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Encyclopedia > Gospel

In Christianity, a gospel (from Old English, "good news") is generally one of four canonical books of the New Testament that describe the birth, life, ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus. These books are the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, written between 65 and 100 AD.[1] More generally, the term refers to works of a genre of Early Christian literature[2]. It originally meant the "glad tidings" of redemption.[3] Gospel may refer to: Gospel, accounts of the life or teachings of Jesus Gospel (liturgy), readings from the Gospels in liturgical use Gospel music Gospel: a novel by Wilton Barnhardt One-Pound Gospel, manga The Gospel, 2005 film Godspell, 1971 play and broadway musical, later adapted to film (see Godspell... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


The first canonical gospel written is Mark (c 65-70), which in turn was used as a source for the gospels of Matthew and Luke.[1] Matthew and Luke may have also used the hypothetical Q source[1] These first three gospels are called the synoptic gospels because they share a similar view.[1] The last gospel, the gospel of John, presents a very different picture of Jesus and his ministry from the synoptics.[1] The canonical gospels were originally written in Greek.[1] The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ...


The synoptic gospels are the source of many popular stories, parables, and sermons, such as Jesus' humble birth in Bethlehem, the Sermon on the Mount, the Beatitudes, the Last Supper, and the Great Commission. John provides a theological description of Jesus as the eternal Word, the unique savior of humanity. All four attest to his Sonship, miraculous power, crucifixion, and resurrection. The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ...


Other gospels circulated in early Christianity. Some, such as the Gospel of Thomas, lack the narrative framework typical of a gospel.[3] These gospels are later than the canonical gospels, though in the case of Thomas, scholarship is divided on this point. The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ...

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This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Seventy Disciples or Seventy-two Disciples were early followers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke . ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ...

Etymology

The word gospel derives from the Old English god-spell (rarely godspel), meaning "good tidings" or "good news". It is a calque (word-for-word translation) of the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, euangelion (eu- "good", -angelion "message"). The Greek word "euangelion" is also the source of the term "evangelist" in English. The authors of the four canonical Christian gospels are known as the four evangelists. Old English redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Before the first gospel was written (Mark, c 65-70)[1], Paul the Apostle used the term εὐαγγέλιον "gospel" when he reminded the people of the church at Corinth "of the gospel I preached to you" (1 Corinthians 15.1). Paul averred that they were being saved by the gospel, and he characterized it in the simplest terms, emphasizing Christ's appearances after the Resurrection (15.3 – 8): St. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial. ...

...that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried; and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures; And that he was seen of Cephas; then of the Twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once: of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some have fallen asleep. After that he was seen of James, then of all the apostles. Last of all, he was seen of me also, as one born out of due time. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... St Peter redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure...

The earliest extant use of εὐαγγέλιον "gospel" to denote a particular genre of writing dates to the 2nd century. Justin Martyr (c. 155) in 1 Apology 66 wrote: "...the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels". Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...


Henry Barclay Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, pages 456-457 states: Henry Barclay Swete (Bristol, March 14, 1835-Hitchin1917) was an English Biblical scholar. ...

Εὐαγγέλιον in the LXX occurs only in the plural, and perhaps only in the classical sense of 'a reward for good tidings' (2 Sam 4:10 [also 18:20, 18:22, 18:25-27, 2 Kings 7:9]); in the N.T. it is from the first appropriated to the Messianic good tidings (Mark 1:1, 1:14), probably deriving this new meaning from the use of εὐαγγελίζεσθαι in Isa 40:9, 52:7, 60:6, 61:1.

