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Encyclopedia > Gospel of Luke
New Testament

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The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. The text narrates the life of Jesus, with particular interest concerning his birth, ministry, death, and resurrection; and it ends with an account of the ascension. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul and part of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, normally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


The author is characteristically concerned with social ethics, the poor, women, and other oppressed groups.[1] Certain well-loved stories on these themes, such as the prodigal son and the good Samaritan, are found only in this gospel. The Gospel also has a special emphasis on prayer, the activity of the Holy Spirit, and joyfulness.[2] D. Guthrie stated, “it is full of superb stories and leaves the reader with a deep impression of the personality and teachings of Jesus. It is perhaps for this reason that for many it is their favourite gospel.[3] The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as The Lost Son is one of the best known parables of Jesus. ... The Good Samaritan The Good Samaritan is a famous New Testament parable, that appears only in the Gospel of Luke (10:25-37). ...


The introductory dedication to Theophilus, 1:1-4 states that "many have undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word", and that the author, "after investigating everything carefully from the very first" has decided likewise to compose an orderly account for Theophilus.[4] Luke intended to write a historical account,[5] bringing out the theological significance of the history.[6] The author's purpose was to portray Christianity as divine, respectable, law-abiding, and international.[1] This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scholarship today is in wide agreement that both the Gospel and Acts have the same author.[7] Likewise, the traditional view of Lukan authorship is “widely held as the view which most satisfactorily explains all the data.”[8] However, there is scholarly division concerning the traditional attribution that the text was written by Luke the companion of Paul (named in Colossians 4:14), division which R. E. Brown characterized as "evenly divided".[9] Most scholars accept the two-source hypothesis and place the composition of Luke between 80 and 90, although a few scholars postulate an earlier date of authorship. The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first...

Contents

Content

Formal introduction


Jesus' birth and boyhood This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Jesus' baptism and temptation According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... The Visitation in the Book of Hours of the Duc of Berry For the David and the Giants album, see Magnificat (album) The Magnificat (also known as the Song of Mary) is a canticle frequently sung (or said) liturgically in Christian church services. ... St. ... The Benedictus (also Song of Zechariah or Canticle of Zachary), given in Luke 1:68-79, is one of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and the Nunc dimittis. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... 11th century Icon of Christ Pantocrator. ... The start of the Nunc dimittis in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry The Nunc dimittis (also Song of Simeon or Canticle of Simeon) is a canticle from a text in the second chapter of Luke (Luke 2:29–32) named after its first words in Latin. ... Depiction of Jesus at age twelve from Jesus and the doctors of the Faith, a painting by the entourage of Giuseppe Ribera. ...


Jesus' ministry in Galilee In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ... Ary Scheffers The Temptation of Christ In Christianity, the temptation of Christ refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the three Synoptic Gospels, specifically at: Matthew 4:1-11 Mark 1:12-13 Luke 4:1-13 According to these texts, after...


