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Encyclopedia > Gopher (protocol)
The five-layer TCP/IP model
5. Application layer

DHCP · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · IMAP4 · IRC · NNTP · XMPP · POP3 · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SSH · TELNET · RPC · RTCP · RTSP · TLS · SDP · SOAP · GTP · STUN · NTP · (more) The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense) ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ... (DHCP) is a set of rules used by a communications device such as a computer, router or network adapter to allow the device to request and obtain an IP address from a server which has a list of addresses available for assignment. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4, and previously called Internet Mail Access Protocol, Interactive Mail Access Protocol (RFC 1064), and Interim Mail Access Protocol[1]) is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access e-mail on... IRC redirects here. ... The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles, as well as transferring news among news servers. ... Jabber redirects here. ... In computing, local e-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), an application-layer Internet standard protocol, to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. ... The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. ... Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet. ... The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and created in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. ... Session Description Protocol (SDP), is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... GPRS Tunneling Protocol (or GTP) is an IP based protocol used within GSM and UMTS networks. ... STUN (Simple Traversal of UDP over NATs) is a network protocol which helps many types of software and hardware receive UDP data properly through home broadband routers that use network address translation (NAT). ... The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. ...

4. Transport layer
TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RTP · RSVP · IGMP · (more)
3. Network/Internet layer
IP (IPv4 · IPv6) · OSPF · IS-IS · BGP · IPsec · ARP · RARP · RIP · ICMP · ICMPv6 · (more)
2. Data link layer
802.11 · 802.16 · Wi-Fi · WiMAX · ATM · DTM · Token ring · Ethernet · FDDI · Frame Relay · GPRS · EVDO · HSPA · HDLC · PPP · PPTP · L2TP · ISDN · (more)
1. Physical layer
Ethernet physical layer · Modems · PLC · SONET/SDH · G.709 · Optical fiber · Coaxial cable · Twisted pair · (more)
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Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. Its goal is to function as an improved form of Anonymous FTP, with features similar to that of the World Wide Web. In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently under development in the IETF. Applications that might make use of DCCP include those with timingconstraints on the delivery of data such that reliable in-order delivery, when combined with congestion control, is likely... In the field of computer networking, the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group defined the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as a transport layer protocol in 2002. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), described in RFC 2205, is a Transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. ... The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. ... Is Is is Yeah Yeah Yeahs third EP, to be released on July 24, 2007. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... In computer networking, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard method for finding a hosts hardware address when only its network layer address is known. ... Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol used to obtain an IP address for a given hardware address (such as an Ethernet address). ... This article is chiefly about the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for the Internet Protocol, but also discusses some other routing information protocols. ... The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... The ICMP for IPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6) is an integral part of the IPv6 architecture and must be completely supported by all IPv6 implementations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE 802. ... The IEEE 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ), also unofficially known as Wireless Fidelity, is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode , or DTM for short, is a network protocol. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a Mobile Data Service available to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. ... The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. ... In computer networking, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs). ... ISDN redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IEEE photograph of a diagram with the original terms for describing Ethernet drawn by Robert M. Metcalfe around 1976. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Power band. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Synchronous optical networking, SONET and Synchronous digital hierarchy. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


The Gopher protocol offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it. Its text menu interface is well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on remote computer terminals, common in universities at the time of its creation. A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ...

Contents

Origins

The original Gopher system was released in late spring of 1991 by Mark McCahill, Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Dan Torrey, and Bob Alberti of the University of Minnesota. Its central goals are: Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Mark McCahill (born February 7, 1956) has been involved in developing and popularizing a number of Internet technologies since the late 1980s. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ...

