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Encyclopedia > Gospel of John
New Testament

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The Gospel of John (literally, According to John; Greek, Κατὰ Ἰωάννην, Kata Iōannēn) is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. Like the three synoptic gospels, it contains an account of some of the actions and sayings of Jesus, but differs from them in ethos and theological emphases. The Gospel appears to have been written with an evangelistic purpose, primarily for Greek-speaking Jews who were not believers:[1] "these are written so that you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name"(John 20:30-31). A second purpose was to counter criticisms or unorthodox beliefs of Jews, John the Baptist's followers, and those who believed Jesus was only spirit and not flesh.[2] Gospel of John may refer to: The Gospel of John (film), a 2004 film adaptation of the Gospel of John. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Described by William Barclay as the Queen of the Epistles, the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. ... The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, normally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John), written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of...


Of the four gospels, John presents the highest Christology, describing him as the Logos who is the Arche (a Greek term for "existed from the beginning" or "the ultimate source of all things"), teaching at length about his identity as savior, and possibly declaring him to be God.[3] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... In Christology, the conception that the Christ is the Logos (the Greek for word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ...


Compared to the Synoptic Gospels, John focuses on Jesus' mission to bring the Logos ("Word", "Wisdom", "Reason" or "Rationality") to his disciples. Only in John does Jesus talk at length about himself, including a substantial amount of material Jesus shared with the disciples only. Certain elements of the synoptics (such as parables, exorcisms, and possibly the Second Coming) are not found in John. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ...


Since "the higher criticism" of the 19th century, historians have questioned the gospel of John as a reliable source of information about the historical Jesus.[4][5] J. D. G. Dunn comments: "few scholars would regard John as a source for information regarding Jesus' life and ministry in any degree comparable to the Synoptics".[6] Most scholars regard the work as anonymous,[7][8][9] and date it to 90–100. The higher criticism is a name given to critical studies of the Bible that treat it as a text created by human beings at a particular historical time and for various human motives, in contrast with the treatment of the Bible as the inerrant word of God. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ...

Contents

Narrative summary (structure and content of John)

Gospel of John

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After the prologue (1:1–5), the narrative of the gospel begins with verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) relates Jesus' public ministry from the time of his baptism by John the Baptist to its close. In this first part, John emphasizes seven of Jesus' miracles, always calling them "signs." The second part (ch. 13–21) presents Jesus in dialogue with his immediate followers (13–17) and gives an account of his Passion and Crucifixion and of his appearances to the disciples after his Resurrection (18–20). In Chapter 21, the "appendix", Jesus restores Peter after his denial, predicts Peter's death, and discusses the death of the "beloved disciple". John 1 is the first chapter in the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... John 2 is the second chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... John 3 is the third chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... John 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of John of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... John 8 is the eigth chapter in the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... 13:1 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. ... John 14 is the fourteenth chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... John 15 is the fifteenth chapter in the Gospel of John in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... John 17 is a chapter in the Gospel of John. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... John 20 is the twentieth chapter of the Gospel of John in the Bible. ... John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Raymond E. Brown, a scholar of the Johannine community, labelled the first and second parts the "Book of Signs" and the "Book of Glory", respectively.[10] Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ...


The major events covered by the Gospel of John include:

Hymn to the Word

Book of Signs, Seven Signs In Christology, the conception that Jesus Christ is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ...

Book of Glory, Last Teachings and Death For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For the band, see Lamb of God (band). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... In the Christian New Testament, the Gospel of John refers a number of times to a town called Cana of Galilee. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... John 3:16 (chapter 3, verse 16 of the Gospel of John) is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... John 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of John of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ... The Feeding of the 5000 redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Walk on Water . ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ... The Desposyni (from Greek (desposynos) of or belonging to the master or lord[1]) was a sacred name reserved for the blood relatives of Jesus mentioned in Mark 3:21 and Mark 3:31. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Christ with the Woman Taken in Adultery, by Guercino, 1621 (Dulwich Art Gallery). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about the visual condition. ... The 5th-century Ravenna mosaic illustrating the parable. ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ... Resurrection of Lazarus by Juan de Flandes, around 1500. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... Jesus wept (Greek: ἐδάκρυσεν ὁ ἰησοῦς; Vulgate: Et lacrimatus est Iesus) is a phrase famous for being the shortest verse in the Christian New Testament according to the division of chapters and verses of the Bible. ... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... For other uses, see Son of man (disambiguation). ... Judgment Day redirects here. ...

For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... St Peter redirects here. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The The Vine was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (John). ... This article is about prayer in the New Testament. ... That they all may be one is a phrase that forms the basis of several ecumenical movements and united and uniting denominational traditions. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio. ... John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ... The Catch of 153 fish is an episode in the appendix of the Gospel of John, in which seven of the Twelve Apostles were out fishing when they unexpectedly witness one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ...

Date and authorship

El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...

Authorship

A series of articles on

"John" in the Bible

Johannine literature
Gospel of John · First Epistle of John · Second Epistle of John · Third Epistle of John · Revelation · Authorship Johannine literature is the collection of New Testament works that are attached by tradition to the person of John the Evangelist. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John), written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...

