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Encyclopedia > Gordon Brown
The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP

Speaking during an IMF/World Bank news conference in 2005. Gordon Brown may refer to: Gordon Brown, Prime Minister and former Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown (rugby player), Scottish rugby player Gord Brown, Canadian politician Cathy Gordon Brown, an Independent candidate in the 2000 United States presidential election Gordon Browne, illustrator Gordon Browning, American politician... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1952 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Incumbent
Assumed office 
27 June 2007
Monarch Elizabeth II
Preceded by Tony Blair
Succeeded by Incumbent

In office
2 May 1997 – 27 June 2007
Prime Minister Tony Blair
Preceded by Kenneth Clarke
Succeeded by Alistair Darling

Member of Parliament
for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath
Dunfermline East (1983-2005)
Incumbent
Assumed office 
9 June 1983
Preceded by New constituency
Succeeded by Incumbent
Majority 18,216 (43.6%)

Born 20 February 1951 (1951-02-20) (age 56)
Govan, Glasgow, Scotland
Nationality British
Political party Labour
Spouse Sarah Brown
Children John and James Fraser
Residence Official: 10 Downing Street
Private: North Queensferry[1]
Alma mater University of Edinburgh
Occupation Politician
Profession Lecturer and journalist
Religion Church of Scotland

James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. He took office on 27 June 2007, three days after becoming leader of the Labour Party. Prior to this he served as the Chancellor of the Exchequer in Tony Blair's government from 1997 to 2007, becoming the United Kingdom's longest serving Chancellor since Nicholas Vansittart in the early 19th century. He has a PhD in history from the University of Edinburgh[2][3], and, as Prime Minister, he also holds the positions of First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service. He has been a Member of Parliament since 1983; firstly for Dunfermline East and now for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath.[4][5] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Dunfermline East was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until the 2005 general election. ... Open seat redirects here. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Govan (Baile a Ghobhainn in Gaelic) is a district and former burgh in the southwestern part of the Scottish city of Glasgow. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Sarah Brown née Macaulay (born October 1963) is the wife of Gordon Brown, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Sarah Brown née Macaulay (born October 1963) is the wife of Gordon Brown, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... North Queensferry is a town in Fife, Scotland, on the Firth of Forth, between the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the head of government and so exercises many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Nicholas Vansittart, 1st Baron Bexley (29 April 1766-8 February 1851), English politician, was the fifth son of Henry Vansittart (d. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Minister of the Civil Service is the head of the British Civil Service. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Dunfermline East was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until the 2005 general election. ... Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Early life and career before parliament

Gordon Brown was born in Govan, Glasgow, Scotland,[6][7] although media[8][9] have occasionally given his place of birth as Giffnock, Renfrewshire, where his parents were living at the time. Govan (Baile a Ghobhainn in Gaelic) is a district and former burgh in the southwestern part of the Scottish city of Glasgow. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... , Panaoramic View of Fenwick Road, the main street in Giffnock. ... Renfrewshire was a county of Scotland until their abolition in 1975. ...


His father, John Ebenezer Brown, was a strong influence on Brown and died aged 84.[10] His mother Elizabeth, known as Bunty, died in 2004 aged 86.[11] Gordon was brought up with his brothers John and Andrew Brown in a manse in Kirkcaldy—the largest town in Fife, Scotland across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh.[12] In common with many other notable Scots, he is therefore often referred to as a "son of the manse". Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School[13] where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes. The rectory is the title usually given to the building inhabited, or formerly inhabited, by the vicar of a parish. ... , Kirkcaldy (IPA pronunciation: ) is the largest town in Fife, Scotland. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. ... Ability grouping is the practice, in education, of placing students into groups or classes based on their abilities, talents, or previous achievement. ... Kirkcaldy High School is a non denominational comprehensive school in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Hothousing is a controversial form of education for children, involving intense study of a topic in order to stimulate the childs mind. ...


He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the age of only 16. He suffered a retinal detachment after an accidental collision during a rugby union match with close friend and now Labour MP Rector Saleem, Adeel of Edinburgh University. He was left blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and lying in a darkened room for weeks at a time. He has since been fitted with an artificial eye.[12][14] Later at Edinburgh, while playing rugby with dean Saleem, Adeel, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his eye was saved.[15] Brown graduated from Edinburgh with First Class Honours MA in 1972,[16] and stayed on to complete his PhD (which he gained in 1982), titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918-29.[17] The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the visual condition. ... For the functional replacement or bionic eye see Visual prosthetic. ... The Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, also known as the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh is the oldest voluntary hospital in Scotland. ... The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading scheme used to distinguish between the achievements of undergraduate degree holders (such as those gaining bachelors degrees or undergraduate masters degrees) in the United Kingdom. ... A Master of Arts in Scotland is an academic degree in humanities and social sciences awarded by the four ancient universities of Scotland, the University of Dundee and also Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ...


In 1972, while still a student and with strong connections with the previous Dean of Admissions, Brown was elected Rector[18] of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. Brown served as Rector until 1975, and he also edited The Red Paper on Scotland.[19] Brown was denied a permanent post at Edinburgh due to his previous political activism as a student.[citation needed] Instead he gained employment as a lecturer in Politics at Glasgow College of Technology from 1976 to 1980. He then worked as a journalist at Scottish Television, later serving as current affairs editor until his election to parliament in 1983.[20] The Lord Rector of Edinburgh University is elected every three years by the students and staff at the University of Edinburgh. ... A University Court is the supreme governing body of an Ancient university in Scotland, analogous to a Board of Directors or a Board of Trustees The University Courts were established by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1858 and they are responsible for the finances and administration of each university. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Glasgow Caledonian University is a University in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Scottish Television (now legally known as STV Central Ltd and referred to on-air as STV) is Scotlands largest ITV franchisee, and has held the ITV franchise for Central Scotland since August 31, 1957. ...


