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Encyclopedia > Gord (Slavic settlement)
Reconstructed gord in Biskupin, Poland although this isn't a Slavonic gord (it is much older), it is a good illustration of what gords looked like

The ancient Slavs were known for building wooden fortified settlements. The reconstructed Proto-Slavic word for such a settlement is *gordъ, related to the Germanic *gard. Biskupin, Poland. ... Biskupin, Poland. ... Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ...


Gords were built during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by the people of the Lusatian culture (ca. 1300 BC – 500 BC), and later in the 7th - 8th centuries CE in modern-day Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic and eastern Germany. These settlements were usually founded on strategic sites such as hills, riverbanks, lake islands or peninsulas. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ...


A typical gord was a group of wooden houses, built either in rows or in circles, surrounded by one or more rings of walls made of earth and wood, a palisade and/or moats. Some gords were ring-shaped, with a round, oval or occasionally polygonal fence or wall surrounding a hollow. Others, built on a natural hill or a man-made mound, were cone-shaped. Those with a natural defense on one side, such as a river or lake, were usually horseshoe-shaped. Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


Most gords were built in densely-populated areas, and situated in places which presented particular natural advantages. However, as Slavic tribes united into states, gords were also built for defense purposes in less populated border areas.


Those gords which served as a ruler's residence or lay on trade routes, quickly expanded. A suburbium (Polish: podgrodzie) formed near or below the gord. Its population served the residents of the gord and could shelter within the gord's walls in the event of danger. Eventually the suburbium would have its own fence or wall. In the High Middle Ages, the gord would normally evolve into a castle or citadel (kremlin); the suburbium – into a town. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ...

Grodzisko in Stara Rawa, Poland
Grodzisko in Stara Rawa, Poland

Some other gords, which did not stand the test of time and were abandoned or destroyed, gradually turned into more or less discernible mounds or rings of earth (known in Russian as gorodische, in Polish as grodzisko, in Ukrainian as horodyshche, in Slovak as hradisko and in Czech as hradiště). Notable archeological sites include Biskupin, Poland and Bilsk, Ukraine (see Gelonus). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Gelonus, (also transliterated Helonus), 50. ...


Evolution of the word

The Proto-Slavic word *gordъ means a "fenced area." It ultimately finds its root in the Proto-Indo-European language; a cognate is the English word "yard." In some modern Slavic languages, *gordъ has evolved into words for a "garden" (likewise a fenced area): the Ukrainian gorod (город), the Bulgarian gradina, the Polish ogród, the Czech zahrada, the Russian ogorod. In some Slavic languages, *gord has evolved into a word for "town" or "city": the Russian gorod, the Kaszubian gard, the Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian and Macedonian grad. The Slovak and Czech hrad and Slovene grad have evolved to mean "fortified castle." The Polish gród and Ukrainian horod retain their original[citation needed] meaning of an "ancient fortified settlement." The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Towns and villages in Poland whose names derive from gród (pink circles)
Towns and villages in Poland whose names derive from gród (pink circles)