Jesus' teaching on the journey to Jerusalem Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. ... New Wine into Old Wineskins is a saying of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew , Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Luke . ... Mark 2 is the second chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... The Sermon on the Plain, said to be by Jesus according to Gospel of Luke 6:17-49, may be compared to the longer Sermon on the Mount. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... Some people unfamiliar with the New Testament claim that the case for female disciples of Jesus is controversial. ... The Parable of the Sower is a parable attributed to Jesus, and found in all of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 4:1-20, Matthew 13:1-23, and Luke 8:1-15) as well as in the Gospel of Thomas (Thomas 9). ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ... Some of the elaborations on the Salt and Light metaphors that Matthew recounts are also paralleled in Luke, but in completely different parts of the narrative, which leads scholars to suspect they originate in the Q document, which is essentially thought to be a collection of quotes with little narrative... Mark 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Jesus healing the man from Gerasa. ... Mark 4 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Feeding of the 5000 redirects here. ... Peters confession refers to St. ... The phrase suck my dick is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to let a woman know how he wants it up the ass. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Mark 9 is the ninth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Mark 9 is the ninth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Mark 9 is the ninth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Jesus' Jerusalem conflicts, crucifixion, and resurrection For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... The Seventy Disciples or Seventy-two Disciples were early followers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke . ... Chorazin was a village in northern Galilee, two and a half miles away from Capernaum and the Sea of Galilee. ... Bethsaida (beth-sā´i-da; Βηθσαΐδά, BeÌ„thsaidá, “house of fishing”) // Bethsaida Julias A city east of the Jordan River, in a “desert place” (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mark 6:32; Luke 9:10). ... Catholic church built over the house of Saint Peter Capernaum (pronounced k-pûrn-m; Hebrew כפר נחום Kefar Nachum, Nahums hamlet) was a settlement on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... The Good Samaritan. From a collection of public domain Christian clip art. ... Mary anoints Jesus in Bethany in this icon. ... Mary anoints Jesus feet in Bethany in this modern Greek icon. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Parable of the Friend at Night (The Sons Request) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... Mark 3 is the third chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Mark 9 is the ninth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ... The discourse on ostentation, Matthew 6, is a section of the Sermon on the Mount, occurring after the antithesis of the Law, but before the discourse on judgementalism, according to the Gospel of Matthew. ... The Woes of the Pharisees is a list of criticisms by Jesus against Scribes and Pharisees and Lawyers that is present in the Gospel of Luke 11:37-54 and Gospel of Matthew 23:1-36. ... The eternal sin (often called the unforgivable sin or unpardonable sin) is a concept of sin in Christian theology, whereby salvation or eternal life with God becomes impossible. ... The Parable of the Rich Fool was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Parable of the Birds of Heaven (The Flowers of the Field) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew and Luke). ... The discourse on ostentation, Matthew 6, is a section of the Sermon on the Mount, occurring after the antithesis of the Law, but before the discourse on judgementalism, according to the Gospel of Matthew. ... The Parable of the Faithful Servant is a parable attributed to Jesus in the Gospels of Mark, of Thomas, of Matthew, and of Luke. ... I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword is one of the controversial statements reported of Jesus in the Bible. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the Sabbath... The parable of the mustard seed is a story by Jesus recorded in the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Mark. ... The Parable of the Leaven was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew and Luke). ... The discourse on holiness forms the concluding part of the Sermon on the Mount, following immediately from the discourse on judgementalism. ... The Parable of the Wedding Feast (or the Marriage of the Kings Son, or the Great Supper) was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew, Luke). ... The Lost Sheep is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Parable of the Lost Coin is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Return of the Prodigy & Havocs Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as the Lost Son, is one of the best known parables of Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Unjust Steward was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The discourse on ostentation, Matthew 6, is a section of the Sermon on the Mount, occurring after the antithesis of the Law, but before the discourse on judgementalism, according to the Gospel of Matthew. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives is a parable[1] attributed to Jesus that is reported only in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 16:19-16:31). ... The Parable of the Master and Servant was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The Unjust Judge is a story found in the Gospel of Luke, 18:1-8. ... The Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Bartimaeus (more accurately Bar Timaeus, Son of Timaeus) is the name given in the Gospel of Mark to a blind man healed by Jesus as he exited Jericho (Mark 10:46-52). ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... The parable of the talents, as depicted in a 1712 woodcut. ...

Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... The parable of The Wicked Husbandmen is a story that, according to the Gospels of Luke (Luke 20:9-19), Mark (Mark 12:1-12), Matthew (Matthew 21:33-46), and Thomas (saying 65-66), was told by Jesus. ... Christ and the tribute by Masaccio “Render unto Caesar…” is a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels. ... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... This article is on the biblical chapter. ... This article is on the biblical chapter. ... A bronze Mite, also known as a Lepton (meaning small), minted by Alexander Jannaeus, King of Judaea, 103 - 76 B.C. obverse: anchor upside-down in circle, reverse: star of eight rays. ... The Olivet discourse or Little Apocalypse is a passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew (24), Mark (13) and Luke (21), occurring just before the narrative of Jesuss passion beginning with the Anointing of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ...

Content summary

The Gospel of Luke tells the story of Jesus' miraculous birth, ministry of healing and parables, passion, and resurrection.


