971) ISBN 0670582166 9780670582167 0670582166 0670020214 9780670020218 0670020214
  • Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope, Of knights and spires: Gothic revival in France and Germany, , 1989 ISBN 0614141206
  • Summerson, Sir John, 1948. "Viollet-le-Duc and the rational point of view" collected in Heavenly Mansions and other essays on Architecture.
  • “Le Gothique retrouvé“ avant Viollet-le-Duc. Exhibition, 1979. The first French exhibition concerned with French ne-Gothic.
  • Christian Amalvi, Le Goût du moyen âge, (Paris: Plon), 1996. The first French monograph on French Gothic Revival.
  • Megan Aldrich, Gothic Revival. (London: Phaidon) 1994. The most recent summing-up.
Revival styles in 19th-century architecture
Neo-Classicism: Directoire and EmpireRegencyEgyptian RevivalGreek Revival and Neo-Grec
Neo-Romanesque and Byzantine Revival: Richardsonian Romanesque • Neo-Byzantine • Russo-ByzantineMuscovite Revival
Gothic Revival: Scottish BaronialTudorbethanMoorish Revival • Indo-Saracenic
Neo-Renaissance: ItalianateSecond Empire • Châteauesque • Jacobethan
Neo-Baroque and 18th century: Beaux-ArtsEdwardian BaroqueQueen AnneGeorgian RevivalColonial Revival
Romanticism
18th century - 19th century
Romantic music: Alkan - Beethoven - Berlioz - Brahms - Chopin - Dvořák - Grieg - Liszt - Mahler - Mendelssohn - Puccini - Schubert - Schumann - Tchaikovsky - The Five - Verdi - Wagner
   Romantic poetry: Blake - Burns - Byron - Coleridge - Goethe - Hölderlin - Hugo - Keats - Krasiński - Lamartine - Leopardi - Lermontov - Mickiewicz - Nerval - Novalis - Pushkin - Shelley - Słowacki - Wordsworth   
Visual arts and architecture: Briullov - Constable - Corot - Delacroix - Friedrich - Géricault - Gothic Revival architecture - Goya - Hudson River school - Leutze - Nazarene movement - Palmer - Turner
Romantic culture: Bohemianism - Romantic nationalism
<< Age of Enlightenment Victorianism >>
Realism >>

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Early Victorian Architecture: Overview (2073 words)
Savannah was the architectural center of the state, and the city's rich merchants and businessmen invested their cotton wealth in new residences and commercial buildings of a slightly altered Greek revival style changed to suit narrow city lots.
Decorative Gothic motifs had been added to the state capitol in Milledgeville during the late 1820s, but that did not reflect any widespread use of the pointed arches, asymmetrical ground plans, crenelations, buttresses, steeply pitched roofs and gables, and trellised verandas that were the main characteristics of the style in the 1850s.
Revival style exhibited arches in various forms, a strong monochromatic feel with the use of red brick and terra-cotta, horizontal lines, rusticated stone basements or first floor levels, and various foliate or classical decorative features applied in a restrained fashion.
The Works of Author Adele Kenny (2294 words)
Gothic was known in medieval times as the French Style – an architectural rather than interior style that dominated the Middle Ages from the twelfth century until the fifteenth century Renaissance.
Gothic sculpture was closely linked to Gothic architecture and included statues of the Holy Family and saints that stood in the portals of cathedrals and other church buildings.
Gothic was phased out as the Renaissance took hold, and Classical architecture held sway until the late eighteenth century when “Gothick,” Rococo, and Chinoiserie elements were expressed in romantic, frivolous interpretations that lacked historical accuracy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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