  • A file-like hierarchical arrangement that would be familiar to users
  • A simple syntax
  • A system that can be created quickly and inexpensively
  • Extending the file system metaphor to include things like searches

The source of the name "Gopher" is claimed to be threefold:

  1. Users instruct it to "go for" information
  2. It does so through a web of menu items analogous to gopher holes
  3. The sports teams of the University of Minnesota are the Golden Gophers

Gopher combines document hierarchies with collections of services, including WAIS, the Archie and Veronica search engines, and gateways to other information systems such as ftp and Usenet. A gopher is a small burrowing rodent. ... The Minnesota Golden Gophers are the college sports team for the University of Minnesota. ... Wide Area Information Servers or WAIS is a distributed text searching system that uses the protocol standard ANSI Z39. ... Archie was the first search engine ever invented, designed to index FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. ... Veronica is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, developed in 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada. ... The abbreviation FTP can refer to: The File Transfer Protocol used on the Internet. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...


The general interest in Campus-Wide Information Systems (CWISs)[1] in higher education at the time, and the ease with which a Gopher server could be set up to create an instant CWIS with links to other sites' online directories and resources were the factors contributing to Gopher's rapid adoption. By 1992, the standard method of locating someone's e-mail address was to find their organization's CCSO nameserver entry in Gopher, and query the nameserver.[2] A CCSO name-server or Ph protocol was an early form of database search on the web. ...


The exponential scaling of utility in social networked systems (Reed's law) seen in Gopher, and then the web, is a common feature of networked hypermedia systems with distributed authoring. In 1993–1994, Web pages commonly contained large numbers of links to Gopher-delivered resources, as the Web continued Gopher's embrace and extend tradition of providing gateways to other services. Reeds law is the assertion of David P. Reed that the utility of large networks, particularly social networks, can scale exponentially with the size of the network. ...


Stagnation

The World Wide Web was in its infancy in 1991, and Gopher services quickly became established. By the late 1990s, Gopher had ceased expanding. Several factors contributed to the acceleration of Gopher's stagnation: WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...

  • In February of 1993, the University of Minnesota announced that it would charge licensing fees for the use of its implementation of the Gopher server.[3] As a consequence of this some users suspected that a licensing fee would also be charged for independent implementations.[4][5] In contrast, no such limitation has yet been imposed on the World Wide Web. The University of Minnesota eventually re-licensed its Gopher software under the GNU GPL.[6]
  • Gopher Client functionality was quickly duplicated by early Web browsers, such as Mosaic. Furthermore, the commercial friendliness of the World Wide Web, with its integration of text and graphics, made Gopher less appealing to marketing personnel.[citation needed]
  • Gopher has an inflexible structure when compared to the free-form HTML of the Web. With Gopher, every document has a defined format and type, and the typical user must navigate through a single server-defined menu system to get to a particular document. Graphic Designers did not like the artificial distinction between menu and fixed document in the Gopher system, and found the Web's open-ended flexibility better suited for constructing interrelated sets of documents and interactive applications.[citation needed]

Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... GPL redirects here. ... Mosaic was the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ...

Availability of Gopher today

As of 2007, there are fewer than 100 gopher servers indexed by Veronica-2.[7] Many of them are owned by universities in various parts of the world. Most of them are neglected and rarely updated except for the ones run by enthusiasts of the protocol. A handful of new servers are set up every year by hobbyists - 25 have been set up and added to Floodgap's list since 1999 and possibly some more that haven't been added. Today Gopher exists as an almost forgotten corner of the internet - one can publish email addresses in plaintext without having to worry about spam, and publish large amounts of data without the risk of the server's bandwidth becoming saturated, while at the same time people do still browse the gopher servers regularly. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some have suggested that the bandwidth-sparing simple interface of Gopher would be a good match for mobile phones and Personal digital assistants (PDAs),[8] but so far, the Web-fixated market prefers Wireless Markup Language (WML)/Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), DoCoMo i-mode, XHTML Basic or other adaptations of HTML and XML. The PyGopherd server, however, provides a built-in WML front-end to Gopher sites served with it. Palm IIIxe PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... Evolution of mobile web standards Wireless Markup Language, based on XML, is a content format for devices that implement the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) specification, such as mobile phones, and preceded the use of other markup languages now used with WAP, such as XHTML and even standard HTML (which are... WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. ... NTT DoCoMos i-mode is a wireless Internet service popular in Japan and is increasing in popularity in other parts of the world, such as the Israel (Cellcom being the main company to sell i-mode phones and service there). ... XHTML Basic is an XML-based structured markup language primarily used for simple (mainly handheld) user agents, typically mobile devices. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... PyGopherd is a modern Internet Gopher server written in Python and is maintained by John Goerzen. ...