In the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, but lost to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram.[16] The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Edinburgh South is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, first used in the general election of 1885. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian, PC QC, MP, (born 7 July 1945), known as Michael Ancram, is a United Kingdom Conservative Party politician. ...


Election to parliament and opposition

Gordon Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in 1983 general election and became opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In 1986, he published a biography of the Independent Labour Party politician James Maxton, the subject of his PhD thesis. Brown was Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1987 to 1989 and then Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, before becoming Shadow Chancellor in 1992.[16][21] Dunfermline East was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until the 2005 general election. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... James Maxton was a Scottish politician. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition (or the leader of other smaller opposition parties) form an alternative cabinet to the governments, whose... The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is a junior position in the British Cabinet. ... The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry is a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ...


After the sudden death of Labour leader John Smith in May 1994, Brown was tipped as a potential party leader,[22] but did not contest the leadership after Tony Blair became favourite. It has long been rumoured a deal was struck between Blair and Brown at the former Granita restaurant in Islington,[23] in which Blair promised to give Brown control of economic policy in return for Brown not standing against him in the leadership election.[24] Whether this is true or not, the relationship between Blair and Brown has been central to the fortunes of "New Labour", and they have mostly remained united in public, despite reported serious private rifts.[25] John Smith QC (September 13, 1938 – May 12, 1994) was a British politician who served as leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his sudden and unexpected death from a heart attack on 12 May 1994. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Granita was a restaurant in the Islington area of London. ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... A leadership election was held in 1994 for the Labour Party in the United Kingdom, after the death of incumbent leader John Smith. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


As Shadow Chancellor, Brown worked to present himself as a fiscally competent Chancellor-in-waiting, to reassure business and the middle class that Labour could be trusted to run the economy without fuelling inflation, increasing unemployment, or overspending – legacies of the 1970s. He publicly committed Labour to following the Conservatives' spending plans for the first two years after taking power.[26][27]


Following a reorganisation of parliamentary constituencies in Scotland, Brown became MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath at the 2005 election.[28] Scotland is divided into 59 constituencies of the United Kingdom Parliament - 19 Burgh constituencies and 40 County constituencies. ... This article is about the country. ... Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer

Gordon Brown speaking at the annual World Bank/IMF meeting in 2002
Gordon Brown speaking at the annual World Bank/IMF meeting in 2002
See also Chancellorship of Gordon Brown

Brown's 10 years and 2 months as Chancellor of the Exchequer made him the longest-serving Chancellor in modern history.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1532, 724 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gordon Brown User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1532, 724 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gordon Brown User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... Gordon Brown speaking at the annual World Bank/IMF meeting in 2002 Gordon Browns period of office as Chancellor of the Exchequer lasted from May 2, 1997, when Labour returned to power in the United Kingdom for the first time in 18 years, to June 27, 2007, when he... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ...


The Prime Minister's website singles out three achievements in particular from Brown's decade as Chancellor: presiding over "the longest ever period of growth", making the Bank of England independent and delivering an agreement on poverty and climate change at the G8 summit in 2005.[16] Group of Eight redirects here. ...


Acts as Chancellor

  • Bank of England independence On taking office as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Brown gave the Bank of England operational independence in monetary policy, and thus responsibility for setting interest rates.
  • Tax In the 1997 election and subsequently, Brown pledged to not increase the basic or higher rates of income tax. Over his Chancellorship, he reduced the starting rate from 20% to 10% in 1999 before abolishing the starting rate in 2007, and reduced the basic rate from 23% to 20%. However, in all but his final budget, Brown increased the tax thresholds in line with inflation, rather than earnings, resulting in fiscal drag. Corporation tax fell under Brown, from a main rate of 33% to 28%, and from 24% to 19% for small businesses.[29]
  • Spending Once the two-year period of following the Conservatives' spending plans was over, Brown's 2000 Spending Review outlined a major expansion of government spending, particularly on health and education. In his April 2002 budget, Brown raised national insurance to pay for health spending. Brown changed tax policy in other ways, such as the working tax credits.[30][31]
  • Growth An OECD report[32] shows UK economic growth averaged 2.7% between 1997 and 2006, higher than the Eurozone's 2.1%, though lower than in any other English-speaking country. UK unemployment is 5.5%,[33] down from 7% in 1997 and lower than the Eurozone's average of 8.1%.
  • Euro In October 1997, Brown took control of the United Kingdom's membership of the European single currency issue by announcing the Treasury would set five economic tests[34] to ascertain whether the economic case had been made. In June 2003 the Treasury indicated the tests had not been passed.[35]
Gordon Brown meeting Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2006
Gordon Brown meeting Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2006
  • Gold sales Between 1999 and 2002 Brown sold 60% of the UK's gold reserves at $275 an ounce.[36] It was later attacked as a "disastrous foray into international asset management"[37] as he had sold at close to a 20-year low. He pressured the IMF to do the same,[38] but it resisted. The gold sales have earned him the pejorative nickname Golden Brown, and there is also a satirical parody song by the same name. [1]
  • Spectrum auctions Under Brown, telecom radio frequency auctions gathered £22.5 billion for the government. By using a system of sealed bids and only selling a restricted number of licences, they extracted high prices from the telecom operators.[39] Germany at this time applied a similar auction, and these together caused a severe recession in the European telecoms development industry (2001 Telecoms crash) with the loss of 100,000 jobs across Europe, 30,000 of those in the UK.[40]
  • Debt relief and development Brown believes it is appropriate to remove much of the unpayable Third World debt but does not think all debt should be wiped out.[41] On 20 April 2006, in a speech to the United Nations Ambassadors, Brown outlined a "Green" view of global development.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Fiscal drag refers to the increase in tax revenue caused when the threshold of a tax is not increased in line with inflation. ... Jim Callaghan, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who introduced corporation tax in 1965. ... A small business may be defined as a business with a small number of employees. ... Government spending or government expenditure consists of government purchases, which can be financed by seigniorage (the creation of money for government funding, at a heavy price of high inflation and other possibly devastating consequences), taxes, or government borrowing. ... UK Income Tax and National Insurance (2005–2006) UK Income Tax and National Insurance as a % of Salary (2005–2006) National Insurance is a system of taxes, and related social security benefits, that has operated in the United Kingdom since its introduction in 1911, and wider extension by the government... Tax policy is the study of the best way to collect a tax for government revenue, a positive question as well as the study what what type of tax is best from theories of fairness, efficiency and utility (a normative question). ... Working tax credit, or WTC, is a component of the current tax credits system in the United Kingdom - the related component being the Child tax credit, or CTC - which have both been in their current form since April 2003. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Gold reserves or gold holdings are held by central banks as a store of value generally to be used as a last resort. ... Telecom is an abbreviation of telecommunication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... The 2001 Telecoms crash is often confused with the Dot Com crash which happened at around the same time. ... Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ...