Introduction

Luke is the only gospel with a formal introduction, in which the author explains that many others have already "undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word."[10] The author adds that he too wishes to compose an orderly account for Theophilus, so that he "may know the truth concerning the things about which you have been instructed."[11]


Birth narratives and genealogy

Like Matthew, Luke recounts a royal genealogy and a virgin birth for Jesus. Unique to Luke is John the Baptist's birth story, the census and travel to Bethlehem, the birth in a manger, and a story from Jesus' boyhood.


Miracles and parables

Luke emphasizes Jesus miracles, recounting twenty, four of which are unique. Like Matthew, it includes the Sermon on the Mount and other important sayings. More than a dozen of Jesus' most memorable parables are unique to Luke.


Role of women

More than the other gospels, Luke mentions women as important among Jesus' followers, such as Mary Magdalene


Trials and crucifixion

Luke emphasizes that Jesus had committed no crime against Rome, as confirmed by Herod, Pilate, and the thief crucified with Jesus. In Luke's Passion narrative Jesus prays that God forgive those who crucify him and his assurance to a crucified thief that they will be together in Paradise.


Resurrection appearances

Luke's accounts differ from those in Mark and Matthew. Luke tells the story of two disciples on the road to Emmaus, and (as in John) Jesus appears to the Eleven and demonstrates that he is flesh and blood, not a spirit. Jesus' commission that the Eleven carry his message to all the nations affirms Christianity as a universal religion. The account of Jesus' ascent at the end of Luke is apparently an addition subsequent to the original redaction.


Composition

Contemporary scholars generally conclude that the author, possibly a Gentile Christian, wrote the gospel about 85-90. Most scholars hold the two-source hypothesis as most probable, which argues that the author used the Gospel of Mark and the hypothetical Q document in addition to unique material, as sources for the gospel. The author of Luke is usually agreed to be more faithful to the wording and order of the Q material than was the author of Matthew.[citation needed] As an alternative to the two-source hypothesis, a few scholars hold to the traditional view that Luke is based on Matthew. The two major hypothesis that hold this position are the Griesbach hypothesis and the Augustinian hypothesis. The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... The Griesbach hypothesis is a solution to the synoptic problem which gives priority to the Gospel of Matthew. ... The Augustinian hypothesis holds that Matthew was written first, then Mark, then Luke, and each Evangelist depended on those who preceded him. ...


Like the rest of the New Testament, the gospel was written in Greek. Like Mark (but unlike Matthew), the intended audience is gentile, and it assures readers that Christianity is an international religion, not a Jewish sect. Scholars are divided on whether the author is indeed Paul's physician companion, Luke. Several cities have been proposed as its place of origin with no consensus. [12]


Author

10th century Byzantine illustration of Luke the Evangelist.
10th century Byzantine illustration of Luke the Evangelist.
See also: Acts of the Apostles#Authorship

Early tradition, witnessed by the Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and Tertullian, held that the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles were both written by Luke, a companion of Paul.[13] The oldest manuscript with the start of the gospel (ca. 200) carries the title “the Gospel according to Luke”.[14] Donald Guthrie describes the early Christian testimony concerning the gospel's authorship as in full agreement, although "some scholars attach little importance to it".[15] The claim that the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles were written by the same author is considered by contemporary scholarship to be “almost certain”.[16] The most direct evidence comes from the prefaces of each book. Both prefaces are addressed to Theophilus, possibly although not certainly the author's patron, and the preface of Acts explicitly references "my former book" about the life of Jesus. Furthermore, there are linguistic and theological similarities between the two works, suggesting that they have a common author.[17] Both books also contain common interests.[18] With the agreement of nearly all scholars, Udo Schnelle writes, "The extensive linguistic and theological agreements and cross-references between the Gospel of Luke and the Acts indicate that both works derive from the same author".[19] Those biblical scholars who consider the two books a single, two-volume work often refer to both together as Luke-Acts.[20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1609 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1609 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Dr Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar who wrote several books and worked for the London Bible College, now London School of Theology. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Biblical criticism is a form of historical criticism that seeks to analyze the Holy Bible through asking certain questions of the text, such as; Who wrote it, when was it written, to whom was it written, why was it written, what was the historical, geographical and cultural setting of the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Luke the Evangelist. ...