Gopher support in Web browsers

Mozilla Firefox 1.5 displaying the top-level menu of the Floodgap gopher server

Gopher support was disabled in Internet Explorer versions 5.* and 6 for Windows in June 2002 by a patch meant to fix a security vulnerability in the browser's Gopher protocol handler; however, it can be re-enabled by editing the Windows registry.[9] In Internet Explorer 7, Gopher support was removed on the WinINET level.[10] Internet Explorer for Mac (only on PowerPC architecture and in End-of-life) still supports Gopher. Internet Explorer is hard coded to work on Port 70. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (762x623, 26 KB)[edit] Summary The gopher client in Firefox 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (762x623, 26 KB)[edit] Summary The gopher client in Firefox 1. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... The Windows registry is a directory which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... Windows Internet Explorer 7 is a web browser released by Microsoft in late 2006 for Windows Vista, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... End-of-life is a term used with respect to a retailed product, indicating that a vendor will not be doing the following: marketing, selling, promoting or limit support of a particular product. ... To hard code or hard coding (also, hard-code/hard-coding, hardcode/hardcoding) refers to the software development practice of embedding output or configuration data directly into the source code of a program or other executable object, or fixed formatting of the data, instead of obtaining that data from external...


Other browsers, including Mozilla and AOL, still support the protocol, but incompletely — the most obvious deficiency is that they cannot display the informational text found on many Gopher menus. Konqueror needs a plugin to be installed for full Gopher support, such as kio_gopher. Mozilla Firefox has full Gopher support as of release 1.5, and partial support in previous versions. The SeaMonkey Internet suite, successor of the Mozilla all-in-one suite, also supports Gopher fully, as does Camino, a browser based on Mozilla's engine. Such Mozilla based browsers are able to display embedded images from a gopher server on an HTTP-based HTML document and follow download links to a gopher server. However, the most extensive gopher support is offered in Lynx, a text based browser. Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... Konqueror is a file manager, web browser and file viewer, which was developed as part of the K Desktop Environment (KDE) by volunteers and runs on most Unix-like operating systems. ... Firefox redirects here. ... SeaMonkey is a free, open source, and cross-platform Internet suite that is the continuation of the former Mozilla Application Suite. ... For other uses, see Camino (disambiguation). ... Lynx is a text-only web browser for use on cursor-addressable, character cell terminals. ...


The Safari and Opera web browsers do not support Gopher at all. Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. ... Opera is a cross-platform web browser and Internet suite which handles common Internet-related tasks including visiting web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting online, viewing Widgets, downloading BitTorrents, and reading Newsfeeds. ...


Gopher Clients

Gopher was at its height of popularity during a time when there were still many equally competing computer architectures and operating systems. As such, there are several Gopher Clients available for Acorn RISC OS, AmigaOS, Atari MiNT, CMS, DOS, MacOS 7x, MVS, NeXT, OS/2 Warp, most UNIX-like operating systems, VMS, Windows 3x, and Windows 9x. There are several Gopher Clients designed for 3D visualization, and even a Gopher Client MOO object. The majority of these clients are hard coded to work on Port 70. Acorn Computers Ltd. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... For other uses, see Mint (disambiguation). ... The Conversational Monitor System (CMS) is a relatively simple interactive computing single-user operating system which was for many years IBMs principal time-sharing product. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage) was the most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers. ... For other meanings, see Next. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to the UNIX system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows 9x is the family of Microsoft Windows operating systems that comprises the 32-bit, DOS-based Windows versions: Windows 95, Windows 98, and often also Windows Me. ... In 1995[1], the Gopher developers at the University of Minnesota released GopherVR. GopherVR was an enhanced version of the Unix and Macintosh gopher clients that included a 3D visualization tool for viewing resource collections as 3D scenes. ... Look up moo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To hard code or hard coding (also, hard-code/hard-coding, hardcode/hardcoding) refers to the software development practice of embedding output or configuration data directly into the source code of a program or other executable object, or fixed formatting of the data, instead of obtaining that data from external...


