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Encyclopedia > Gorilla
Gorilla[1]
Western Gorilla(Gorilla gorilla)
Western Gorilla
(Gorilla gorilla)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Gorillini
Genus: Gorilla
I. Geoffroy, 1852
Type species
Troglodytes gorilla
Savage, 1847
distribution of Gorilla
distribution of Gorilla
Species

Gorilla gorilla
Gorilla beringei A gorilla is a primate, a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... Download high resolution version (800x812, 211 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gorilla User:Raul654/favpics Disneys Animal Kingdom User:Bwmodular/Sandbox Categories: Primate images ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (December 16, 1805 - November 10, 1861) was a French zoologist and an authority on deviation from normal structure. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Thomas Staughton Savage (1804-1880) was an American protestant clergyman, missionary, physician and naturalist. ... Image File history File links Gorilla_distribution4. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ...

Gorillas, the largest of the living primates, are ground-dwelling herbivores that inhabit the forests of Africa. Gorillas are divided into two species and (still under debate as of 2008) either four or five subspecies. The DNA of gorillas is 97%–98% identical to that of a human,[2][3] and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the two chimpanzee species. Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ...


Gorillas live in tropical or subtropical forests. Although their range covers a small percentage of Africa, gorillas cover a wide range of elevations. The Mountain Gorilla inhabits the Albertine Rift montane cloud forests of the Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in altitude from 2225 to 4267 m (7300-14000 ft). Lowland Gorillas live in dense forests and lowland swamps and marshes as low as sea level. The Albertine Rift montane forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of central Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christiaan Toussaint (born on May 20, 1987) and Jurgen Lomp (born on January 23, 1988) are two promosing Tech Trance producers under the name of Virunga. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...

Contents

Etymology

The American physician and missionary Thomas Staughton Savage first described the Western Gorilla (he called it Troglodytes gorilla) in 1847 from specimens obtained in Liberia. The name was derived from the Greek word Gorillai (a "tribe of hairy women") described by Hanno the Navigator, a Carthaginian navigator and possible visitor (circa 480 BC) to the area that later became Sierra Leone.[4] Thomas Staughton Savage (1804-1880) was an American protestant clergyman, missionary, physician and naturalist. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ...


Classification

Western Lowland Gorilla
Western Lowland Gorilla

Until recently there were considered to be three gorilla species: the Western Lowland Gorilla, the Eastern Lowland Gorilla and the Mountain Gorilla. There is now agreement that there are two species with two subspecies each. More recently it has been claimed that a third subspecies exists in one of the species. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3078x2046, 4845 KB) Western Lowland Gorilla Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo July, 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorilla Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3078x2046, 4845 KB) Western Lowland Gorilla Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo July, 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorilla Metadata This file...


Primatologists continue to explore the relationships between various gorilla populations.[5] The species and subspecies listed here are the ones upon which most scientists agree.[1] Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ...

The proposed third subspecies of Gorilla beringei, which has not yet received a trinomen, is the Bwindi population of the Mountain Gorilla, sometimes called the Bwindi Gorilla. Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Trinomial name Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Savage, 1847) The Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is a subspecies of the Western Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) that lives in montane, primary, and secondary forests and lowland swamps throughout all or parts of Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo... Trinomial name Gorilla gorilla diehli (Matschie, 1904) The Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) is a subspecies of the Western Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) that can be found on the border between Nigeria and Cameroon, in both tropical and subtropical broadleaf forests. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Trinomial name Gorilla berengei berengei Matschie, 1914 The Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei[1]) is one of two species of Eastern Gorillas. ... Trinomial name Gorilla beringei graueri (Matschie, 1914) The Eastern Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) is a subspecies of Eastern Gorilla that is now only found in the forests of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... In zoology, a trinomen, or trinominal name, refers to the name of a subspecies. ... The Bwindi Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei), found only in the rain forests of the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest comprises half the worlds endangered population of about 600 Mountain Gorillas. ...