In the New Testament, the "gospel" meant the proclamation of God's saving activity in Jesus of Nazareth, or the agape message proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth. This is the original New Testament usage (for example Mark 1:14-15 or 1 Corinthians 15:1-9; see also Strong's G2098). The word is still used in this sense. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... AgapÄ“ (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Canonical Gospels

Of the many gospels written in antiquity, only four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament, or canonical. An insistence upon there being a canon of canonical four, and no others, was a central theme of Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 185. In his central work, Adversus Haereses Irenaeus denounced various early Christian groups that used only one gospel, such as Marcionism which used only Marcion's version of Luke, or the Ebionites which seem to have used an Aramaic version of Matthew as well as groups that embraced the texts of newer revelations, such as the Valentinians (A.H. 1.11). Irenaeus declared that the four he espoused were the four Pillars of the Church: "it is not possible that there can be either more or fewer than four" he stated, presenting as logic the analogy of the four corners of the earth and the four winds (3.11.8). His image, taken from Ezekiel 1, of God's throne borne by four creatures with four faces—"the four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and the four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle"—equivalent to the "four-formed" gospel, is the origin of the conventional symbols of the Evangelists: lion, bull, eagle, man. Irenaeus was ultimately successful in declaring that the four gospels collectively, and exclusively these four, contained the truth. By reading each gospel in light of the others, Irenaeus made of John a lens through which to read Matthew, Mark and Luke. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... St. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... The Gospel of Marcion or the Gospel of the Lord was a text used by the mid-second century anti-Christian teacher Marcion to the exclusion of the other gospels. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... -Quevedo Valentinius, also called Valentinus (c. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in...


By the turn of the 5th century, the Catholic Church in the west, under Pope Innocent I, recognized a biblical canon including the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, which was previously established at a number of regional Synods, namely the Council of Rome (382), the Synod of Hippo (393), and two Synods of Carthage (397 and 419).[4] This canon, which corresponds to the modern Catholic canon, was used in the Vulgate, an early 5th century translation of the Bible made by Jerome[5] under the commission of Pope Damasus I in 382. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Saint Innocent I, pope (402 - 417), was, according to his biographer in the Liber Pontificalis, the son of a man called Innocent of Albano; but according to his contemporary Jerome, his father was Pope Anastasius I, whom he was called by the unanimous voice of the clergy and laity to... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Council of Rome was a... The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 A.D. which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early christian church. ... Synods of Carthage During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ...

The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark is the second in the familiar sequence of the New Testament Gospels, as they were established by Jerome and appear in many but not all early manuscripts of complete gospels, and as they are commonly printed. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ...

Origin of the canonical Gospels

Main article: Synoptic problem

The dominant view today is that Mark is the first Gospel, with Matthew and Luke borrowing passages both from that Gospel and from at least one other common source, lost to history, termed by scholars 'Q' (from German: Quelle, meaning "source"). This view is known as the "Two-Source Hypothesis". John was written last and shares little with the synoptic gospels. The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first...


The general consensus among biblical scholars is that all four canonical Gospels were originally written in Greek, the lingua franca of the Roman Orient. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Dating

Estimates for the dates when the canonical Gospel accounts were written vary significantly; and the evidence for any of the dates is scanty. Because the earliest surviving complete copies of the Gospels date to the 4th century and because only fragments and quotations exist before that, scholars use higher criticism to propose likely ranges of dates for the original gospel autographs. Scholars variously assess the consensus or majority view as follows: As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ...

  • Mark: c. 68–73,[6] c 65-70[1]
  • Matthew: c. 70–100.[6] c 80-85.[1] Some conservative scholars argue for a pre-70 date, particularly those that do not accept Mark as the first gospel written.
  • Luke: c. 80–100, with most arguing for somewhere around 85,[6], c 80-85[1]
  • John: c 90-100,[1] c. 90–110,[7] The majority view is that it was written in stages, so there was no one date of composition.

Traditional Christian scholarship has generally preferred to assign earlier dates. Some historians interpret the end of the book of Acts as indicative, or at least suggestive, of its date; as Acts does not mention the death of Paul, generally accepted as the author of many of the Epistles, who was later put to death by the Romans c. 65.[citation needed] Acts is attributed to the author of the Gospel of Luke, and therefore would shift the chronology of authorship back, putting Mark as early as the mid 50s. Here are the dates given in the modern NIV Study Bible (for a fuller discussion see Augustinian hypothesis): Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Augustinian hypothesis holds that Matthew was written first, then Mark, then Luke, and each Evangelist depended on those who preceded him. ...