Analysis of policies as Chancellor

  • Growth Brown states that his Chancellorship had seen the longest period of sustained economic growth in the history of the United Kingdom.[42][43] The details in Brown's growth figures have been challenged.[44][45]
  • Anti-Poverty The Centre for Policy Studies found that the poorest fifth of households, which accounted for 6.8% of all taxes in 1996-7, accounted for 6.9% of all taxes paid in 2004-5. Meanwhile, their share of state benefit payouts dropped from 28.1% to 27.1% over the same period.[46]
  • Tax According to the OECD UK taxation has increased from a 39.3% share of gross domestic product in 1997 to 42.4% in 2006, going to a higher level than Germany.[47] This increase has mainly been attributed to active government policy, and not simply to the growing economy.
  • Pensions The Conservatives have accused Brown of imposing "stealth taxes". A commonly reported example resulted in 1997 from a technical change in the way corporation tax is collected, the indirect effect of which was for the dividends on stock investments held within pensions to be taxed, thus lowering pension returns and contributing to the demise of some pension funds.[48] The Treasury contend that this tax change was crucial to long-term economic growth.

This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Centre for Policy Studies is a United Kingdom-based think tank. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... Stealth Tax is a term used for revenue from sources controlled by a Government, that is not classed as tax, but still used by the Government to fund public services. ... Jim Callaghan, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who introduced corporation tax in 1965. ... It has been suggested that ex-dividend date be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Other policy stances as Chancellor

  • Higher education In 2000, Brown started a political row about higher education (referred to as the Laura Spence Affair) when he accused the University of Oxford of elitism in its admissions procedures, describing its decision not to offer a place to state school pupil Laura Spence as "absolutely outrageous".[49] Lord Jenkins, then Oxford Chancellor, said "nearly every fact he used was false."[50]
  • Anti-racism and popular culture During a diplomatic visit to India in January 2007, Brown responded to questions concerning perceived racism and bullying against Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty on the British reality TV show Celebrity Big Brother saying, "There is a lot of support for Shilpa. It is pretty clear we are getting the message across. Britain is a nation of tolerance and fairness."[51] He later said the debate showed Britain wanted to be "defined by being a tolerant, fair and decent country."[52]

The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The Laura Spence Affair was a British political row in 2000, ignited after the failure of high-flying state school pupil Laura Spence to secure a place at the University of Oxford. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately run schools. ... Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (November 11, 1920 – January 5, 2003) was a British politician and a prominent Labour Member of Parliament in the 1960s and 1970s, and founding member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Shilpa Shetty (Tulu: ಶಿಲ್ಪ ಶೆಟ್ಟಿ) (born 8 June 1975 in Tamil Nadu, India) is an award-winning Indian film actress and model. ... Reality television is a genre of television programming in which the fortunes of real life people (as opposed to fictional characters played by actors) are followed. ... Celebrity Big Brother 2007 was the fifth series of the United Kingdom reality television series Celebrity Big Brother, a spin-off of Big Brother. ...

Run up to succeeding Blair

Main articles Labour Party leadership election, 2007 and Timeline for the Labour Party leadership elections, 2007

In October 2004 Tony Blair announced he would not lead the party into a fourth general election, but would serve a full third term.[53] Political controversy over the relationship between Brown and Blair continued up to and beyond the 2005 election, which Labour won with a reduced parliamentary majority and reduced vote share. The two campaigned together but the British media remained – and remain – full of reports on their mutual acrimony. The 2007 Labour Party Leadership Election campaign is already underway, but is still awaiting an announcement of a vacancy by Tony Blair which is to be followed within 72 hours by a meeting of Labours NEC to decide a timetable. ... // On 1 October 2004, a day before he had heart surgery, Tony Blair said he would not seek a fourth term as Prime Minister. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


Blair, under pressure from within his own party, announced on 7 September 2006 that he would step down within a year.[54] Brown was the clear favourite to succeed Blair for several years with experts and the bookmakers; he was the only candidate spoken of seriously in Westminster. Appearances and news coverage leading up to the handover were interpreted as preparing the ground for Brown to become Prime Minister, in part by creating the impression of a statesman with a vision for leadership and global change. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2007 Labour Party Leadership Election campaign is already underway, but is still awaiting an announcement of a vacancy by Tony Blair which is to be followed within 72 hours by a meeting of Labours NEC to decide a timetable. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Global change is the term used to encompass multiple environmental and ecological changes. ...