Gopher to HTTP gateways

Users of Web browsers that have incomplete or no support for Gopher[11] can access content on Gopher servers via a server gateway that converts Gopher menus into HTML. One such server is at Floodgap.com. By default any Squid cache proxy server will act as a Gopher to HTTP gateway. HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... Squid is a proxy server and web cache daemon. ...


Some Gopher servers, such as GN and PyGopherd, also have built-in Gopher to HTTP interfaces. PyGopherd is a modern Internet Gopher server written in Python and is maintained by John Goerzen. ...


Gopher characteristics

In characteristic, Gopher functions and appears much like a mountable read-only global network file system (and software, such as gopherfs, is available that can actually mount a Gopher server as a FUSE resource). At a minimum, whatever a person can do with data files on a CD-ROM, they can do on Gopher. For the protocol of this name, see Network File System (protocol). ... Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) is a Free (GPL and LGPLed) Unix kernel module that allows non-privileged users to create their own file systems without the need to write any kernel code. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


A Gopher system consists of a series of hierarchical hyperlinkable menus. The choice of menu items and titles is controlled by the administrator of the server.

The top level menu of a Gopher server. Selecting the "Fun and Games" menu item...
... takes the user to the "Fun and Games" menu.


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 65 KB) Summary Screenshot made by me, showing the top menu of the Floodgap. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 65 KB) Summary Screenshot made by me, showing the top menu of the Floodgap. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 49 KB) Summary Screenshot made by me, showing the fun and games menu of Floodgap. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 49 KB) Summary Screenshot made by me, showing the fun and games menu of Floodgap. ...

A Gopher menu listing other accessible servers.
Gopher menu from a terminal client.

Similar to a file on a Web server, a file on a Gopher server can be linked to as a menu item from any other Gopher server. Many servers take advantage of this inter-server linking to provide a directory of other servers that the user can access. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 62 KB) Summary Screenshot taken by me, showing a Floodgap. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1016, 62 KB) Summary Screenshot taken by me, showing a Floodgap. ... Image File history File links Umn_gopher_dir. ... Image File history File links Umn_gopher_dir. ...


Technical details

Protocol

The Gopher protocol was first described in INFORMATIONAL RFC 1436. IANA has assigned TCP port 70 to the Gopher protocol. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, DNS root zone management, and other Internet protocol assignments. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port numbers. ...


After the client has established a TCP connection with the server, it sends a line that contains the item selector, a string that identifies the document to be retrieved. The line is ended with a carriage return followed by a line feed (a "CR + LF" sequence). An empty line will select the default directory. The server then replies with the requested item and closes the connection. In computing, a newline is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text. ...


A directory consists of a sequence of lines, each of which describes an item that can be retrieved. These lines are ended with "CR + LF". They consist of five fields, separated by TAB characters:

Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which can contain a group of files and/or other directories. ... The CSO Nameserver software was developed by Steve Dorner at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... BinHex, short for binary-to-hexadecimal, is an ASCII armoring system that was used on the Mac OS for sending binary files through E-mail. ... A file archiver combines a number of files together into one archive file, or a series of archive files, for easier transportation or storage. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... A Hexdump of a JPEG image. ... An example of a GIF image. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... An audio file format is a container format for storing audio data on a computer system. ...