New Testament People

Full list • New Testament    v  d  e  This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...

  • Mark: c. 50s to early 60s, or late 60s
  • Matthew: c. 50 to 70s
  • Luke: c. 59 to 63, or 70s to 80s
  • John: c. 85 to near 100, or 50s to 70

Location

Matthew was probably written in Syria, perhaps in Antioch,[1] an ancient Christian center. Mark has traditionally been associated with Peter's preaching in Rome, and it is well-suited to a Roman audience.[1] Various cities have been proposed for the origin of Luke, but there is no consensus on the matter. Ephesus is a popular scholarly choice for the place of origin for the Gospel of John.[1]


Content of the Gospels

The four gospels present different narratives, reflecting different intents on the parts of their authors.[8]


All four gospels portray Jesus as leading a group of disciples, performing miracles, preaching in Jerusalem, being crucified, and rising from the dead.


The synoptic gospels represent Jesus as an exorcist and healer who preached in parables about the coming Kingdom of God. He preached first in Galilee and later in Jerusalem, where he cleansed the temple. He states that he offers no sign as proof (Mark) or only the sign of Jonah (Matthew and Luke).[9] In Mark, apparently written with a Roman audience in mind, Jesus is a heroic man of action, given to powerful emotions, including agony.[1] In Matthew, apparently written for a Jewish audience, Jesus is repeatedly called out as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy.[1] In Luke, apparently written for gentiles, Jesus is especially concerned with the poor.[1] Luke emphasizes the importance of prayer and the action of the Holy Spirit in Jesus' life and in the Christian community.[10] He appears as a stoic supernatural being, unmoved even by his own crucifixion.[11] Luke insists that salvation offered by Christ is for all, and not the Jews only.[12]


The Gospel of John represents Jesus as an incarnation of the eternal Word (Logos), who spoke no parables, talked extensively about himself, and did not explicitly refer to a Second Coming.[1] Jesus preaches in Jerusalem, launching his ministry with the cleansing of the temple.[1] He performs several miracles as signs, most of them not found in the synoptics.


Non-canonical gospels

In addition to the four canonical gospels there have been other gospels that were not accepted into the canon. Generally these were not accepted due to doubt over the authorship, the time frame between the original writing and the events described, or content that was at odds with orthodoxy. For example, if a gospel claimed to be written by James, yet was authored in the second century, clearly authorship was not authentic. This differs from the four canonical gospels which historians agree were authored before 100. For this reason, most of these non-canonical texts were only ever accepted by small portions of the early Christian community. Some of the content of these non-canonical gospels (as much as it deviates from accepted theological norms) is considered heretical by the leadership of mainstream churches, including the Vatican. In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ...


Two non-canonical gospels that are considered to be among the earliest in composition are the sayings Gospel of Thomas and the narrative Gospel of Peter. The dating of the Gospel of Thomas is particularly controversial, as a minority of scholars[attribution needed] date it to before the writing of the canonical gospels. Like the canonical gospels, scholars have to rely on higher criticism, not extant manuscripts, in order to roughly date Thomas. The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ... The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ...


A genre of "Infancy gospels" (Greek: protoevangelion) arose in the 2nd century, such as the Gospel of James, which introduces the concept of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas (not to be confused with the absolutely different sayings Gospel of Thomas), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus that are not included in the canonical gospels, but which have passed into Christian lore. Several surviving infancy gospels give an idea of the miracle literature that was created in the early Christian church to satisfy the hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of their Savior. ... The Gospel of James, also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James, is an apocryphal Gospel probably written about AD 150. ... The Perpetual Virginity of Mary is a Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of faith which states that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus. ... The Infancy Gospel of Thomas is a non-canonical Christian text that was part of a popular genre of the 2nd and 3rd centuries— a miracle literature of Infancy gospels that was both entertaining and inspirational, written to satisfy a hunger for more miraculous and anecdotal stories of the childhood...