Brown is the first prime minister from a Scottish constituency since the Conservative/SUP Sir Alec Douglas-Home in 1964. He is also one of only four prime ministers who attended a university other than Oxford or Cambridge, along with the Earl of Bute (Leiden), Lord John Russell (Edinburgh) and Neville Chamberlain (Mason Science College, later Birmingham).[55] Many Prime Ministers were not university-educated at all, including the Duke of Wellington, Benjamin Disraeli, David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, James Callaghan and John Major. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Unionist Party, referred to as the Scottish Unionist Party outwith Scotland itself, was the main Tory political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... Mason Science College was founded by Josiah Mason in 1875, the buildings of which were opened in Edmund Street, Birmingham, United Kingdom on 1 October 1880. ... Website http://www. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ...


On 9 September 2006 Charles Clarke said in an interview that the Chancellor had "psychological" issues he must confront and accused him of being a "control freak" and "totally uncollegiate". Brown was also "deluded", Clarke said, to think Blair can and should anoint him as his successor now.[56] Environment Secretary David Miliband stressed his support for Brown[57]. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rt Hon. ... In psychology-related slang, control freak is a derogatory term for a person who attempts to impose excessive predictability and direction on others or on events, often associated with insecurity or a lack of trust. ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ...


From January 2007 the media reported Brown had now "dropped any pretence of not wanting, or expecting, to move into Number 10 in the next few months" – although he and his family will likely use the more spacious 11 Downing Street.[58] This enabled Brown to signal the most significant priorities for his agenda as Prime Minister - stressing education, international development, narrowing inequalities (to pursue 'equality of opportunity and fairness of outcome'), renewing Britishness, restoring trust in politics, and winning hearts and minds in the war on terror as key priorities - speaking at a Fabian Society conference on 'The Next Decade' in January 2007.[59] 11 Downing Street (commonly known as Number 11), is the official residence of the Second Lord of the Treasury, who in modern times has always been the British Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ...


In March 2007 Brown's character was attacked by Lord Turnbull who worked for Brown as Permanent Secretary at the Treasury from 1998 to 2002. Turnbull accused Brown of running the Treasury with "Stalinist ruthlessness" and treating Cabinet colleagues with "more or less complete contempt".[60] This was especially picked-up on by the British media as the comments were made on the eve of Brown's budget report. Andrew Turnbull, Baron Turnbull, KCB , CVO (born 21 January 1945) was the head of the British Civil Service and Cabinet Secretary between 2002 and 2005 when he was succeeded by Sir Gus ODonnell. ... The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-Secretary of State (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis. ...


Brown as Prime Minister

See also Premiership of Gordon Brown

Brown ceased to be Chancellor and, upon the approval of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 27 June 2007.[4] Like all modern Prime Ministers, Brown concurrently serves as the First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service, is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and, hence, also a Privy Counsellor. He is also Leader of the Labour Party and Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. He is the sixth of the twelve post-war Prime Ministers to be appointed to the role without having won a general election. [61] Main article: Gordon Brown The premiership of Gordon Brown began on 27 June 2007, when Brown accepted the Queens invitation to form a government, replacing Tony Blair as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Minister of the Civil Service is the head of the British Civil Service. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


Policies

Brown has proposed moving some traditional prime ministerial powers conferred by royal prerogative to the realm of Parliament, such as the power to declare war and approve appointments to senior positions. Brown wants Parliament to gain the right to ratify treaties and have more oversight into the intelligence services. He has also proposed moving some powers from Parliament to citizens, including the right to form "citizen's juries", easily petition Parliament for new laws, and rally outside Westminster. He has asserted that the attorney general should not have the right to decide whether to prosecute in individual cases, such as in the loans for peerages scandal.[62] The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... Cash for Peerages (also Loans for Peerages, Cash for Honours, Loans for Honours) is the name given by some in the media to a political scandal in the United Kingdom in 2006 and 2007 concerning the connection between political donations and the award of life peerages. ...


During his Labour leadership campaign, Brown proposed some policy initiatives, suggesting that a Brown-led government would introduce the following:[63][64]

  • End to corruption Following the cash for honours scandal, Brown emphasised cracking down on corruption. This has led to a belief that Brown will introduce a new ministerial code which sets out clear standards of behaviour for ministers.[citation needed]
  • Constitutional reform Brown has not stated whether he proposes a U.S.-style written constitution – something the UK has never had – or a looser bill of rights. He said in a speech when announcing his bid that he wants a “better constitution” that is “clear about the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in Britain today”. He plans to set up an all-party convention to look at new powers for Parliament . This convention may also look at rebalancing powers between Whitehall and local government. Brown has said he will give Parliament the final say on whether British troops are sent into action in future.
  • Housing House planning restrictions are likely to be relaxed. Brown said he wants to release more land and ease access to ownership with shared equity schemes. He backed a proposal to build five new eco-towns, each housing between 10,000 and 20,000 homeowners — up to 100,000 new homes in total.
  • Health Brown intends to have doctors' surgeries open at the weekends, and GPs on call in the evenings. Doctors were given the right of opting out of out-of-hours care two years ago, under a controversial pay deal, signed by then-Health Secretary John Reid, which awarded them a 22% pay rise in 2006. Brown stated that the NHS was his "top priority", yet he had just cut the capital budget of the English NHS from £6.2bn to £4.2bn.[65].

