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Encyclopedia > Gordian III
Gordian III
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Gordian III
Reign 22 April - 29 July 238
(as Caesar to Pupienus
and Balbinus);
29 July 238 - 11 February 244 (sole, nominally, though government done by senate)
Full name Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius
Born 20 January 225
Died 11 February 244
Zaitha
Predecessor Pupienus and Balbinus
Successor Philip the Arab
Wife/wives Furia Sabinia Tranquillina,
subsequently Augusta
Dynasty Gordiani
Father Unnamed Roman Senator
Mother Antonia Gordiana
Year of the Six Emperors - 238
Maximinus Thrax
Gordian I and
Gordian II
Pupienus and Balbinus, nominally with Gordian III
Gordian III

Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. His younger sister was called Gordiana. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Gordian III - bust in the Louvre, Paris Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus, born about 178, was an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co_emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 11 - Emperor Gordian III is killed by his Praetorian Prefect Philip the Arab after Phillip replaces Timesitheus and then declares himself co-emperor. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Zhuge Liang pacifies Nan Zhong Births January 20 - Gordian III, Roman emperor Deaths Categories: 225 ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 11 - Emperor Gordian III is killed by his Praetorian Prefect Philip the Arab after Phillip replaces Timesitheus and then declares himself co-emperor. ... Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus, born about 178, was an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co_emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... Furia Sabinia Tranquillina or Sabinia Tranquillina (flourished 3rd century) was a Roman woman and was the beautiful, intelligent and young daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus by an unknown wife. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... Antonia Gordiana Sempronia (201 - ?) was a prominent, wealthy and noble Roman woman that lived in the troubled and unstable 3rd century. ... The Year of the Six Emperors refers to AD192-193, in which there were six claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co-emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co-emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Zhuge Liang pacifies Nan Zhong Births January 20 - Gordian III, Roman emperor Deaths Categories: 225 ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 11 - Emperor Gordian III is killed by his Praetorian Prefect Philip the Arab after Phillip replaces Timesitheus and then declares himself co-emperor. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Antonia Gordiana Sempronia (201 - ?) was a prominent, wealthy and noble Roman woman that lived in the troubled and unstable 3rd century. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Gordiana (flourished 3rd century) was the only daughter and youngest child of the prominent, wealthy and noble woman Antonia Gordiana and her father was an unnamed Roman Senator, who died before 238. ...

Contents

Rise to Power

Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression. Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (c. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ...


Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian's fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and rise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, namely the II Parthica who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus, born about 178, was an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co_emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus, born about 178, was an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co_emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Legio II Parthica was a Roman legion levied by Emperor Septimius Severus in 197, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence the cognomen Parthica. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


Rule

Due to his age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Alternate use: Pope Sabinianus Sabinianus was the leader of a revolt against Gordian III in Africa. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Furia Sabinia Tranquillina or Sabinia Tranquillina (flourished 3rd century) was a Roman woman and was the beautiful, intelligent and young daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus by an unknown wife. ... Gaius Furius Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus (?-243) was a Roman Knight that lived in the 3rd century and was the most important advisor to Roman Emperor Gordian III. Very little is known on his origins. ...

Coin issued to celebrate the marriage of Gordian to Sabina Tranquillina, Augusta.
Coin issued to celebrate the marriage of Gordian to Sabina Tranquillina, Augusta.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor's security, were at risk. Image File history File links Antoninianus-Tranquillina-Gordian_III-s2539. ... Image File history File links Antoninianus-Tranquillina-Gordian_III-s2539. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum. ... The Battle of Resaena was fought in 243 between the forces of Gordian III and Persia. ... Events Gordian III defeats Shapur I of Persia at Resaena Births Deaths Categories: 243 ...


Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian's death is unknown. Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... February 11 - Emperor Gordian III is killed by his Praetorian Prefect Philip the Arab after Phillip replaces Timesitheus and then declares himself co-emperor. ... This article is about the city of Fallujah in Iraq. ...


Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots.


References

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External Link

Preceded by
Pupienus and Balbinus
Roman Emperor
238–244
Succeeded by
Philip the Arab

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gordian III (657 words)
Marcus Antonius Gordianus' mother was the daughter of Gordian I and the sister of Gordian II.
It was the public hostility towards the successors of the Gordian emperors which brought the thirteen year old boy to the attention of the Roman senate.
Gordian III appointed him commander of the praetorian guard and further strengthened their bond by marrying Timesitheus' daughter Furia Sabina Tranquillina.
GordianIIIOV (908 words)
Gordian III 238 - 244 A.D. Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian III) was born in Rome on the 20th of January 225.
In late 240 or early 241, Gordian III broke free from the control and manipulation of the eunuchs and appointed Timesitheus as praetorian prefect.
Philip, who was proclaimed Gordian III's successor by the army, reported to the senate that the 19-year-old emperor had died of natural causes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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