Another genre that has been suppressed is that of gospel harmonies, in which the apparent discrepancies in the canonical four gospels were selectively recast to present a harmoniously consistent narrative text. Very few fragments of harmonies survived. The Diatessaron was such a harmonization, compiled by Tatian around 175. It was popular for at least two centuries in Syria, but eventually it fell into disuse. Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... Tatian was an early Assyrian[1] Christian writer and theologian of the second century. ...


Marcion of Sinope, c. 150, had a version of the Gospel of Luke which differed substantially from that which has now become the standard text. Marcion's version was far less Jewish than the now canonical text, and his critics alleged that he had edited out the portions he didn't like from the canonical version, though Marcion argued that his text was the more genuinely original one. Marcion also rejected all the other gospels, including Matthew, Mark and especially John, which he alleged had been forged by Irenaeus. Marcion of Sinope (ca. ...


The existence of private knowledge, briefly referred to in the canon, and particularly in the canonical Gospel of Mark, is part of the controversy surrounding the unexpectedly discovered Secret Gospel of Mark. The Secret Gospel of Mark refers to a non-canonical gospel which is the subject of the Mar Saba letter, a previously unknown letter attributed to Clement of Alexandria which Morton Smith claimed to have found transcribed into the endpapers of a 17th century printed edition of Ignatius. ...


The Gospel of Judas is another controversial and ancient text that purports to tell the story of the gospel from the perspective of Judas, the apostle who betrayed Jesus. It paints an unusual picture of the relationship between Jesus and Judas. The text was recovered from a cave in Egypt by a thief and thereafter sold on the black market until it was finally discovered by a collector who, with the help of academics from Yale and Princeton, were able to verify its authenticity. The document itself does not claim to have been authored by Judas (it is, rather, a Gospel about Judas), and dates no earlier than the second century. The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel. ...


Islamic view of gospels

Main article: Injil

In Islam, the word 'gospel' refers to the revelation given by God to the prophet Isa (Jesus). The Islamic view is that the four canonical gospels are not the same revelation that was received by Jesus. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Look up isa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Muslims believe that both Moses & Jesus received earlier revelations and divine scripture consistent with the original message from Prophet Abraham. However, they believe that these original divine scriptures were corrupted over time through mistranslation and editing.


See also

Christianity Portal

Roman Catholic image of Jesus Christ as the Sacred Heart - no copyright This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... List of Gospels // Gospel of John, canonical Gospel of Judas Gospel of Luke, canonical Gospel of Mark, canonical Gospel of Matthew, canonical Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Peter Gospel of Mary Gospel of Bartholomew New Testament apocrypha Category: ... Agrapha (Greek for non written) - sayings of Jesus that are not to be found in the canonical Gospels. ... Godspell is a 1970 play by John-Michael Tebelak. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells The Four Evangelists are the four followers of Jesus to whom are ascribed the writings forming the four Gospels of the New Testament: the Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. ... The Four Gospels may refer to one of the following. ... The Bodmer Papyri are a group of twenty-two papyri found in 1952 at Pabau near Dishna, Egypt, the ancient headquarters of the Pachomian order of monks; the discovery site is not far from Nag Hammadi. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ Peter Stuhlmacher, ed., Das Evangelium und die Evangelien, Tübingen 1983, also in English: The Gospel and the Gospels
  3. ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, unspecified article
  4. ^ Pogorzelski, Frederick (2006). Protestantism: A Historical and Spiritual Wrong Way Turn. Bible Dates 1. CatholicEvangelism.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  5. ^ Canon of the New Testament. Catholic Encyclopedia. NewAdvent.com (1908). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  6. ^ a b c Raymond E. Brown. An Introduction to the New Testament.
  7. ^ C K Barrett, among others.
  8. ^ Ehrman. Misquoting Jesus.
  9. ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
  10. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Luke, Gospel of St
  11. ^ Ehrman. Misquoting Jesus.
  12. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Luke, Gospel of St

Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Tübingen, Neckar front Tübingen, a traditional university town of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 20 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between the River Neckar and the Ammer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926-September 3, 2005), was founder of the controversial Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ...