The names of many Central and Eastern European cities hark back to their past as gords. Some of them are in countries which used to be, but no longer are, inhabited mostly by Slavic-speaking peoples. Examples include: Novgorod and Gorodets (Russia); Uzhhorod (Carpathian Ukraine); Hradec Králové and Vyšehrad (Czech Republic); Stargard Szczeciński and Grodzisk Mazowiecki (Poland); Gornji Grad (Slovenia); Biograd and Stari Grad (Croatia); Visegrád (Hungary); Belgrade (Beograd) (Serbia); Danilovgrad (Montenegro); Blagoevgrad, Asenovgrad and Razgrad (Bulgaria); Gradsko (Republic of Macedonia); Graz (Austria); Gartz (Germany); Pogradec (Albania), and Višegrad (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Gorodets (Городец in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Central Russia. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Uzhhorod highlighted. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Hradec Králové (help· info) (German: Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. ... VyÅ¡ehrad is a castle located in the Czech Republic, built in the 10th century, on a hill over the Vltava River. ... Stargard SzczeciÅ„ski (-Polish, Kashubian/Pomeranian: Stôrgard, German: ) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland, with 73,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Grodzisk Mazowiecki is a town in central Poland with 24,900 inhabitants in 1995. ... Area: 90,1 km² Population  - males  - females 2. ... Biograd na Moru is a city in Zadar County, Dalmatia, Croatia ... A view of Stari Grad Stari Grad(italian Cittavecchia) is a small town on the northern side of the island of Hvar in Dalmatia, Croatia. ... Visegrád (–Hungarian, German: Plintenburg) is a small town in Pest County in Hungary with a long and rich history. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Coordinates Mayor Branislav Đuranović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 501 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 5,208 16,523 {{{density}}} No. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... The centre of the town Houses in Varosha, the old quarter of Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad (Bulgarian: Благоевград, formerly Горна Джумая, Gorna Dzhumaya) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, situated in Blagoevgrad Province, with a population of about 76,000. ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Ä°brahim PaÅŸa) Mosque Razgrad (Разград) is a city in northeastern Bulgaria and the capital of Razgrad Province, built upon the ruins of the Ancient Roman town of Abritus on the banks of the Beli Lom. ... Gradsko (Macedonian: Градско) is a municipal village (despite the word grad meaning town) located in central Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Gartz is a city in Uckermark, which is a district in Brandenburg, which is a Bundesland (federal state) in Germany. ... Hotel Enkelana (Photo by V. Kulla) Church (Photo by Bernard Cloutier) Pogradec (Albanian: Pogradec or Pogradeci) is one of the southeastern cities of Albania. ... The bridge on the Drina (around 1890) ViÅ¡egrad (Cyrillic: Вишеград) is a town and municipality in the eastern part of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


See also

This is a list of towns or cities that have grad or a similar form in their name: See also Gord (Slavic settlement) // Austria Graz Belarus Hrodna Navahradak Bosnia and Herzegovina Mrkonjić Grad ViÅ¡egrad Bulgaria Asenovgrad Belogradchik Blagoevgrad Botevgrad Dimitrovgrad Momchilgrad Zlatograd Croatia Ivanić Grad Novigrad Stari Grad Hungary... Map showing Varangian or Rus settlement (in red) and location of Slavic tribes (in grey), mid-9th century AD Khazar influence indicated with blue outline. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... A South African cattle kraal (Photo by Richard Jones) Kraal (also spelt craal or kraul) is an Afrikaans and South African English word for an enclosure for cattle or other livestock, located within an African homestead or village surrounded by a palisade, mud wall, or other fencing, roughly circular in... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ...

External links

  • Reconstruction of a gród at Grzybowo, Poland – images of a typical ancient Slavic settlement with suburbium, earth-and-wood wall and moat; by Tomek Birezowski (Polish text).

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gord (Slavic settlement) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (552 words)
Gords were built during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by the people of the Lusatian culture, and later in the 7th - 8th centuries CE in modern-day Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic and eastern Germany (in Lusatia).
A typical gord was a group of wooden houses, built either in rows or in circles, surrounded by one or more rings of walls made of earth and wood, a palisade and/or moats.
Some other gords, which did not stand the test of time and were abandoned or destroyed, gradually turned into more or less discernible mounds or rings of earth (known in Russian as gorodische, in Polish as grodzisko, in Ukrainian as horodyshche, and in Czech as hradiště).
Gord (Slavic settlement) - definition of Gord (Slavic settlement) in Encyclopedia (518 words)
Gords were being built during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age by the people of Lusatian culture, and later from 7th to 8th century CE on the territories of modern-day Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic and eastern Germany (Lusatia).
Some of the other gords, which did not stand the test of time and were abandoned or destroyed, gradually turned into more or less discernible mounds or rings of earth (known as grodzisko in Polish, horodyshche in Ukrainian, or hradišče in Czech).
The Proto-Slavic word *gord means a fenced area; compare it with the words for a garden (also a fenced area) in some modern Slavic languages: Bulgarian gradina, Polish ogród, Czech zahrady.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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