Given this, the internal evidence of the Acts of the Apostles concerning its author pertains to the authorship of the Gospel. This evidence, especially passages in the narrative where the first person plural is used, points to the author being a companion of Paul.[21] As D. Guthrie put it, of the known companions of Paul, Luke is “as good as any… [and] since this is the traditional ascription there seems no reason to conjecture any other.”[22] There is further evidence from the Pauline Epistles.[23] Paul described Luke as “the beloved physical”, and scholars have long found evidence of technical medical terminology used in both the Gospel and Acts,[24] though this argument has been challenged and it without universal acceptance.


The traditional view of Lukan authorship is “widely held as the view which most satisfactorily explains all the data.”[25] The list of scholars maintaining authorship by Luke the physician is lengthy, and represents scholars from a wide range of theological opinion.[26] But there is no consensus, and the current opinion concerning Lukan authorship has been described as ‘about evenly divided’.[27] on who the author was.


Date

The terminus ad quem or latest possible date for Luke is bound by the earliest papyri manuscripts that contains portions of Luke (3rd century)[28] and the mid to late 2nd century writings that quote or reference Luke. The work is reflected in the Didache, the Gnostic writings of Basilides and Valentinus, the apologetics of the Church Father Justin Martyr, and was used by Marcion.[29] Donald Guthrie states that the Gospel was likely widely known before the end of the first century, and was fully recognized by the early part of the second,[30] while Helmut Koester states that aside from Marcion, "there is no certain evidence for its usage," prior to ca. 150.[31] While some scholars argue for a pre-70 date for when the gospel was written, most scholars place the date ca. 80-90.[32][33] Terminus post quem, (limit after which), Earliest point in time when the text may have been written. ... A New Testament papyrus is a copy of a portion of the New Testament made on papyrus. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Basilides redirects here. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Dr Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar who wrote several books and worked for the London Bible College, now London School of Theology. ... Helmut Koester (born 1926) is a German-born American scholar of the New Testament, and currently Research Professor of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. ...


Before 70

Arguments for a pre-70 date are largely bound up with the complicated arguments concerning the date of the book of Acts, with most proponents arguing for a date around 60-61 for the Gospel.[34] This incorporates the conjecture that Luke collected much of his unique material during the imprisonment of Paul in Caesarea, when Luke attended to him.[35] Acts does not mention Paul’s martyrdom, which occurred some time in the 60s, nor the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecies concerning the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, which occurred in 70. A few scholars who also argue for an early date of First Epistle to Timothy believe 1 Timothy 5:18 is referencing Luke 10:7, and thus argue Luke pre-dates Paul's death.[36] The First Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul and part of the New Testament of the Bible. ...


After 70

In contrast to the traditional view, many contemporary scholars regard Mark as a source text used by the author of Luke, following from the theory of Markan Priority.[37] Since Mark may have been written around the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, around 70, Luke would not have been written before 70. These scholars have suggested dates for Luke from 75 to 100. Support for a later date comes from a number of reasons. One argument is that the references to the Jerusalem temple's destruction are seen as evidence of a post-70 date.[38] The universalization of the message of Luke is believed to reflect a theology that took time to develop. Differences of chronology, "style", and theology suggest that the author of Luke-Acts was not familiar with Paul's distinctive theology but instead was writing a decade or more after his death, by which point significant harmonization between different traditions within Early Christianity had occurred.[39] Furthermore, Luke-Acts has views on christology, eschatology, and soteriology that are similar to the those found in Pastoral epistles, which are often seen as pseudonymous and of a later date than the undisputed Pauline Epistles.[40] The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Marks Gospel as one of their sources. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are those books in the New Testament that are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Debate continues among non-traditionalists about whether Luke was written before or after the end of the 1st century. Those who would date it later argue that it was written in response to heterodoxical movements of the early 2nd century, for example see Gospel of Marcion.[41] Those who would date it earlier point out both that Luke lacks knowledge of the episcopal system, which had been developed in the 2nd century, and that an earlier date preserves the traditional connection of the gospel with the Luke who was a follower of Paul.[citation needed] The Gospel of Marcion or the Gospel of the Lord was a text used by the mid-second century anti-Christian teacher Marcion to the exclusion of the other gospels. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title...