Physical characteristics

Gorilla knucklewalking, Cincinnati Zoo
Gorilla knucklewalking, Cincinnati Zoo

Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking. Adult males range in height from 165-175 cm (5 ft 5 in – 5 ft 9 in), and in weight from 140–200 kg (310–440 lb). Adult females are often half the size of a silverback, averaging about 140 cm (4 ft 7 in) tall and 100 kg (220 lb). Occasionally, a silverback of over 183 cm (6 ft) and 225 kg (500 lb) has been recorded in the wild. However, obese gorillas in captivity have reached a weight of 270 kg (600 lb).[6] Gorillas have a facial structure which is described as mandibular prognathism, that is, their mandible protrudes farther out than the maxilla. Gorilla Cincinnati Zoo File links The following pages link to this file: User:Bwmodular/Sandbox Categories: GFDL images | Primate images ... Gorilla Cincinnati Zoo File links The following pages link to this file: User:Bwmodular/Sandbox Categories: GFDL images | Primate images ... Located in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States, opened in 1875. ... Gorillas knuckle-walk using both their legs and their long arms (putting pressure on their knuckles, with the fingers rolled into the hand). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Prognathism. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ...


The Eastern Gorilla is more darkly colored than the Western Gorilla, with the Mountain Gorilla being the darkest of all. The Mountain Gorilla also has the thickest hair. The Western Lowland Gorilla can be brown or grayish with a reddish forehead. In addition, gorillas that live in lowland forests are more slender and agile than the more bulky Mountain Gorilla.[7]


Almost all gorillas share the same blood type (B)[8] and, like humans, have individual finger prints.[9] This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ...


Behavior

Group life

A silverback gorilla
A silverback gorilla

A silverback is an adult male gorilla, typically more than 12 years of age and named for the distinctive patch of silver hair on his back. A silverback gorilla has large canine teeth that come with maturity. Black backs are sexually mature males of up to 11 years of age.


Silverbacks are the strong, dominant troop leaders. Each typically leads a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. Younger males called blackbacks may serve as backup protection.


Males will slowly begin to leave their original troop when they are about 11 years old, traveling alone or with a group of other males for 2–5 years before being able to attract females to form a new group and start breeding. While infant gorillas normally stay with their mother for 3–4 years, silverbacks will care for weaned young orphans, though never to the extent of carrying the little gorillas.

Gorilla with young, Bronx Zoo
Gorilla with young, Bronx Zoo

If challenged by a younger or even by an outsider male, a silverback will scream, beat his chest, break branches, bare his teeth, then charge forward. Sometimes a younger male in the group can take over leadership from an old male. If the leader is killed by disease, accident, fighting or poachers, the group will split up, as the animals disperse to look for a new protective male. Very occasionally, a group might be taken over in its entirety by another male. There is a strong risk that the new male may kill the infants of the dead silverback. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (632x842, 320 KB) Female Gorilla with young, in captivity at the Bronx Zoo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (632x842, 320 KB) Female Gorilla with young, in captivity at the Bronx Zoo. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ...


Food and foraging

Gorillas are herbivores[10], eating fruits, leaves, and shoots. Further they are classified as foliovores. Much like other animals that feed on plants and shoots, they sometimes ingest small insects also.[11] Gorilla spend most of the day eating. Their large sagittal crest and long canines allow them to crush hard plants like bamboo. Lowland gorillas feed mainly on fruit while Mountain gorillas feed mostly on herbs, stems and roots.[7] A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... In Zoology, a folivore is an animal that specializes in eating leaves. ... Canine skull showing sagittal crest A sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and reptilian skulls, among others. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Reproduction and lifespan

Gestation is 8½ months. There are typically 3 to 4 years between births. Infants stay with their mothers for 3–4 years. Females mature at 10–12 years (earlier in captivity); males at 11–13 years. Lifespan is between 30–50 years. The Dallas Zoo's Jenny is still alive at age 55.[12][13] Recently, gorillas have been observed engaging in face-to-face sex, a trait that was once considered unique to humans and the Bonobo.[14] Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Dallas Zoo is a zoo located 3 miles (5 km) south of downtown Dallas in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas, Texas (USA). ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ...


Intelligence

A female gorilla exhibiting tool use by using a tree trunk as a support whilst fishing.
A female gorilla exhibiting tool use by using a tree trunk as a support whilst fishing.
Skeleton of a gorilla
Skeleton of a gorilla

Gorillas are closely related to humans and are considered highly intelligent. A few individuals in captivity, such as Koko, have been taught a subset of sign language (see animal language for a discussion). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2138x5036, 1288 KB) See also: Image:Gorilla tool use-Leah. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2138x5036, 1288 KB) See also: Image:Gorilla tool use-Leah. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 258 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 1120 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 258 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 1120 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a lowland gorilla taught by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language[1], and understand approximately 2,000 words of spoken... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ...