Names
John the Apostle · Disciple whom Jesus loved  · John the Presbyter · John the Evangelist · John of Patmos ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ... For the mythical king, see Presbyter John John the Presbyter is an obscure figure in early Christian tradition, who is either distinguished from, or identified with, the Apostle John. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ...

Communities
Twelve Apostles · The Early Church Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ...

Related Literature
Apocryphon of John · Egerton Gospel · Homosexual reading · Logos · Signs Gospel The Secret Book of John (Apocryphon of John)[1] is a second-century Sethian gnostic text of secret teachings. ... The Egerton Gospel (British Library Egerton Papyrus 2) refers to a group of fragments of a codex of a previously unknown gospel, found in Egypt and sold to the British Museum in 1934; the physical fragments are now dated to the very end of the 2nd century AD, although the... Since the 16th century, some have interpreted the relationship between Jesus and John the Apostle, the Disciple whom Jesus loved as an erotic, homosexual romance. ... In Christology, the conception that Jesus Christ is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

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The authorship has been disputed since at least the second century, with mainstream Christianity traditionally holding that the author was John the Apostle, son of Zebedee. Several other authors have historically been suggested, including Papias, John the Presbyter and Cerinthus, though many apologetic Christian scholars still hold to the conservative view that ascribes authorship to John the Apostle. Most modern experts conclude the author to be an unknown non-eyewitness.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2805 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2805 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... St John the Evangelist, imagined by Jacopo Pontormo, ca 1525 (Santa Felicita, Florence) John the Evangelist (d. ... Annunciation with St Emidius (1486) 207x146,5 cm National Gallery, London Carlo Crivelli (c. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... For the mythical king, see Presbyter John John the Presbyter is an obscure figure in early Christian tradition, who is either distinguished from, or identified with, the Apostle John. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ...


The text itself is unclear about the issue. John 21:20–25 contains information that could be construed as autobiographical. Conservative scholars generally assume that first person "I" in verse 25, the disciple in verse 24 and the disciple whom Jesus loved (also known as the Beloved Disciple) in verse 20 are the same person;[12][13] they further identify all three descriptors with the Apostle John through a combination of external and internal evidence.[14] Critics point out that the abrupt shift from third person to first person in vss. 24–25 indicates that the author of the epilogue, who is supposed a third-party editor, claims the preceding narrative is based on the Beloved Disciple's testimony, while he himself is not the Beloved Disciple.[15][16] The phrase disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John. ...


Ancient testimony is similarly conflicted. Attestation of Johannine authorship can be found as early as Irenaeus.[14] Eusebius wrote that Irenaeus received his information from Polycarp, who is said to have received it from the Apostles directly.[14] Charles E. Hill argues that there is a solid early orthodox tradition of authorship: the tradition that an apostle of Jesus wrote the Gospel and can be attested to as early as the first two decades of the second century, and there are many Church Fathers in the remainder of the second century that ascribe the text to John the Apostle.[17] Martin Hengel and Jorge Frey similarly argue for John the Presbyter as the author of the text.[citation needed] Hill goes on to propose that Ignatius, Polycarp, Papias’ elders, and Hierapolis' Exegesis of the Lord’s Oracles possibly all quote from the Gospel of John. Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... Martin Hengel is a German scholar of Religious Studies, focusing on the Second-Temple Period or Hellenistic Period of Judaism, which (roughly) encompasses 200 BCE to 200 CE. This period of Judaism, characterized above all by diversity and identity-formation, includes early Christianity and the field known as Christian Origins. ... For the mythical king, see Presbyter John John the Presbyter is an obscure figure in early Christian tradition, who is either distinguished from, or identified with, the Apostle John. ... Ignatius of Antioch (probably died AD 107) was the third patriarch of Antioch, after Saint Peter and Euodius, who died around AD 68. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... The theatre Hierapolis (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is an ancient Syrian town occupying one of the finest sites in Northern Syria, in a fertile district about 16 miles southwest of the confluence of the Sajur and Euphrates. ...


Epiphanius, however, takes note of an Early Christian sect, the Alogi, who believed the Gospel was actually written by one Cerinthus, a second-century Gnostic.[18] Corroborating this evidence is a quotation by Eusebius of Caesarea (History of the Church 7.25.2) in which Dionysius of Alexandria (mid-third century) claims that the Apocalypse of John (known commonly as the Book of Revelation), but not the Gospel of John, was believed by some before him (7.25.1) to also have been written by Cerinthus. This discussion of the Alogi represents the only instance in which both the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John were specifically attributed to Cerinthus.[18] Hill asserts that, at that time, the Gospel of John was never attributed to Cerinthus by the established orthodoxy; that Eusebius was only stating a theory that he had heard; and that Eusebius himself believed the Gospel to have been written by the Apostle John.[19] Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... The Alogi were a group of heretics to the Christian church in the second century. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Dionysius served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Church and the Orthodox Church of Alexandria) between 248 and 264. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Starting in the 19th century, critical scholarship has further questioned the apostle John's authorship, arguing that the work was written decades after the events it describes. The critical scholarship argues that there are differences in the composition of the Greek within the Gospel, such as breaks and inconsistencies in sequence, repetitions in the discourse, as well as passages that clearly do not belong to their context, and these suggest redaction.[20] Redaction Criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte, or Redaktionstheologie. ...