Audience

The consensus is that Luke was written by a Greek or Syrian for gentile/ non-Jewish Christians. The Gospel is addressed to the author's patron, Theophilus, which in Greek simply means Friend of God, and may not be a name but a generic term for a Christian. The Gospel is clearly directed at Christians, or at those who already knew about Christianity, rather than a general audience, since the ascription goes on to state that the Gospel was written "so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught" (Luke 1:3–4).


Manuscripts

See also: Acts of the Apostles#Manuscripts

The earliest manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke are five papyrus fragments dating from the late 2nd century or early 3rd century, one containing portions of all four gospels (P45) and three others preserving only brief passages (P4, P69, P75, P111)[42][43][44]. These early copies, as well as the earliest copies of Acts, date after the Gospel was separated from Acts. The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Papyrus 45 (P45 or I ) is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. ...


Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus are 4th-century codices of the Greek bible that are the oldest manuscripts that contain Luke. Codex Bezae is a 5th- or 6th-century Western text-type manuscript that contains Luke in Greek and Latin versions on facing pages. This text-type appears to have descended from an offshoot of the main manuscript tradition, departing from more familiar readings at many points. Verses 22:19–20 are omitted only in Codex Bezae and a handful of Old Latin manuscripts. Nearly all other manuscripts including Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus and Church Fathers contain the "longer" reading of Luke 22:19 and 20. Verse 22:20, which is very similar to 1 Cor 11:25, provides the only gospel support for the doctrine of the New Covenant. Verses 22:43–44 are found in Western text-type. But they are omitted by a diverse number of ancient witnesses and are generally marked as such in modern translations. See Bruce M. Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament for details. A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis (Gregory-Aland no. ... The Western text-type is a diverse group of manuscripts of the New Testament whose text is similar to that of early Christian writers in Rome and Gaul, including Justin Martyr and Irenaeus. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ...


Relationship with other gospels

According to Farrar, "Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many instances all three use identical language." Mark is widely considered a principal direct source, and Martin Hengel has made the more controversial argument that Luke also made use of Matthew.[45] The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ...


There are 17 parables peculiar to this Gospel. Luke also attributes to Jesus seven miracles which are not present in Matthew or Mark. The synoptic Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel are numbered at 100, then when compared this result is obtained: Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences. That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke describe the same events in similar language. Luke's style is more polished than that of Matthew and Mark with fewer Hebrew idioms. He uses a few Latin words (Luke 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 12:6; and 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, "he is intoxicated"; Lev 10:9), perhaps palm wine. According to Walter Bauer's Greek English Lexicon of the NT, in Aramaic (שכרא) it means barley beer, from the Akkadian shikaru. This Gospel contains 28 distinct references to the Old Testament. // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Walter Bauer (1877 - 17 November 1960) was a scholar of the development of the early Christian churches. ... Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...


Many words and phrases are common to the Gospel of Luke and the Letters of Paul; compare:

The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... (Redirected from 2 Corinthians) See also: First Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistles to the Thessalonians, also known as the Letters to the Thessalonians, are two books from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ...

Luke's writing style

The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is expressed in the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; cf. with Luke 4:18). Luke wrote for the "Hellenistic world". Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ... Luke 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...


Greek

Most scholars believe that the Gospel of Luke was written originally in Greek. The first four verses of Luke are in more formal and refined Greek, which would be meant to be familiar to the elite citizens of the Greco-Roman era. Then the language changes into a style of Greek which is very similar to the Septuagint (the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible). Then the language makes its final change toward the end into a more secular form of 1st-century Greek (called "koine"). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Popular opinion among scholars is to see these variations in writings as the Lukan author's ability to write in different literary styles. This view could be further substantiated by Luke's praise of Theophilus.

It seemed good to me to write it all up for you, most excellent Theophilus, in order that you might recognize the reliability of the instruction you have received. (Luke 1:3–4)

Attention to women

Compared to the other canonical gospels, Luke devotes significantly more attention to women. The Gospel of Luke features more female characters, features a female prophet (2:36), and details the experience of pregnancy (1:41–42).