Cash for Honours (also Cash for Peerages, Loans for Honours or Loans for Peerages ) is the name given by some in the media to a political scandal in the United Kingdom in 2006 and 2007 concerning the connection between political donations and the award of life peerages. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... John Reid PC (born 8 May 1947) is a British politician who is Home Secretary and Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of Airdrie and Shotts in the United Kingdom. ...

Foreign policy

Gordon Brown touring the slums of Nairobi, Kenya in 2005
Gordon Brown touring the slums of Nairobi, Kenya in 2005

Brown remains committed to the Iraq War, but said in a speech in June 2007 that he would "learn the lessons" from the mistakes made in Iraq.[66] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 711 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1120 × 944 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description:British Prime Minister Gordon Brown is being taken round Kibera Slums with Member of parlaiment Raila Odinga during his visit in Nairobis 2years ago. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 711 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1120 × 944 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description:British Prime Minister Gordon Brown is being taken round Kibera Slums with Member of parlaiment Raila Odinga during his visit in Nairobis 2years ago. ... Nairobi (pronounced IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


In a speech given to the Labour Friends of Israel in April 2007, Brown stated: Labour Friends of Israel is a UK Parliament based campaign group promoting support within the British Labour Party for a strong bilateral relationship between Britain and Israel. ...

"Many of you know my interest in Israel and in the Jewish community has been long-standing... My father was the chairman of the Church of Scotland's Israel Committee. Not only as I've described to some of you before did he make visits on almost two occasions a year for 20 years to Israel – but because of that, although Fife, where I grew up, was a long way from Israel with no TV pictures to link us together – I had a very clear view from household slides and projectors about the history of Israel, about the trials and tribulations of the Jewish people, about the enormous suffering and loss during the Holocaust, as well as the extraordinary struggle that he described to me of people to create this magnificent homeland."[67]

For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...

Diplomatic relationship with the U.S.

There has been widespread speculation on the nature of the UK's relationship with the United States under Brown's government. A Washington, D.C. speech by Brown's close aide Douglas Alexander was widely reported as both a policy shift and a message to the U.S.[68]: "In the 21st century, strength should be measured on what we can build together ... we need to demonstrate by our deeds, words and our actions that we are internationalist, not isolationist, multilateralist, not unilateralist, active and not passive, and driven by core values, consistently applied, not special interests." For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Douglas Garven Alexander (born October 26, 1967) is a British politician who is Secretary of State for International Development. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Unilateralism, (one+side-ism) refers to a doctrine or agenda which supports one-sided action. ...

Brown with American President George W. Bush
Brown with American President George W. Bush

However Downing Street's spokesman strongly denied the suggestion that Alexander was trying to distance Britain from U.S. foreign policy and show that Britain would not necessarily, in Tony Blair's words, stand "shoulder to shoulder" with George W. Bush over future military interventions[69]: "I thought the interpretation that was put on Douglas Alexander's words was quite extraordinary. To interpret this as saying anything at all about our relationship with the U.S. is nonsense." Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ...


Brown personally clarified his position;[70] "We will not allow people to separate us from the United States of America in dealing with the common challenges that we face around the world. I think people have got to remember that the relationship between Britain and America and between a British prime minister and an American president is built on the things that we share, the same enduring values about the importance of liberty, opportunity, the dignity of the individual. I will continue to work, as Tony Blair did, very closely with the American administration." Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... President of the United States - The President of the United States The American President (film) - A Romantic Comedy surrounding a fictional President of the United States and his attempts to win over an attractive lobbyist This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... This article describes the government of the United States. ...


Married life and family

Brown's early girlfriends included the journalist Sheena McDonald, Marion Calder[21] and Princess Margarita, the eldest daughter of exiled King Michael of Romania. She has said about their relationship: "It was a very solid and romantic story. I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, politics, and I needed nurturing."[71] Sheena Elizabeth McDonald (born 25 July 1954, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland) is a British journalist and broadcaster. ... Princess Margarita of Romania (b. ... King Michael and Queen Anne King Michael (Romanian Mihai) of Romania (born October 25, 1921) was the son of King Carol II and reigned from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from September 6, 1940 until December 30, 1947. ...


Brown married Sarah Macaulay in a private ceremony at his home in North Queensferry, Fife, on 3 August 2000.[72] On 28 December 2001, a daughter, Jennifer Jane, was born prematurely and died on 8 January 2002. Gordon Brown commented at the time that their recent experiences had changed him and his wife: Sarah Brown née Macaulay (born October 1963) is the wife of Gordon Brown, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... North Queensferry is a town in Fife, Scotland, on the Firth of Forth, between the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

"I don't think we'll be the same again, but it has made us think of what's important. It has made us think that you've got to use your time properly. It's made us more determined. Things that we feel are right we have got to achieve, we have got to do that. Jennifer is an inspiration to us."[73]

They have two children, John and James Fraser. In November 2006, James Fraser was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis.[74] 67 die and about 300,000 people are affected by floods in Ethiopias Somali Region of Ogaden after the Shabelle River bursts its banks. ...