Raymond E. Brown, a biblical scholar who specialized in studying the Johannine community, summarizes a prevalent theory regarding the development of this gospel.[21] He identifies three layers of text in the Fourth Gospel (a situation that is paralleled by the synoptic gospels): 1) an initial version Brown considers based on personal experience of Jesus; 2) a structured literary creation by the evangelist which draws upon additional sources; and 3) the edited version that readers know today (Brown 1979). Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... The Synoptic Gospels are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke. ...


Among scholars, Ephesus in Asia Minor is a popular suggestion for the gospel's origin.[2]


Date

Most scholars agree on a range of c. 90–100 for when the gospel was written, though dates as early as the 60s or as late as the 140s have been advanced by a small number of scholars. Justin Martyr quoted from the gospel of John, which would also support that the Gospel was in existence by at least the middle of the second century,[22] and the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, which records a fragment of this gospel, is usually dated between 125 and 160 CE.[23] Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... John Rylands Library Papyrus P52, recto The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St Johns fragment, is a papyrus conserved at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, UK. The front (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, in Greek, and the back (verso) contains...


The traditional view is supported by reference to the statement of Clement of Alexandria that John wrote to supplement the accounts found in the other gospels (Eusibius, Ecclesiastical History, 6.14.7). This would place the writing of John's gospel sufficiently after the writing of the synoptics. Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...


Conservative scholars consider internal evidences, such as the lack of the mention of the destruction of the temple and a number of passages that they consider characteristic of an eye-witness (John 13:23ff, 18:10, 18:15, 19:26–27, 19:34, 20:8, 20:24–29), sufficient evidence that the gospel was composed before 100 and perhaps as early as 50–70. Barrett suggests an earliest date of 90, based on familiarity with Mark’s gospel, and the late date of a synagogue expulsion of Christians (which is a theme in John).[24] Morris suggests 70, given Qumran parallels and John’s turns of phrase, such as "his disciples" vs. "the disciples".[25] John A.T. Robinson proposes an initial edition by 50–55 and then a final edition by 65 due to narrative similarities with Paul.[26] After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai relocated to the city of Yavne/Jamnia and founded a school of Jewish law there, becoming a major source for the later Mishna. ... Dr John Arthur Thomas Robinson (1919 in Canterbury, England–December 5, 1983) was a New Testament scholar, author, and former Anglican bishop of Woolwich, England. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


There are critical scholars who are of the opinion that John was composed in stages (probably two or three), beginning at an unknown time (50–70?) and culminating in a final text around 95–100. This date is assumed in large part because John 21, the so-called "appendix" to John, is largely concerned with explaining the death of the "beloved disciple", supposedly the leader of the Johannine community that would have produced the text. If this leader had been a follower of Jesus, or a disciple of one of Jesus' followers, then a death around 90–100 is reasonable. John 21 provides the only Biblical information about Peters death, traditionally held to have been by crucifixion. ...


Textual history and manuscripts

The Rylands Papyrus is the earliest manuscript fragment found of John's Gospel; dated to about 125.
The Rylands Papyrus is the earliest manuscript fragment found of John's Gospel; dated to about 125.

The earliest known manuscripts of the New Testament is a fragment from John, Rylands Library Papyrus P52. A scrap of papyrus roughly the size of a business card discovered in Egypt in 1920 (now at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, accession number P52) bears parts of John 18:31–33 on one side and John 18:37–38 on the other. Most texts list the date of this manuscript to c. 125.[27] The difficulty of fixing the date of a fragment based solely on paleographic evidence allows for a range of dates that extends from before 100 to well into the second half of the second century. P52 is small, and although a plausible reconstruction can be attempted for most of the fourteen lines represented, nevertheless the proportion of the text of the Gospel of John for which it provides a direct witness is necessarily limited, so it is rarely cited in textual debate.[28] Other notable early manuscripts include Papyrus 66 and Papyrus 75. The recto of the parchement P52 from the Gospel of John This work is copyrighted. ... The recto of the parchement P52 from the Gospel of John This work is copyrighted. ... John Rylands Library Papyrus P52, recto The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St Johns fragment, is a papyrus conserved at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, UK. The front (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, in Greek, and the back (verso) contains... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... John Rylands Library Papyrus P52, recto The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St Johns fragment, is a papyrus conserved at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, UK. The front (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, in Greek, and the back (verso) contains... The John Rylands Library (inaugurated October 1899) is a collection of historic books and manuscripts in Manchester, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Papyrus 75 (P75, Papyrus Bodmer XIV-XV) is an early New Testament papyrus. ...


Much current research on the textual history of the Gospel of John is being done by the International Greek New Testament Project.


Source criticism

Further information: Source criticism

Source criticism is the practice of deducing an author's or redactor's sources, especially in Biblical criticism. Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ...


