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In Greek mythology, the Gorgon (plural: Gorgons) (Greek: Γοργών or Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo, "terrible" or, according to some, "loud-roaring") was a vicious female monster with sharp fangs and hair of living, venomous snakes. Gorgon may refer to: The Gorgon, a Greek mythological monster. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) “Alcides” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia)) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, and was the hero who killed Medusa. ... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... A mystery religion is any religion with an arcanum, or body of secret wisdom. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, the Centaurs (Greek: Κένταυροι) are a race of creatures composed of part human and part horse. ... Dragons play a role in Greek mythology. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Classical tradition

Baroque Medusa combined beauty and horror: Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio.
Baroque Medusa combined beauty and horror: Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio.

Gorgons are sometimes depicted as having wings of gold, brazen claws, and the tusks of boars. According to the myths, seeing the face of a Gorgon turned the viewer to stone. Image File history File links Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio; Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Medusa, after 1590, by Caravaggio; Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Tusk (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...


Homer speaks of only one Gorgon, whose head is represented in the Iliad as fixed in the center of the aegis of Zeus: For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...

"About her shoulders she flung the tasselled aegis, fraught with terror...and therein is the head of the dread monster, the Gorgon, dread and awful, a portent of Zeus that beareth the aegis."(5.735ff)

Its earthly counterpart is a device on the shield of Agamemnon: This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ...

"...and therein was set as a crown the Gorgon, grim of aspect, glaring terribly, and about her were Terror and Rout."(11.35ff)

In the Odyssey, she is a monster of the underworld: Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia)) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ...

"...and pale fear seized me, lest august Persephone might send forth upon me from out of the house of Hades the head of the Gorgon, that awful monster..."(11.635)

Hesiod (Theogony, Shield of Heracles) increases the number of Gorgons to three—Stheno (the mighty), Euryale (the far-springer) and Medusa (the queen), and makes them the daughters of the sea-god Phorcys and of Keto. Their home is on the farthest side of the western ocean; according to later authorities, in Libya. The Attic tradition, reproduced in Euripides (Ion), regarded the Gorgon as a monster, produced by Gaia to aid her sons the Titans against the gods and slain by Athena. Of the three Gorgons, only Medusa is mortal. Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... The Shield of Heracles (Ἀσπὶς Ἡρακλέους Aspis Hêrakleous) is a fragment of Greek epic, of 481 lines of hexameters. ... Stheno (forceful), (Greek: Σθεννω), in Greek mythology, was one of the Gorgons, vicious female monsters with brass hands, sharp fangs and hair of living, venomous snakes. ... Euryale as depicted in God of War II. Euryale (far-roaming), in Greek mythology, was one of the immortal Gorgons, three vicious sisters with brass hands, sharp fangs, and hair of living, venomous snakes. ... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... Phorcys and Ceto, Mosaic, Late Roman, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was one of the names of the Old One of the Sea, the primeval sea god, who, according to Hesiod, was the son of Pontus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (Greek: Κητος, Ketos, sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be wrtten between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ...


According to Ovid (Metamorphoses), Medusa alone had serpents in her hair, and this was due to Athena (Roman Minerva) cursing her. Medusa had copulated with Poseidon (Roman Neptune), who was aroused by the golden color of Medusa's hair, in a temple of Athena. Athena therefore changed the enticing golden locks into serpents. Aeschylus says that the three Gorgons had only one tooth and one eye among them (see also the Graeae), which they had to swap among themselves. For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the Greek god. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Graeae (old women, gray ones, or gray witches, alternatively spelled Graiai, Graiae, Graii ), were three sisters, one of several trinities of archaic goddesses in Greek mythology. ...


Other stories claim that each of three Gorgon sisters, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, had snakes for hair, and had the power to turn anyone who looked at them to stone. Apollodorus (11.2.6, 2.4.1, 22.4.2) provides a good summary of the Gorgon myth, while Pausanias (5.10.4, 8.47.5, many other places) supplies the details of where and how the Gorgons were represented in Greek art and architecture. Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


Perseus and Medusa

The Gorgon just before being beheaded by Perseus, as depicted on a pediment from the Atremis Temple on display at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu.
The Gorgon just before being beheaded by Perseus, as depicted on a pediment from the Atremis Temple on display at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu.

Medusa was the only one of the three who was mortal; hence Perseus was able to kill her by cutting off her head while looking at her in the reflection in a mirrored shield he got from the Graeae. Some authors say that Perseus was armed with a scythe by Hermes (Mercury) and a mirror (or a shield) by Athena (Minerva). Whether the mirrored shield or the scythe, these weapons allowed him to defeat Medusa easily. From the blood that spurted from her neck sprang Chrysaor and Pegasus (other sources say that each drop of blood became a snake), her two sons by Poseidon. He gave the head, which had the power of turning into stone all who looked upon it, to Athena, who placed it in her shield. According to another account, Perseus buried it in the marketplace of Argos. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 231 pixelsFull resolution (2307 × 667 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 231 pixelsFull resolution (2307 × 667 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, and was the hero who killed Medusa. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... This article is about the Borat island sex mania known in English as jacking off or Corcyra. ... For the constellation, see Perseus (constellation); for the Macedonian king, see Perseus of Macedon Perseus with the Head of Medusa Perseus was the son of Danae, the only child of Acrisius king of Argos. ... The Graeae (old women, gray ones, or gray witches, alternatively spelled Graiai, Graiae, Graii ), were three sisters, one of several trinities of archaic goddesses in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... Greek mythology In Greek mythology, Chrysaor (Greek Χρυσάωρ, golden falchion, from χρυσός, gold, and ἄορ, sword, falchion) was a giant, the son of Poseidon and Medusa. ... Pegasus and Bellerophon, Attic red-figure Pegasus and Bellerophon, from Mabie, Hamilton Wright (Ed. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ...