Sarah Brown, unlike Cherie Blair, rarely appears at public events with her husband and until recently even missed his Budget speeches. She intends to remain out of the limelight as much as possible but accepts that her life will change as she moves into 10 Downing Street. She has never given a magazine or television interview and even inundated with requests now, she is unlikely to do so.[75] Cherie Blair (born 23 September 1954), known professionally as Cherie Booth QC, is an English barrister. ...


Gordon Brown does not possess a driving licence.[76]


Of his two brothers, John Brown is Head of Public Relations in the Glasgow City Council.[77] His brother Andrew Brown is currently Head of Media for the French-owned utility company EDF Energy since 2004. He was previously director of media strategy at the world's largest public relations firm Weber Shandwick from June 2003 to 2004. Previously he was editor of the Channel 4 political programme Powerhouse from 1996 to 2003, and worked at the BBC from the late 1970s to early 1980s.[78] For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... EDF Energy is an energy company that provides gas and electricity to homes throughout the United Kingdom. ... // The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address to Congress in 1807. ... Weber Shandwick is one of the worlds leading global public relations firms with offices in major media, business and government capitals around the world. ... This article is about the British television station. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Controversies

Polluting car

Gordon Brown was criticised after the Treasury admitted he had not kept his promise to switch to a more environmentally friendly ministerial car.[79] Brown's aides briefed the media that he was preparing to exchange his existing car for a Toyota Prius, a hybrid car with relative high fuel efficiency. Brown has instead chosen a 4.2 litre Jaguar XJ V8 which falls into the government's worst emissions band.[80] The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... --59. ... Hybrid Synergy Drive The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric vehicle developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation, and one of the first such vehicles to be mass-produced and marketed. ... A Chevy Volt, one example of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, expected to set a new benchmark. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts energy contained in a carrier fuel into energy or work. ... The Jaguar XJ is a luxury saloon sold under the British Jaguar luxury marque. ... The word emission generally means sending something out. ...


Links with nuclear power industry

Another controversial issue was the link between Brown's brother Andrew and one of the main nuclear lobbyists, EDF Energy,[81] given the finding that the government did not carry a proper public consultation on the use of nuclear power in its 2006 Energy Review.[82] Attention has also been drawn to the fact[83] that the father-in-law of Brown's closest adviser Ed Balls, Tony Cooper (father of the Labour minister Yvette Cooper) has close links with the nuclear industry. Cooper was described as an "articulate, persuasive and well-informed advocate of nuclear power over the last ten years" by the Nuclear Industry Association on his appointment as Chairman of the British Nuclear Industry Forum in June 2002. He is also a member of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and was appointed to the Energy Advisory Panel by the previous Conservative administration.[84]. EDF Energy is an energy company that provides gas and electricity to homes throughout the United Kingdom. ... Nuclear power plants in United Kingdom (view)  Active plants  Closed plants As of 2006, the United Kingdom operates 24 nuclear reactors generating one-fifth of its electricity (19. ... Father-in-law A father-in-law is a spouses father. ... Edward Michael Balls (born 25 February 1967) is a British politician, and Labour and Co-operative Member of Parliament for the West Yorkshire constituency of Normanton. ... Yvette Cooper (born 20 March 1969) British politician. ... The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a public body of the United Kingdom formed by the Energy Act, 2004. ...


Inviting Margaret Thatcher to Downing Street

There was mild controversy in September of 2007 over invitations by Brown to former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; however, a spokesman dismissed accusations that this was an attempt to curry favour with "Middle England" saying that it is customary for Prime Ministers to invite their predecessors to Number 10.[85] Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ...


The "non-election"

Gordon Brown caused controversy during September and early October 2007 by letting speculation continue on whether he would call a snap general election. Following David Cameron's 'off the cuff' speech and an opinion poll showing Labour 6% behind the Conservative Party in key marginal seats, he finally announced that there would be no election in the near future and seemed to also rule out an election in 2008.[86]. This has been taken as a sign of weakness around the country. A snap election is an election called earlier than scheduled. ... United Kingdom general elections are the times when the Members of Parliament forming the House of Commons are elected. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


"Stealing" opposition policies

The Labour Government was alleged to have copied three opposition tax policies which had proven popular in the country. These included raising the inheritance tax threshold, taxing non-domiciles and taxing airlines for their pollution. This led to accusations of stealing policies and making up budgets as they went along, with no overall vision.[87] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Europe

Brown has continued to be dogged by controversy about not holding a referendum on the EU Reform Treaty, despite a Labour manifesto pledge to give the British public a referendum on the original EU Constitution. Brown has argued that the Treaty significantly differs from the Constitution, and as such does not require a referendum. This approach has seen Brown come under heavy fire from opponents on both sides of the House and in the press[88]. Brown has responded with plans for a lengthy debate on the topic, stating that he believes the issue to be too complex for the British people to decide[89]. This has led to him being labelled patronising and out of touch with popular opinion. Brown's stubbornness on the issue may largely be due to the fact that he thinks he would lose a referendum on account of widespread Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom. The Reform Treaty is a European Union treaty designed to reform the European Union following the failed European Constitution. ... The Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe is a proposed constitutional treaty for the European Union. ... It has been suggested that Euroscepticism#Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