Signs gospel

In 1941 Rudolf Bultmann suggested[29] that the author of John depended in part on an oral miracles tradition or manuscript account of Christ's miracles that was independent of, and not used by, the synoptic gospels. This hypothetical "Signs Gospel" is alleged to have been circulating before 70. Its traces can be seen in the remnants of a numbering system associated with some of the miracles that appear in the Gospel of John: all of the miracles that are mentioned only by John occur in the presence of John; the "signs" or semeia (the expression is uniquely John's) are unusually dramatic; and they are accomplished in order to call forth faith (see John 12:37). These miracles are different both from the rest of the "signs" in John, and from the miracles in the synoptic gospels, which occur as a result of faith. Bultmann's conclusion that John was reinterpreting an early Hellenistic tradition of Jesus as a wonder-worker, a "magician" within the Hellenistic world-view, was so controversial that heresy proceedings were instituted against him and his writings. (See more detailed discussions linked below.) Rudolf Karl Bultmann (August 20, 1884 - July 30, 1976) was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ...


Egerton gospel

The mysterious Egerton Gospel appears to represent a parallel but independent tradition to the Gospel of John. According to scholar Ronald Cameron, it was originally composed some time between the middle of the first century and early in the second century, and it was probably written shortly before the Gospel of John.[30] Robert W. Funk, et al, places the Egerton fragments in the 2nd century, perhaps as early as 125, which would make it as old as the oldest fragments of John.[31] The Egerton Gospel (British Library Egerton Papyrus 2) refers to a group of fragments of a codex of a previously unknown gospel, found in Egypt and sold to the British Museum in 1934; the physical fragments are now dated to the very end of the 2nd century AD, although the... Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926-September 3, 2005), was founder of the controversial Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ...


Characteristics of the Gospel of John

The Gospel of John is easily distinguished from the three Synoptic Gospels, which share a considerable amount of text. John omits about 90% of the material in the synoptics. The synoptics describe much more of Jesus' life, miracles, parables, and exorcisms. However, the materials unique to John are notable, especially in their effect on modern Christianity. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus teaching. ...


Christology

John portrays Jesus Christ as "a brief manifestation of the eternal Word, whose immortal spirit remains ever-present with the believing Christian."[32] The gospel gives far more focus to the mystical relation of the Son to the Father. Many have used his gospel for the development of the concept of the Trinity while the Synoptic Gospels focused less directly on Jesus as the Son of God. John includes far more direct claims of Jesus being the only Son of God than the Synoptic Gospels. The gospel also focuses on the relation of the Redeemer to believers, the announcement of the Holy Spirit as the Comforter (Greek Paraclete), and the prominence of love as an element in the Christian character. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ...


Some critics have maintained that the opening Hymn to the Word declares that the Logos is "god" or "a god" (Greek: theos, without the article) and was with "God" (Greek: pros ton theon), but not that the Logos is God (Greek: ho theos).[33] The translators of the New International Version (and Today's New International Version), the New American Standard Bible, the Amplified Bible, the New Living Translation, the King James Version, Young's Literal Translation, the Darby Translation, and the Wycliffe New Testament, to name a few, all disagree with these critics. In Christology, the conception that the Christ is the Logos (the Greek for word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ...


Jews

The Gospel’s treatment of the role of the Jewish authorities in the Crucifixion has given rise to allegations of anti-Semitism. The Gospel often employs the title "the Jews" when discussing the opponents of Jesus. The meaning of this usage has been the subject of debate, though critics of the “anti-Semitic” theory cite that the author most likely considered himself Jewish and was probably speaking to a largely Jewish community. Hence it is argued that "the Jews" properly refers to the Jewish religious authorities (see: Sanhedrin), and not the Jewish people as a whole. It is because of this controversy that some modern English translations, such as Today's New International Version, remove the term "Jews" and replace it with more specific terms to avoid anti-Semitic connotations, citing the above argument. Most critics of these translations, conceding this point, argue that the context (since it is obvious that Jesus, John himself, and the other disciples were all Jews) makes John's true meaning sufficiently clear, and that a literal translation is preferred. For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history of Christianity and anti-Semitism. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Todays New International Version is an English translation of the Bible developed by the Committee on Bible Translation, or CBT. The CBT is the same organization that translated the New International Version (NIV) in the 1970s. ...


Other critics go further, arguing that the text displays a shift in emphasis away from the Roman provincial government, which actually carried out the execution, and to the Jewish authorities as a technique used to render a developing Christianity more palatable in official circles. Nevertheless, these passages have been historically used by some Christian groups to justify the persecution of Jews.


Gnostic elements

Though not commonly understood as Gnostic, John has elements in common with Gnosticism.[34] Gnostics must have read John because it is found with Gnostic texts. The root of Gnosticism is that salvation comes from gnosis, secret knowledge. The nearly five chapters of the "farewell discourses" (John 13, 18) Jesus shares only with the Twelve Apostles. Jesus pre-exists birth as the Word (Logos). This origin and action resemble a gnostic aeon (emanation from God) being sent from the pleroma (region of light) to give humans the knowledge they need to ascend to the pleroma themselves. John's denigration of the flesh, as opposed to the spirit, is a classic Gnostic theme. Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... For the geologic time, see eon (geology). ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ...