External links

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament, written by the prophet Haggai. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Megillah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Book of Baruch. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Susanna and the Elders by Artemisia Gentileschi Susanna or Shoshana (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Egyptian loan: lily) is considered apocryphal by Protestants, but is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children, omitted from Protestant Bibles as an apocryphal addition, is a lengthy passage Daniel 3, that would come between verses 23 and 24 in Protestant Bibles. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Bel The tale of Bel and the Dragon is from chapter 14 of the Book of Daniel. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... For other uses of Judith, see Judith (disambiguation). ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... Odes () is a book of the Bible found only in Eastern Orthodox Bibles and included or appended after Psalms in Alfred Rahlfs critical edition of the Septuagint. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Described by William Barclay as the Queen of the Epistles, the Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. ... The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, normally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John), written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... For the Jewish canon, see Development of the Jewish Bible canon. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... A folio from P46, early 3rd c. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... The Bible comprises 24 books for Jews, 66 for Protestants, 73 for Catholics, and 78 for most Orthodox Christians. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... Wisdom literature is the a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East. ... A major prophet is a book in the Major Prophets section of the Christian Old Testament in the Bible. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ... St. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... Wyclifs Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English, that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wyclif. ... The Tyndale Bible generally refers to the body of biblical translations by William Tyndale. ... King James Version redirects here. ... There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dynamic and formal equivalence. ... Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence are two approaches to translation. ... The Jewish Publication Society of America Version (JPS) of the Jewish Bible (i. ... The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in the mid-20th century. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible. ... The Amplified Bible (AMP) is an English translation of the Bible produced jointly by The Zondervan Corporation and The Lockman Foundation. ... In 1970, the New American Bible (NAB) was first published. ... The New English Bible (NEB) was a fresh translation of the Bible into modern English directly from the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts (with some Latin in the Apocrypha); with the New Testament being published in 1961, and the Old Testament, along with the Apocrypha, being published in 1970. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible. ... The Living Bible (TLB) is an English version of the Bible by American publisher and author Kenneth Taylor released in 1971. ... The Good News Translation (GNT) as it is known in North America, or the Good News Bible (GNB) as it is known in the rest of the world, is an English language translation of the Bible by the American Bible Society, first published (as Good News for Modern Man) in... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... The New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible published in 1985. ... The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, released in 1989, is a thorough revision of the Revised Standard Version (RSV). ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses of the abbreviation, please see NLT (disambiguation). ... This article describes the paraphrase of the Holy Bible. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... Among Christians, the Muratorian fragment is known as a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of New Testament books that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous compiler. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... New Testament manuscripts are categorized into five groups. ... Authors of the Bible are listed by book of the Bible, comparing the writer according to Christian tradition with what current scholarship proposes. ... 1. ... Several texts are mentioned in the Bible, yet do not appear in the canon. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 A.D. which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early christian church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // In... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas Theology and Practice Messiah · Yeshua · Dance · Seal Religious Texts Messianic Bible translations Movement leaders & Orgs. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Parallels between Christianity and Buddhism have been noted across the ages by scholars but are now being more widely appreciated as individuals search accessible Buddhist scriptures in ancient and modern languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Since the... Christianity and astrology are seen as incompatible by modern orthodox Christian teachings (Christian doctrine). ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gospel and Gospels (3950 words)
Gospel was yet applied to the glad tidings of salvation, and not to the written accounts thereof.
Gospels, is the "Gospel according to the Hebrews".
Gospel by means of the second part of the Book of the Acts, by a study of the doctrinal contents of the Epistles of St.
Proclaiming the Gospel to the Catholic in bondage to Catholicism with Mike (230 words)
Proclaiming the Gospel to the Catholic in bondage to Catholicism with Mike
Proclaiming The Gospel Ministries was established in 1991 to serve and glorify the Lord Jesus Christ by proclaiming His death and resurrection as God's only provision whereby sinners can be forgiven, redeemed and justified.
According to God's word this is another gospel that leaves Catholics with a false hope.
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