Tool use

The following observations were made by a team led by Thomas Breuer of the Wildlife Conservation Society in September 2005. Gorillas are now known to use tools in the wild. A female gorilla in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in the Republic of Congo was recorded using a stick as if to gauge the depth of water whilst crossing a swamp. A second female was seen using a tree stump as a bridge and also as a support whilst fishing in the swamp. This means that all of the great apes are now known to use tools.[15] This article is about the instrument. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes...


In September 2005, a two and a half year old gorilla in the Republic of Congo was discovered using rocks to smash open palm nuts inside a game sanctuary.[16] While this was the first such observation for a gorilla, over forty years previously chimpanzees had been seen using tools in the wild, famously 'fishing' for termites. It is a common tale among native peoples that gorillas have used rocks and sticks to thwart predators, even rebuking large mammals.[citation needed] Great apes are endowed with a semi-precision grip, and certainly have been able to use both simple tools and even weapons, by improvising a club from a convenient fallen branch. Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ...


Studies

The word "gorilla" comes from the history of Hanno the Navigator, a Carthaginian explorer on an expedition on the west African coast. They encountered "a savage people, the greater part of whom were women, whose body were hairy, and whom our interpreters called Gorillae" [17]. The word was then later used as the species name, though it is unknown whether what these ancient Carthaginians encountered were truly gorillas, another species of ape or monkeys, or humans. [5] Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ...


American physician and missionary Thomas Staughton Savage obtained the first specimens (the skull and other bones) during his time in Liberia in Africa. The first scientific writings about describing gorillas date back to the publication of an article in 1847 in Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, where Troglodytes gorilla is described, now known as the Western Gorilla. Other species of gorilla are described in the next couple of years.[5] Thomas Staughton Savage (1804-1880) was an American protestant clergyman, missionary, physician and naturalist. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ...


Explorer Paul du Chaillu was the first westerner to see a live gorilla during his travel through western equatorial Africa from 1856 to 1859. He brought dead specimens to England in 1861 [18][19]. [[1]] Paul du Chaillu (July 31, 1835 – April 29, 1903), traveller and anthropologist, was born in either Paris or New Orleans (accounts conflict). ...


The first systematic study was not conducted until the 1920s, when Carl Akeley of the American Museum of Natural History traveled to Africa to hunt for an animal to be shot and stuffed. On his first trip he was accompanied by his friends Mary Bradley, a famous mystery writer, and her husband. After their trip, Mary Bradley wrote On the Gorilla Trail. She later became an advocate for the conservation of gorillas and wrote several more books (mainly for children). In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Robert Yerkes and his wife Ava helped further the study of gorillas when they sent Harold Bigham to Africa. Yerkes also wrote a book in 1929 about the great apes. Carl Ethan Akeley (19 May 1864 - 17 November 1926) was a taxidermist, artist, biologist, conservationist, and nature photographer, noted for his contributions to American museums, most notably to the American Museum of Natural History. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Robert Mearns Yerkes, PhD, (b. ...


After WWII, George Schaller was one of the first researchers to go into the field and study primates. In 1959, he conducted a systematic study of the Mountain Gorilla in the wild and published his work. Years later, at the behest of Louis Leakey and the National Geographic, Dian Fossey conducted a much longer and more comprehensive study of the Mountain Gorilla. It was not until she published her work that many misconceptions and myths about gorillas were finally disproved, including the myth that gorillas are violent. Dr. George Schaller at a lecture in Beijing Zoo on Aug. ... Louis Leakey examining skulls from Olduvai Gorge Map of Kenya. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932, San Francisco, California – December 26, 1985, Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ...


Endangerment

Both species of gorilla are endangered, and have been subject to intense poaching for a long time. Threats to gorilla survival include habitat destruction and the bushmeat trade. In 2004 a population of several hundred gorillas in the Odzala National Park, Republic of Congo was essentially wiped out by the Ebola virus.[20] A 2006 study published in Science concluded that more than 5,000 gorillas may have died in recent outbreaks of the Ebola virus in central Africa. The researchers indicated that in conjunction with commercial hunting of these apes creates "a recipe for rapid ecological extinction".[21] Conservation efforts include the Great Ape Survival Project, a partnership between the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and also an international treaty, the Agreement on the Conservation of Gorillas and Their Habitats, concluded under UNEP-administered Convention on Migratory Species. The Gorilla Agreement is the first legally-binding instrument exclusively targeting Gorilla conservation and comes into effect on 1 June 2008. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... Species Ivory Coast ebolavirus Reston ebolavirus Sudan ebolavirus Zaire virus Ebola hæmorrhagic fever (EHF — alternatively Ebola hemorrhagic fever; commonly referred to as simply Ebola) is a recently identified, severe, often fatal infectious disease occurring in humans and some primates caused by the Ebola virus. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or the Bonn Covention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cultural references