It has been suggested that similarities between John's Gospel and Gnosticism may spring from common roots in Jewish Apocalyptic literature.Kovacs, Judith L. (1995).[35] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Differences from the Synoptic Gospels

See also: Omissions in the Gospel of John

John is significantly different from the Synoptic Gospels in many ways. Some of the differences are: There are several episodes, characters and themes in the Synoptic Gospels that are omitted in the Gospel of John. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ...

  • The Gospel of John contains 4 visits by Jesus to Jerusalem, each with a Passover celebration. This chronology suggests Jesus' public ministry lasted 3 years. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus makes one trip to Jerusalem in time for the Passover observance.
  • The Kingdom of God is only mentioned twice in John (3:3–5). In contrast, the other gospels repeatedly use the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven as important concepts. John's Jesus claims a kingdom of his own, not of this world: 18:36. See also New Covenant (theology).
  • John does not contain any parables, that is poetic stories each illustrating a single message or idea.[36] Rather it contains metaphoric stories or allegories, such as The Shepherd and The Vine, in which each individual element corresponds to a specific group or thing. The UBS Greek New Testament[37] titles John 10:1–6 as "The Parable of the Sheepfold", but John 10:7 continues as a metaphor: "I am the gate".
  • The saying "He who has ears, let him hear" is absent from John.
  • The healings of demon-possessed people are never mentioned as in the Synoptics.
  • The Synoptics contain a wealth of stories about Jesus' miracles and healings, but John does not have as many of those stories; John tends to elaborate more heavily on its stories than do the Synoptics.
  • Major synoptic speeches of Jesus are absent, including all of the Sermon on the Mount and the Olivet discourse and the instructions that Jesus gave to his disciples when he sent them out throughout the country to heal and preach (as in Matthew 10 and Luke 10). Instead the major speeches according to John are at the Sea of Galilee 6:22–71, the temple 7:14–8:59, and the last supper 13–17.
  • Jesus driving the money changers from the temple appears near the beginning of the work. In the Synoptics this occurs late in Jesus' ministry.
  • Most of the action in John takes place in Iudaea Province and Jerusalem; only a few events occur in Galilee, and of those, only the feeding of the multitude (6:1–16) and the trip across the Sea of Galilee (6:17–21) are also found in the Synoptics.
  • According to the New American Bible[38], the story of the adultress (John 8:1–11) is missing from the best early Greek manuscripts. When it does appear it is at different places: here, after John 7:36 or at the end of this gospel. It can also be found after Luke 21:38.
  • The crucifixion of Jesus is recorded as Nisan 14 (19:14), the day of preparation for the Passover, about noon, in contrast to the synoptic Nisan 15. The difference led to schism in the early church (see Quartodecimanism). This would mean there were two sabbath days between Jesus' crucifixion and the morning of his resurrection as the Passover festival had additional Sabbaths.[citation needed]
  • The earthquake and the darkening of the sky, prominent in the Synoptics, are missing.
  • Jesus does not utter eschatological prophecies.

Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... The 5th-century Ravenna mosaic illustrating the parable. ... The The Vine was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (John). ... A Bible society is a non-profit organization (usually ecumenical Protestant in makeup) devoted to translating, publishing and distributing the Bible for free or at subsidized low cost. ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Olivet discourse or Little Apocalypse is a passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew (24), Mark (13) and Luke (21), occurring just before the narrative of Jesuss passion beginning with the Anointing of Jesus. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... In 1970, the New American Bible (NAB) was first published. ... The Pericope Adulteræ (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; Latin for the passage of the adulterous woman) is the name traditionally given to verses 7:53–8:11 of the Gospel of John, which describe the attempted stoning by Pharisees of an accused adulterous woman, and Jesus defense of her. ... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... Crucifixion eclipse refers to a three-hour period of darkness that was reported by the synoptic gospels of the Christian Bible to have occurred during the Crucifixion of Jesus. ... Look up Eschatology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Characteristics unique to John