URL links

Historically, to create a link to a Web server, "GET /" was used as the file to simulate an HTTP client request. John Goerzen created an addition [12] to the Gopher protocol, commonly referred to as "URL links", that allows links to any protocol that supports URLs. For example, to create a link to http://gopher.quux.org, the item type is "h", the description is arbitrary, the item selector is "URL:http://gopher.quux.org", and the domain and port are that of the originating Gopher server. For clients that do not support URL links, the server creates an HTML redirection page. John Goerzen is the President/chairman of the board, Software in the Public Interest, and a prominent member of the Internet Gopher community. ... “URL” redirects here. ...


Related technology

The main Gopher search engine is Veronica. Veronica offers a keyword search of most Gopher server menu titles in the gopher web. A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Currently, there is only one Veronica-2 server. Veronica is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, developed in 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada. ...


GopherVR is a 3D variant of the original Gopher system. In 1995[1], the Gopher developers at the University of Minnesota released GopherVR. GopherVR was an enhanced version of the Unix and Macintosh gopher clients that included a 3D visualization tool for viewing resource collections as 3D scenes. ...


See also

  • Veronica - the search engine system for the Gopher protocol, an acronym for "Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computer Archives".
  • Jugtail - an alternative search engine system for the Gopher protocol. Jugtail was formerly known as Jughead.
  • Gopher+ - early proposed extensions to the Gopher protocol
  • Super Dimension Fortress - a non-profit organization which provides free Gopher hosting
  • Phlog - The gopher version of a weblog

Veronica is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, developed in 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada. ... Jughead is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... Gopher+ are a fowards compatible enhancements to the RFC 1346 Gopher protocol. ... The SDF logo, a decscope. ... A photolog (also called fotolog, phlog or flog) is a specific type of weblog which allows one to order digital photos systematically, often in a chronological order. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ Google Groups archive of bit.listserv.cwis-l discussion
  2. ^ Google Groups archive of comp.infosystems.gopher discussion
  3. ^ http://www.funet.fi/pub/vms/networking/gopher/gopher-software-licensing-policy.ancient
  4. ^ http://groups.google.com/groups?selm=1mj6cb$6gm@pith.uoregon.edu
  5. ^ http://groups.google.com/groups?AMITselm=36e4c2f1.10244576@nntp.best.ix.netcom.com
  6. ^ gopher://home.jumpjet.info/00Begin_HereReferencesLicensegopher-software-licensing-policy_new.txt
  7. ^ Kaiser, Cameron (2007-03-19). Down the Gopher Hole. TidBITS. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  8. ^ Wired News: Gopher: Underground Technology
  9. ^ Microsoft Security Bulletin MS02-047. Microsoft (2003-02-28). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  10. ^ Release Notes for Internet Explorer 7. Microsoft (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  11. ^ To determine whether a Web browser supports Gopher, compare the display of this gopher menu with the same menu produced by a Gopher to HTML gateway in the browser.
  12. ^ http://gopher.quux.org/Archives/Mailing%20Lists/gopher/gopher.2002-02|/MBOX-MESSAGE/34

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Gopher Jewels 2 (gopher link)
  • The Gopher Project
  • The state of Gopher support for common Web browsers
  • List of new Gopher servers since 1999 (gopher link)
  • List of Gopher servers
  • Gopher Clients
  • An announcement of Gopher on the Usenet Oct 8 1991
  • Old Gopher guide

Standards

  • Gopher Reference Material Repository (gopher link)
  • RFC 1436 - The Gopher Protocol
  • RFC 1580
  • RFC 1689
  • RFC 1738
  • RFC 1808
  • RFC 2396
  • RFC 4266

  Results from FactBites:
 
GoFish gopher to http gateway. (4686 words)
The Gopher interface is designed to resemble a file system since a file system is a good model for organizing documents and services; the user sees what amounts to one big networked information system containing primarily document items, directory items, and search items (the latter allowing searches for documents across subsets of the information base).
The internet Gopher Model A detailed BNF rendering of the internet Gopher syntax is available in the appendix...but a close reading of the appendix may not be necessary to understand the internet Gopher protocol.
In essence, the Gopher protocol consists of a client connecting to a server and sending the server a selector (a line of text, which may be empty) via a TCP connection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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