Since they came to the attention of western society in the 1860s, gorillas have been a recurring element of many aspects of popular culture and media. For example, gorillas have featured prominently in monstrous fantasy films such as King Kong, and pulp fiction such as the stories of Tarzan and Conan have featured gorillas as physical opponents to the titular protagonists. For the main article on the animal, see Gorilla. ... For other uses, see King Kong (disambiguation). ... Pulp magazines, often called simply the pulps, were inexpensive text fiction magazines widely published in the 1920s through the 1950s. ... For other uses, see Tarzan (disambiguation). ... Conan is the anglicized version of the Gaelic male name Conán, which means little wolf or little hound, derived from cú (grammatically changed to con), meaning hound or wolf, and the diminutive suffix án. ...


See also

Mammals Portal

Download high resolution version (1707x1482, 613 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 181-182. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ This statistic ought to be taken lightly; by the same reasoning human DNA is around 40% identical to that of a potato or lettuce.
  3. ^ In a talk presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association on November 20, 1999, Jonathan Marks stated: "Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas are within two percentage points of one another genetically." Jonathan Marks. What It Really Means To Be 99% Chimpanzee. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  4. ^ Müller, C. (1855-61). Geographici Graeci Minores, 1.1-14: text and trans. Ed, J. Blomqvist (1979). 
  5. ^ a b c Groves, Colin (2002). "A history of gorilla taxonomy". Gorilla Biology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Andrea B. Taylor & Michele L. Goldsmith (editors): pp. 15–34. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521792819. 
  6. ^ Gorilla - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  7. ^ a b Gorilla Information: A gorilla's habitat and diet.
  8. ^ Glass, Bonnie B. (2001). Evolution of the Human. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  9. ^ Santa Barbara Zoo - Western Lowland Gorilla. santabarbarazoo.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
  10. ^ Gorilla gorilla: Information. animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
  11. ^ Looking at Ape Diets: Myths, Realities, and Rationalizations. beyondveg.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  12. ^ .tv3.co.nz, World's oldest gorilla celebrates 55th birthday
  13. ^ gmanews.tv/story, Gorilla celebrates 55th birthday with frozen cake
  14. ^ Caught in the act! Gorillas mate face to face
  15. ^ Breuer, T; Ndoundou-Hockemba M, Fishlock V (2005). "First Observation of Tool Use in Wild Gorillas". PLoS Biol 3 (11): e380. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030380. PMID 16187795 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030380. 
  16. ^ A Tough Nut To Crack For Evolution. CBS News (2005-10-18). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  17. ^ http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Hanno.html Periplus of Hanno, final paragraph
  18. ^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0369-7827(1996)2%3A11%3C177%3A%22MBTBI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S
  19. ^ A History of Museum Victoria: Melbourne 1865: Gorillas at the Museum
  20. ^ Gorillas infecting each other with Ebola. NewScientist.com (2006-07-10). Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  21. ^ Ebola 'kills over 5,000 gorillas'. News.bbc.co.uk (2006-12-08). Retrieved on 2006-12-09.

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo-Anaglyph. ... Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is any technique capable of recording three-dimensional visual information or creating the illusion of depth in an image. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... This article is about the primate. ... This article is about the primate. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932, San Francisco, California – December 26, 1985, Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Animal Info - Gorilla (0 words)
Gorillas are diurnal, with nearly all activity occurring between 6:00 in the morning and 6:00 in the evening.
A population of gorillas in the vicinity of Mt. Kahuzi in
Gorillas construct rough platforms, or nests, for sleeping at night or for rest during the day, either in a tree or on the ground.
Gorilla (169 words)
The gorilla is a shy and, for the most part, inoffensive vegetarian -- a far cry from the fearsome, aggressive creature depicted in films and comic books.
Gorillas are the largest and most powerful of the apes.
Also, laws prohibiting, rather than just controlling, the capture and sale of gorillas need to be passed and enforced in all countries within the species’ range.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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