  • The Apostle Thomas is given a personality beyond a mere name, as "Doubting Thomas" (John 20:27 etc).
  • Jesus refers to himself with "εγω ειμι" "I am" seven times (John 6:35) (John 8:12) (John 10:9) (John 10:11) (John 11:25) (John 14:6) (John 15:1), beyond the common meaning, Trinitarians see this as an allusion to Exodus 3:14 and thus a claim to divinity, i.e. God the Son. John Shelby Spong argues that the "I Am" statements are not self-reflexive on Jesus, but refer to "I Am" as a name of God.[citation needed]
  • In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus refuses to give any sign that he is the messiah, which is known as the Messianic Secret, for example Mark 8:11–12. In the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke, only the Sign of Jonah will be given (Matthew 12:38–39, 16:1–4, Luke 11:29–30). The Gospel of John on the other hand has Jesus providing many signs, such as 2:11 and 2:18–19 and 12:37.
  • Each "sign" corresponds to one of the metaphoric "εγω ειμι" "I am" sayings (John 6:1–11) (John 9:1–11) (John 5:2–9) (John 11:1–45) (John 4:46–54) (John 2:1–11) For example, the multiplication of bread corresponds to "I am the bread of life"
  • Two "signs" are numbered—"the first sign," (John 2:11), and "the second sign," (John 4:54)—but there are two other signs that occur in between these. Scholars conclude that this strange numbering occurs because John had access to a source, probably written, that consisted of the "signs" of Jesus in some numbered order. In between the first and second signs found in John's "Sign source", known as the Signs Gospel, John added his own, but did not account for his additions by numbering.
  • There are no stories about Satan, demons or exorcisms, no predictions of end times, though there is mention of the Last Day (6:39–40, 6:44, 6:54, 11:24, 12:48), no Sermon on the Mount, no ethical teachings such as the Expounding of the Law other than Love one another (13:31–35), or apocalyptic teachings other than perhaps 15:18–16:4.
  • The hourly time is given: Greek text: about the tenth hour, translated as "four o'clock in the afternoon" [first hour is 6 a.m., sundial time] (John 1:39)
  • When the water at the Pool of Bethesda is moved by an angel it heals (John 5:3–4)
  • Jesus washes the disciples' feet (John 13:3–16)
  • At Chapter 13 there is the description of the Last Supper but, unlike the Synoptic Gospels (Mat 26:26–29; Mar 14:22–26, Luke 22:14–20) there is no formal institution of the Eucharist, whereas the prediction of Judas' betrayal is amply reported (13:21–32).
  • No other women are mentioned going to the tomb with Mary Magdalene. (John 20:1)
  • Mary Magdalene visits the empty tomb twice. She believes Jesus' body has been stolen. The second time she sees two angels. They do not tell her Jesus is risen. They only ask why she is crying. Mary mistakes Jesus for the gardener. He tells Mary not to touch or cling to him. (John 20:17). About a week later (some translations give "eight days later"), in the same chapter (John 20:28), Jesus asks Thomas to touch him and to place his fingers and hand in Jesus' still open wounds. At the sight of Jesus, Thomas gives an exclamation of faith but if he follows Jesus' direction, it is not in the text.
  • Some of the brethren thought the disciple whom Jesus loved would not die, and an explanation is given for his death. (John 21:23)
  • The "disciple whom Jesus loved" wrote down things he had witnessed, and his testimony is asserted by a third party to be true (John 21:24)
  • The beloved disciple (traditionally believed to be the Apostle John) is never named.
  • When speaking, prior to his message, Jesus says "verily" twice, (25 times, starting with 1:51, 3:3, 3:5… Hebrew amen, see also Amen), rather than just once as in the Synoptic Gospels.
  • Jesus carried his own cross (19:17); in the synoptics the cross was carried by Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21, Matthew 27:32, Luke 23:26).

Subscript text == Headline text ==dfgdfgdsfgfdgdf Insert non-formatted text here Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... The Trinitarians are an order of monks founded at Rome in 1198 by St. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... John Shelby Spong (born 16 June 1931 in Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.) is the retired Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Newark (based in Newark, New Jersey). ... Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... In certain passages of the New Testament, notably in the Gospel of Mark, Jesus commands his followers not to reveal to others that he is the Messiah. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... Exorcism is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities which are supposed to have possessed (taken control of) a person or object. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... For other uses, see Apocalypse (disambiguation). ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Bethesda was originally the name of a pool in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This is a sub-article of Death of Jesus. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion: And as they came...

Critical scholarship on the differences between John and the synoptics

Since the advent of critical scholarship, John's historical importance has been considered less significant than the synoptic traditions by some scholars. The scholars of the 19th century concluded that the Gospel of John had little historical value. Over the next two centuries scholars such as Bultmann and Dodd looked closer and began finding historically important parts of John. Many scholars today believe that parts of John represent an independent historical tradition from the synoptics, while other parts represent later traditions.[39] The scholars of the Jesus Seminar still assert that there is little historical value in John, and consider nearly every Johannine saying of Jesus to be nonhistorical.[40] However, most scholars agree that John is a very important document on Christian theology. The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about 200 New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk and John Dominic Crossan under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ...


History

John was written somewhere near the end of the first century, probably in Ephesus, in Anatolia. The tradition of John the Apostle was strong in Anatolia, and Polycarp of Smyrna reportedly knew him. Like the previous gospels, it circulated separately until Irenaeus proclaimed all four gospels to be scripture. For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Polycarp of Smyrna (69?-155?, 80?-166?, 81?-167?, 79?-165?, or 70?-156?) was a Christian bishop of Smyrna (now in Asiatic Turkey) in the second century. ...


In the early church, John's reference to Jesus as the eternal Logos was a popular definition of Jesus, defeating the rival view that Jesus had been born a man but had been adopted as God's Son. The gospel's description of Jesus' divinity was fundamental to the developing doctrine of the Trinity. Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


In the second century, Montanus of Phrygia launched a movement in which he claimed to be the Paraclete promised in John. Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Jerome translated John into its official Latin form, replacing various older translations. For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


Although very much in line with many stories in the Synoptic Gospels and probably primitive (the Didascalia Apostolorum definitely refers to it and it was probably known to Papias), the Pericope Adulterae is not part of the original text of the Gospel of John.[41] The evidence for this view does not convince all scholars.[42] Didascalia Apostolorum (or just Didascalia) is the title of a treatise which pretends to have been written by the Apostles at the time of the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15), but is really a composition of the third century. ... Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... The Pericope Adulteræ (pur-IC-op-ee uh-DUL-ter-igh), meaning the passage of the adulterous woman in Latin, is the name traditionally given to verses 7:53–8:11 of the Gospel of John, which is usually referred to in English as the woman taken in adultery. Text...