Prominent discussion is given to the lives of Elizabeth and of Mary, the mother of Jesus (ch. 2). This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


Disputed verses

Textual critics have found variations among early manuscripts and have used principles of textual criticism to tentatively identify which versions are original. Bart D. Ehrman cites two cases where proto-orthodox Christians most likely altered the text in order to prevent its being used to support heretical beliefs.[46]


When Jesus is baptized, many early witnesses attest that Luke's gospel had the Father say to Jesus, "This day I have begotten you." In orthodox texts (and thus in most modern Bibles), this text is replaced by the text from Mark. Ehrman concludes that the original text was changed because it had adoptionist overtones. Adoptionism is a view held by some early medieval Christians, that Jesus was born a human only, and was not divine until his baptism, at which point he was adopted as the Son by God the Father. ...


When Jesus prays in the garden of Gethsemane, the text refers to him being comforted by an angel and sweating drops like blood (verses 43-44 in Luke 22:40-46). These two verses disrupt the literary structure of the scene (the chiasmus), they are not found in all the early manuscripts, and they are the only place in Luke where Jesus is seen to be in agony. Ehrman concludes that they were inserted in order to counter doceticism, the belief that Jesus, as divine, only seemed to suffer. Chiasmus (latinized form of Greek χιασμός, from χίασμα (chiasm), crossing) is a figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Luke the Evangelist. ... The Order of Saint Luke is a religious order in the United Methodist Church dedicated to sacramental and liturgical scholarship, education, and practice. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 105.
  3. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 102.
  4. ^ translation from Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), pp. 116-117.
  5. ^ N. B. Stonehouse, The Witness of Luke to Christ (1951), pp. 24-45; H. J. Cadbury, The Beginnings of Christianity II, 1922, pp. 489-510; R. Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Eerdmans, 2006).
  6. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 107.
  7. ^ Udo Schnelle, The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings, p. 259.
  8. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 119.
  9. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 267-8. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. 
  10. ^ translation from Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), pp. 116-117.
  11. ^ translation from Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), pp. 116-117.
  12. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  13. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), pp. 37-40.
  14. ^ http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/luke.html
  15. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 114.
  16. ^ Horrell, DG, An Introduction to the study of Paul, T&T Clark, 2006, 2nd Ed.,p.7; cf. W. L. Knox, The Acts of the Apostles (1948), p. 2-15 for detailed arguments that still stand.
  17. ^ on linguistics, see A. Kenny, A stylometric Study of the New Testament (1986).
  18. ^ F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (1952), p2.
  19. ^ The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings, p. 259.
  20. ^ E.g., C. Kavin Rowe, "History, Hermeneutics and the Unity of Luke-Acts," JSNT 28 (2005): 131-157, raising questions about the literary unity of Luke-Acts.
  21. ^ M. A. Siotis, ‘Luke the Evangelist as St. Paul’s Collaborator’, in Neues Testament Gesichichte, pp. 105-111.
  22. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 117.
  23. ^ analyzed in detail in Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), pp. 117-118.
  24. ^ e.g. W. K. Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (1882); A. Harnack, Lukas der Arzt (1906.
  25. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 119.
  26. ^ To list just some: I. H. Marshall, Acts (1980), pp. 44-45; F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (1952), pp. 1-6; C. S. C. Williams, The Acts of the Apostles, in Black’s New Testament Commentary (1957); W. Michaelis, Einleitung, pp. 61-64; Bo Reicke, Glaube und Leben Der Urgenmeinde (1957), pp. 6-7; F. V. Filson, Three Crucial Decades (1963), p. 10; M. Dibelius, Studies in the Acts of the Apostles (1956); R. M. Grant, A Historical Introduction to the New Testament (1963), pp. 134-135; B. Gärtner, The Aeropagus Speech and Natural Revelation (1955), W. L. Knox, Sources of the Synoptic Gospels; R. R. Williams, The Acts of the Apostles; E. M. Blaiklock, The Acts of the Apostles, in Tyndale New Testament Commentary (1959), W. Grundmann, Das Evangelium nach Lukas, p. 39.
  27. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 267-8. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. 
  28. ^ P4, P45, P69, P75, and P111
  29. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), pp. 126-126.
  30. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 125.
  31. ^ Helmut Koester. Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1999. p. 334
  32. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 226. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. 
  33. ^ Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Doubleday, 1991, v. 1, pp. 43
  34. ^ A. Harnack, The Date of Acts and the Synoptic Gospels (1911), p. 90; J. A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament, pp. 86-92; I. H. Marshall, Luke, p. 35; A. J. Mattill Jr., ‘The Date and Purpose of Luke-Acts: Rackham reconsidered, in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978), pp. 335-350.
  35. ^ Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Leicester, England: Apollos, 1990), p. 131.
  36. ^ Bragstad, William R. "The Origin of the Gospels" Concordia Theological Quarterly v. 58, No. 4 (October 1994) pp. 288ff
    See also Donald Guthrie's commentary on the Pastoral Epistles ISBN 0802804829
    However, as noted by Bart D. Ehrman p. 385 of The New Testament, most scholars believe 1 Timothy is pseudopigraphical and cannot be used to date Luke before the year 70.
  37. ^ Helmut Koester. Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1999. p. 336
  38. ^ Brown, Schuyler. The origins of Christianity: a historical introduction to the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. p. 24
  39. ^ Brown, Schuyler. The origins of Christianity: a historical introduction to the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. p. 29
  40. ^ Brown, Schuyler. The origins of Christianity: a historical introduction to the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. p. 27
  41. ^ John Knox (not the same as John Knox) in Marcion and the New Testament was the first to propose in 1942 that Marcion's Gospel may have preceded Luke's Gospel and Acts, echoing Marcion's own claims. Some recent scholars have agreed. In this case, Luke's gospel was not finished. There are two possibilities: Either Marcion and Luke both based their gospels on an earlier, common source, or the Gospel of Luke was based on Marcion's gospel. For an example of evidence that may support this view, compare Luke 5:39 to Luke 5:36-38; some scholars question whether Marcion deleted 5:39 from his Gospel or whether it was added later to counteract a Marcionist interpretation of 5:36-38. See also New Wine into Old Wineskins.
  42. ^ [1] See "Bodmer Papyrus" section.
  43. ^ [2] textual discussion of P75
  44. ^ [3] Islamic Awareness. Summarizes dates and contents of numerous NT papyrii.
  45. ^ Martin Hengel. 2000. The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Investigation of the Collection and Origin of the Canonical Gospels. Trans. J. Bowden. London and Harrisburg: SCM and Trinity Press International. Pp. 169-207.
  46. ^ Bart D. Ehrman. Misquoting Jesus.

Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Papyrus 45 (P45 or I ) is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... John Paul Meier is a prominent Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. ... Dr Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar who wrote several books and worked for the London Bible College, now London School of Theology. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... New Wine into Old Wineskins is a saying of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew , Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Luke . ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Online translations of the Gospel of Luke: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Related articles:


This article was originally based on text from Easton Bible Dictionary of 1897 and from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Preceded by
Mark
Books of the Bible Succeeded by
John

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gospel of Luke (4717 words)
Luke had not made full use of the Isaiah 6:9-10 passage in his Gospel, for that was the time of the first visitation of the prophet, and the rejection of that prophet was mitigated by the "ignorance" of the people.
This is not to suggest that Luke saw the preaching of Paul at Rome as being a one-off supernatural fulfillment of the commission, such that it would not have been in the works during the earlier evangelisation or that it could not have continued with other prophets.
Luke's emphasis is on the success of the Christian mission, not the demise of Paul.
USCCB - NAB - Luke - Introduction (755 words)
No gospel writer is more concerned with the role of the Spirit in the life of Jesus and the Christian disciple (Luke 1:35, 41; 2:25-27; 4:1, 14, 18; 10:21; 11:13; 24:49), with the importance of prayer (Luke 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:28; 11:1-13; 18:1-8), or with Jesus' concern for women (Luke 7:11-17, 36-50; 8:2-3; 10:38-42).
Early Christian tradition, from the late second century on, identifies the author of this gospel and of the Acts of the Apostles as Luke, a Syrian from Antioch, who is mentioned in the New Testament in Col 4:14, Philemon 24 and 2 Tim 4:11.
The prologue of the gospel makes it clear that Luke is not part of the first generation of Christian disciples but is himself dependent upon the traditions he received from those who were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word (Luke 1:2).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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