Archaic (Etruscan) fanged goggle-eyed gorgoneion flanked by sphinxes on a hydria from Vulci, 540-530 BC
Archaic (Etruscan) fanged goggle-eyed gorgoneion flanked by sphinxes on a hydria from Vulci, 540-530 BC

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1830x2450, 2711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorgon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1830x2450, 2711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorgon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Great Sphinx of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background. ... A hydria is a type of Greek pottery used for carrying water. ... Volci or Vulci is a Latinized form of an Etruscan city, which the Etruscans called Velch. ...

Protective and healing powers

In Ancient Greece a Gorgoneion (or stone head, engraving or drawing of a Gorgon face, often with snakes protruding wildly and tongue sticking out between the fangs) was frequently used as an apotropaic symbol [1] and placed on doors, walls, coins, shields, breastplates, and tombstones in the hopes of warding off evil. In this regard Gorgoneia are similar to the sometimes grotesque faces on Chinese soldiers’ shields, also used generally as an amulet, a protection against the evil eye. In some cruder representations, the blood flowing under the head can be mistaken for a beard. Apotropaic magic is a ritual observance that is intended to turn away evil. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye a folklore belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it is...


In Greek mythology, blood taken from the right side of a Gorgon could bring the dead back to life, yet blood taken from the left side was an instantly fatal poison. Athena gave a vial of the healing blood to Asclepius, which ultimately brought about his demise. Heracles is said to have obtained a lock of Medusa’s hair (which possessed the same powers as the head) from Athena and given it to Sterope, the daughter of Cepheus[disambiguation needed], as a protection for the town of Tegea against attack. According to the later idea of Medusa as a beautiful maiden, whose hair had been changed into snakes by Athena, the head was represented in works of art with a wonderfully handsome face, wrapped in the calm repose of death. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) “Alcides” redirects here. ... Sterope was the name of several individuals in Greek mythology: Sterope, daughter of Pleuron and Xanthippe Sterope, daughter of Porthaon and Euryte, sometimes said to be the mother of the Sirens by Achelous Sterope (or Asterope), one of the Pleiades and the wife of Oenomaus (or his mother by Ares... The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ...


Origins

The concept of the gorgon is at least as old in mythology as Perseus and Zeus. The name is Greek, being from gorgos, "terrible." There are a few cognates: Old Irish garg, "wild", Armenian karcr, "hard". Hoffman's suggested root is *gragnis; Émile Boisacq's, *greg-. The root would not be a commonly used one.

Athena wears the primitive form of the Gorgoneion; cup by Douris, early 5th century BC
Athena wears the primitive form of the Gorgoneion; cup by Douris, early 5th century BC

The name of the most senior "terrible one", Medusa, is better Greek, being the feminine present participle of medein, "to rule over."[citation needed] The masculine, Medon, "ruler", is a Homeric name. The Indo-European root, *me-, "measure", generates a large number of words. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1592x1624, 493 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorgon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1592x1624, 493 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gorgon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The Dragon of Kholkis disgorges Jason, attrbuted to Douris, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco Vaticano. ...


Author Marija Gimbutas (Language of the Goddess) believed she saw the prototype of the Gorgoneion in Neolithic art motifs, especially in anthropomorphic vases and terra cotta masks inlaid with gold. The large eyes, as well as Athena's flashing eyes, are a symbol termed "the divine eyes" by Gimbutas (who did not originate the perception), appearing also in Athena's bird, the owl. They can be represented by spirals, wheels, concentric circles, and other ways. The fangs of the gorgoneion are snakes' fangs. Snakes are a symbol of appeasement and increase.[citation needed] Sometimes Gorgoneia are endowed with birds' feet or bee wings[citation needed], more symbols of regeneration[citation needed]. The lolling tongue is a symbol of death.[citation needed] Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ...


Gorgons in popular culture

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gorgons
Main article: Medusa and gorgons in popular culture

Like cyclops, harpies, and other beasts of Greek mythology, gorgons have been popularized in modern times by the fantasy genre such as in books, comics, role-playing games, and video games. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... In Greek mythology, Harpies (robbers) were first beautiful winged women: Hesiod (Theogony) calls them as two lovely-haired creatures. ...


References

  1. ^ Garber, Marjorie. The Medusa Reader, 24 February 2003, Introduction, pg. 2, ISBN 0-415-90099-9.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Additional material has been added from the 1824 Lempriere's Dictionary. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gorgon (Medusa) (258 words)
The Gorgon were legendary monsters of Greek myth, the three fearsome sisters Medusa, Euryale, and Sthenno, the daughters of sea monsters with fearsome teeth and hair of serpents.
The gorgon Medusa, whose gaze could turn the living to stone, was slain by the hero Perseus, who beheaded her using her reflection in Athena's sheild to avoid looking at her directly.
The Gorgon's head is frequently seen in use as a protective device on ancient shields and talismans.
Gorgon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2375 words)
Gorgons are sometimes depicted as having wings of gold, brazen claws, and the tusks of boars.
The Attic tradition, reproduced in Euripides (Ion), regarded the Gorgon as a monster, produced by Gaia to aid her sons the giants against the gods and slain by Athena.
The gorgon descends from the pre-Indo-European goddess of life and death, represented in various forms, of which the gorgoneion is one.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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