When Bible criticism developed in the 19th century, John came under increasing criticism as less historically reliable than the synoptics.


See also

The Egerton Gospel (British Library Egerton Papyrus 2) refers to a group of fragments of a codex of a previously unknown gospel, found in Egypt and sold to the British Museum in 1934; the physical fragments are now dated to the very end of the 2nd century AD, although the... John 3:16 (chapter 3, verse 16 of the Gospel of John) is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. ... Christ with the Woman Taken in Adultery, by Guercino, 1621 (Dulwich Art Gallery). ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of John is a 2003 movie that is the story of Jesus life as recounted by the Gospel of John. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... That they all may be one is a phrase that forms the basis of several ecumenical movements and united and uniting denominational traditions. ...

References

  1. ^ Colin G. Kruse, The Gospel According to John: An Introduction and Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), page 21. ISBN 0802827713
  2. ^ a b Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  3. ^ A detailed technical discussion can be found in Raymond E. Brown, "Does the New Testament call Jesus God?" Theological Studies 26 (1965): 545–73
  4. ^ Gospel of Saint John, in Catholic Encyclopedia
  5. ^ "In particular, the fourth Gospel, which does not emanate or profess to emanate from the apostle John, cannot be taken as an historical authority in the ordinary meaning of the word. The author of it acted with sovereign freedom, transposed events and put them in a strange light, drew up the discourses himself, and illustrated 22 great thoughts by imaginary situations. Although, his work is not altogether devoid of a real, if scarcely recognisable, traditional element, it can hardly make any claim to be considered an authority for Jesus’ history; only little of what he says can be accepted, and that little with caution. On the other hand, it is an authority of the first rank for answering the question, What vivid views of Jesus’ person, what kind of light and warmth, did the Gospel disengage?" Adolf von Harnack [1]
  6. ^ James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans (2003), page 165
  7. ^ Harris, Stephen L.. Understanding the Bible: a reader's introduction, 2nd ed. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. page 302.
  8. ^ Delbert Burkett, An Introduction to the New Testament and the Origins of Christianity, Cambridge University Press, (2002), page 215.
  9. ^ F. F. Bruce, The Gospel of John, Eerdmans (1994), page 1.
  10. ^ Studies in John
  11. ^ Brown, Raymond Edward; Paul J Achtemeier (1978). Mary in the New Testament. New York: Paulist Press, p. 198. ISBN 0809121689. 
  12. ^ A Historical Introduction to the New Testament
  13. ^ Bible.org: Exegetical Commentary on John 21
  14. ^ a b c Bible.org: The Gospel of John: Introduction, Argument, Outline
  15. ^ The Gospel of John
  16. ^ Gospel of John
  17. ^ Hill, Charles E. (2004). The Johannine Corpus in the Early Church. Oxford University Press, p. 473. ISBN 9780199291441. 
  18. ^ a b Panarion 51.3.1–6
  19. ^ Charles E. Hill. The Johannine Corpus in the Early Church Oxford Press p.[citation needed] ISBN 978-0199291441
  20. ^ Ehrman 2004, p. 164–5
  21. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997). Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 363–4. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. 
  22. ^ Justin Martyr NTCanon.org. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
  23. ^ Nongbri, Brent, 2005. "The Use and Abuse of P52: Papyrological Pitfalls in the Dating of the Fourth Gospel." Harvard Theological Review 98:23–52.
  24. ^ Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to St. John., p.127–128
  25. ^ Morris, L. The Gospel According to John p.59
  26. ^ Robinson, J. A. T. Redating the Gospels, pp. 284, 307
  27. ^ by Bruce M. Metzger (1992). The text of the New Testament: its transmission, corruption, and restoration. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press, p.56. ISBN 0-19-507297-9. 
    • Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland. The Text of the New Testament an Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, p.99. ISBN 0-8028-4098-1. 
  28. ^ Tuckett, p. 544; http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/ManuscriptsPapyri.html#P52; http://www.historian.net/P52.html.
  29. ^ Das Evangelium des Johannes, 1941 (translated as The Gospel of John: A Commentary, 1971)
  30. ^ Ronald Cameron, editor. The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel Texts, 1982
  31. ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. page 543.
  32. ^ Harris, Stephen L.. Understanding the Bible: a reader's introduction, 2nd ed. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. page 304.
  33. ^ Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4; See also Raymond E. Brown's Commentary on the Gospel of John.
  34. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  35. ^ Now Shall the Ruler of This World Be Driven Out: Jesus’ Death as Cosmic Battle in John 12:20–36. Journal of Biblical Literature 114(2), 227–247.
  36. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Parables. Retrieved on 2008-02-1.
  37. ^ edited by Kurt Aland, Bruce M. Metzger and other scholars
  38. ^ Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, 1970
  39. ^ Brown 1997, p. 362–364
  40. ^ Jesus Seminar
  41. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  42. ^ "If it is not an original part of the Fourth Gospel, its writer would have to be viewed as a skilled Johannine imitator, and its placement in this context as the shrewdest piece of interpolation in literary history!" The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text with Apparatus: Second Edition, by Zane C. Hodges (Editor), Arthur L. Farstad (Editor) Publisher: Thomas Nelson; ISBN-10: 0840749635

Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926-September 3, 2005), was founder of the controversial Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament scholar and an expert on early Christianity. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Kurt Aland (born 28 March 1915 in Berlin-Steglitz; died 13 April 1994 in Münster, Westfalen) was a German Theologian and Professor of New Testament Research and Church History. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ...