Depictions of Brown in popular culture

Brown's reputed dourness while holding a high public office comes across in the way he is portrayed on both the screen—where he was played by David Morrissey in the Stephen Frears directed TV movie The Deal and by Peter Mullen in the TV movie The Trial of Tony Blair—and stage: he features as a character in the 2007 Musical TONY! The Blair Musical, written by Chris Bush and Ian McCluskey. During its run in York, he was played by Bush, and then by Michael Slater at the 2007 Edinburgh Fringe Festival and subsequently at the Pleasance Theatre in Islington, London. Also drawing on this perception, radio presenter Nick Abbot plays a sound effect of Darth Vader because of the way Gordon Brown's jaw appears to detach as he breathes in. David Morrissey (born June 21, 1964) is an English film, television and stage actor. ... Stephen Frears in Sweden, 1989 promoting his movie Dangerous Liaisons. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... The Deal is a 2003 made for television play directed by Stephen Frears starring Michael Sheen as Tony Blair and David Morrissey as Gordon Brown. ... Peter Mullan (born on 8 July, 1958 in Peterhead, Scotland) is a Scottish actor and film maker who has been appearing in films since 1990. ... The Trial of Tony Blair was a satirical fictional documentary, based around the notion that British Prime Minister, Tony Blair is to face charges of war crimes by an international tribunal, following his departure from 10 Downing Street. ... TONY! The Blair Musical is a satirical comedy musical written in 2007 by Chris Bush, director of White Rose Theatre, with music composed by Ian McCluskey. ... Chris Bush (Born July 3rd, 1986 in Sheffield, England) is an award winning British playwright. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Categories: Festival stubs | Edinburgh ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nick Abbot is a British radio presenter, born 22 August 1960. ... Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ...


In keeping with its tradition of having a comic strip for every Prime Minister, Private Eye features a comic strip, The Broonites (itself a parody of The Broons), parodying Brown's government. The Eye has also started a column titled "Prime Ministerial Decree", a parody of statements that would be issued by Communist governments in the former Eastern Bloc. This is in reference to a criticism of Brown having "Stalinist tendencies". Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio... The Broons is a comic strip within The Sunday Post newspaper, which is published by D. C. Thomson & Co. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


The Blair-Brown rivalry has also been the subject of substantial cultural attention, and indeed the television and stage productions mentioned above touch on it. Furthermore, the Franz Ferdinand song "You're the Reason I'm Leaving" (from You Could Have It So Much Better) is believed to be at least partially about the end of the Blair-Brown rivalry, as told from Blair's perspective. The song contains the lyric: I'd no idea that in four years I'd be hanging from a beam behind the door of number ten, singing "fare thee well, I am leaving, yes I leave it all to you." Franz Ferdinand are an award winning rock band, from Glasgow, Scotland. ... You Could Have It So Much Better is the second album by Scottish indie rock band Franz Ferdinand, released 3 October 2005 in the United Kingdom (see 2005 in British music). ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ...


See also

Labour politics:

Electoral history: The Blair-Brown deal is a shorthand term for a widely-held belief in British politics, that Tony Blair and Gordon Brown made a leadership pact after the death of Labour Leader John Smith. ...

Current administration: The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010, barring exceptional circumstances. ... The 2007 Labour Party Leadership Election campaign is already underway, but is still awaiting an announcement of a vacancy by Tony Blair which is to be followed within 72 hours by a meeting of Labours NEC to decide a timetable. ...

Brown as Chancellor This is a list of British Prime Ministers by their nicknames. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Gordon Brown speaking at the annual World Bank/IMF meeting in 2002 Gordon Browns period of office as Chancellor of the Exchequer lasted from May 2, 1997, when Labour returned to power in the United Kingdom for the first time in 18 years, to June 27, 2007, when he...

Notes

  1. ^ Brown to work from home, The Herald, 14 August 2007
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4347369.stm
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3809861.stm
  4. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6245682.stm Brown is UK's new prime minister], BBC News, 27 June 2007
  5. ^ "BBC NEWS. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
  6. ^ "From education to politics: always top of the class", The Dundee Courier, 2007-06-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-06. 
  7. ^ FAMOUS FOLK, Kirkcaldy Civic Society
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Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building, now The Lighthouse The Herald is a national broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland, with an audited circulation of 71,000, making it the best-selling national Scottish broadsheet newspaper. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Courier & Advertiser, more commonly known as simply The Courier, is a broadsheet newspaper published by DC Thomson in Dundee, Scotland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ITV News is the name of the news broadcasts on British TV network ITV. It has one of the largest television audiences for news in the UK. It is produced by Independent Television News (ITN), and was more commonly known simply as ITN until 1999. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... International Socialism (ISJ) is a quarterly journal of socialist theory published by the Socialist Workers Party (Britain) and currently edited by Chris Harman. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... The Institute for Fiscal Studies is a UK research institute. ... A briefing note is a document that is used to inform or advise a person in an organization, usually a decision-maker. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute for Fiscal Studies is a UK research institute. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. It features calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan S. Cowell (born March 16, 1947) is a British journalist who is the London bureau chief of The New York Times. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times Company (NYSE: NYT) is an American media company best known as the publisher of its namesake, The New York Times. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... EDF Energy is an energy company that provides gas and electricity to homes throughout the United Kingdom. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

Works

  • Brown, Gordon (2007). Britain's Everyday Heroes. Mainstream. ISBN 978-1-8459-6307-1. 
  • Brown, Gordon (2007). Courage: Eight Portraits. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-6532-1. 
  • Brown, Gordon (2006). in Wilf Stevenson: Speeches 1997-2006. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-8837-5. 
  • Brown, Gordon (ed.); Wright, Tony (ed.) (1995). Values, Visions and Voices: An Anthology of Socialism. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-731-5. 
  • Brown, Gordon (1989). Where There's Greed: Margaret Thatcher and the Betrayal of Britain's Future. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-228-0. 
  • Brown, Gordon (ed.); Cook, Robin (ed.) (1987). Scotland: The Real Divide. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-0-906391-18-1. 
  • Brown, Gordon (1986). Maxton: A Biography. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-042-2. 