Further reading

  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-515462-2. 
  • Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel According to John Anchor Bible, 1966, 1970
  • Raymond E. Brown, The Community of the Beloved Disciple Paulist Press, 1979
  • Robin M. Jensen, The Two Faces of Jesus, Bible Review October 2002, p42
  • J.H. Bernard & A.H. McNeile, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary On The Gospel According To St. John. Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1953.
  • Robert Murray M'Cheyne Bethany – Discovering Christ's Love in Times of Suffering When Heaven Seems Silent, (a study of John 12) Diggory Press, ISBN 978-1846857027

Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament scholar and an expert on early Christianity. ... John Henry Bernard (27 July 1860 - 1927) was, from 1902 onwards, Dean of St. ... Robert Murray MCheyne, in an illustration from his biography Robert Murray MCheyne ( 1813 - 1843) was a minister in the Church of Scotland from 1835 to 1843. ...

External links

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Gospel of John

Online translations of the Gospel of John: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

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Preceded by
Gospel of Luke
Books of the Bible Succeeded by
Acts
The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament, written by the prophet Haggai. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Megillah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Book of Baruch. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Susanna and the Elders by Artemisia Gentileschi Susanna or Shoshana (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Egyptian loan: lily) is considered apocryphal by Protestants, but is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children, omitted from Protestant Bibles as an apocryphal addition, is a lengthy passage Daniel 3, that would come between verses 23 and 24 in Protestant Bibles. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Bel The tale of Bel and the Dragon is from chapter 14 of the Book of Daniel. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... For other uses of Judith, see Judith (disambiguation). ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... Odes () is a book of the Bible found only in Eastern Orthodox Bibles and included or appended after Psalms in Alfred Rahlfs critical edition of the Septuagint. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Described by William Barclay as the Queen of the Epistles, the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. ... The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, normally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John), written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... For the Jewish canon, see Development of the Jewish Bible canon. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... A folio from P46, early 3rd c. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... The Bible comprises 24 books for Jews, 66 for Protestants, 73 for Catholics, and 78 for most Orthodox Christians. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... Wisdom literature is the a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East. ... A major prophet is a book in the Major Prophets section of the Christian Old Testament in the Bible. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ... St. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... Wyclifs Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English, that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wyclif. ... The Tyndale Bible generally refers to the body of biblical translations by William Tyndale. ... King James Version redirects here. ... There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dynamic and formal equivalence. ... Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence are two approaches to translation. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America Version (JPS) of the Jewish Bible (i. ... The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in the mid-20th century. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible. ... The Amplified Bible (AMP) is an English translation of the Bible produced jointly by The Zondervan Corporation and The Lockman Foundation. ... In 1970, the New American Bible (NAB) was first published. ... The New English Bible (NEB) was a fresh translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts (with some Latin in the Apocrypha); with the New Testament being published in 1961, and the Old Testament, along with the Apocrypha, being published in 1970. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible. ... The Living Bible (TLB) is an English version of the Bible by American publisher and author Kenneth Taylor released in 1971. ... The Good News Translation (GNT) as it is known in North America, or the Good News Bible (GNB) as it is known in the rest of the world, is an English language translation of the Bible by the American Bible Society, first published (as Good News for Modern Man) in... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... The New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible published in 1985. ... The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, released in 1989, is a thorough revision of the Revised Standard Version (RSV). ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses of the abbreviation, please see NLT (disambiguation). ... This article describes the paraphrase of the Holy Bible. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... Among Christians, the Muratorian fragment is known as a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of New Testament books that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous compiler. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... New Testament manuscripts are categorized into five groups. ... Authors of the Bible are listed by book of the Bible, comparing the writer according to Christian tradition with what current scholarship proposes. ... 1. ... Several texts are mentioned in the Bible, yet do not appear in the canon. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 A.D. which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early christian church. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
from jesus to christ: the story of the storytellers: the gospel of john (2205 words)
John's gospel is forcing us, dramatically at least, through the storytelling mode, to think of Jesus as a passover lamb.
John's gospel is witness to a Christianity that's moving farther and father away from Jewish tradition.
That is, the Gospel of John constructs the speeches of Jesus in an effort to interpret traditional sayings of Jesus.
The Gospel of John and the Hellenization of Jesus (2870 words)
John is distinct from the Synoptic Tradition because of the nature of the transformation of Jesus.
John's Jesus is preparing their proper place and it is on his timetable, not theirs, and in due course he will let them know when it is ready.
John's Jesus acts as the Mithraic communicator in the heavens (where Jesus was born and lives) and has Jesus promise to send the Holy Spirit as the vehicle for such a heavenly bonding (16:7).
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