Britains Everyday Heroes is a book by British Prime Minister Gordon Brown about thirty-three everyday heroes - ordinary people whose willing commitment to a cause or a community has informed and inspired Brown. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bloomsbury may refer to: Bloomsbury, London, an area in the centre of the city the Bloomsbury group, an English literary group active around from around 1905 to the start of World War II. the Bloomsbury Gang, a political grouping centred on the local landowner, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford... Bloomsbury may refer to: Bloomsbury, London, an area in the centre of the city the Bloomsbury group, an English literary group active around from around 1905 to the start of World War II. the Bloomsbury Gang, a political grouping centred on the local landowner, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford...

Biographies

  • Bower, Tom (2003). Gordon Brown. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-717540-6. 
  • Jefferys, Kevin (2002). Labour forces from Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown. IB Taurus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4175-1633-9. 
  • Keegan, William (2003). The Prudence of Mr. Gordon Brown. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-84697-1. 
  • Rosen, Greg (ed.) (2002). Dictionary of Labour Biography. Methuen. ISBN 978-1-902301-18-1. 
  • Naughtie, James (2001). The Rivals: The Intimate Story of a Political Marriage. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-84115-473-2. 
  • Peston, Robert (2005). Brown's Britain: How Gordon Runs the Show. Short Books. ISBN 978-1-904095-67-5. 
  • Routledge, Paul (1998). Gordon Brown: The Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81954-9. 

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Look up Wiley in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James Naughtie, normally known as Jim, (born August 9, 1952 in Milltown of Rothiemay, near Huntly, Aberdeenshire, Scotland) is a BBC journalist and radio news presenter, especially of Radio 4s Today programme. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

Others

  • Hugh, Pym; Kochan, Nick (1998). Gordon Brown the First Year in Power. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-3701-4. 
  • Rawnsley, Andrew (2001). Servants of the people:The inside story of New Labour. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-027850-7. 
  • Rosen, Greg (2005). Old Labour to New:The Dreams that Inspired, the Battles that Divided. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-045-2. 
  • Routledge, Paul (2003). Bumper Book of British Lefties. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-064-3. 

Bloomsbury may refer to: Bloomsbury, London, an area in the centre of the city the Bloomsbury group, an English literary group active around from around 1905 to the start of World War II. the Bloomsbury Gang, a political grouping centred on the local landowner, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

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  • 10 Downing Street - Prime Minister: The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP
  • Audio and Transcript of Gordon Brown’s First Speech as Labour Party Leader 24 June 2007
  • Gordon Brown - full access article in Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • HM Treasury - Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP, Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • Guardian Unlimited Politics - Special Report: Gordon Brown
  • TheyWorkForYou.com - Gordon Brown
  • BBC News - Gordon Brown in Africa January 2005 trip about his 'Marshall plan for Africa'
  • Gordon Brown at the Open Directory Project
  • Observer: How Gordon Brown become the most powerful Chancellor in history
  • Transcript of Gordon Brown's acceptance speech Triple A accessible version
  • John Newsinger: Brown's Journey from Reformism to Neoliberalism, International Socialism – gives a left wing perspective on Gordon Brown's political evolution
Political offices
Preceded by
John Smith
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
1992 – 1997
Succeeded by
Kenneth Clarke
Preceded by
Kenneth Clarke
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1997 – 2007
Succeeded by
Alistair Darling
Preceded by
Tony Blair
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
27 June 2007 – present
Incumbent
Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Dunfermline East
19832005
Constituency abolished
Member of Parliament for Kirkcaldy
and Cowdenbeath

2005 – present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Tony Blair
Leader of the British Labour Party
2007 – present
Incumbent
Academic offices
Preceded by
Jonathon W. G. Wills
Rector of the University of Edinburgh
1973 – 1976
Succeeded by
Magnús Magnússon
Order of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Most Rev. and Rt Hon.
The Lord Archbishop of York
Gentlemen
The Prime Minister
Succeeded by
The Rt Hon. Michael Martin, MP,
Speaker of the House of Commons

  Results from FactBites:
 
Who Is Gordon Brown? - The New York Review of Books (4308 words)
Brown's focus on alleviating poverty, his scope for maneuver limited by his recognition that the British electorate's appetite for traditional socialism had vanished, is central to a persona closely related to the "Good Gordon" described by his cabinet colleague.
Brown was a formidable student politician, though one unmoved by the revolutionary slogans of the 1968 student left; he did not flirt with the Communist factions that drew in several of his future cabinet colleagues.
Gordon Brown is approaching the end of his first hundred days in Downing Street, a period he recognized would be critical in establishing himself in the mind of the British electorate.
ITN - Gordon Brown (4316 words)
Gordon Brown is regarded as a worse prime minister than Tony Blair by nearly a third of voters, according to a poll.
Gordon Brown is supporting plans to treat everyone as potential organ donors in a move to increase the availability of transplants.
Gordon Brown is to rethink Britain's drinking laws amid fears that 24-hour opening has led to a rise in booze-fuelled crime and disorder.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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