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Encyclopedia > Google Earth
Google Earth

Screenshot of Googleplex Campus using Google Earth.
Maintainer: Google
Stable release: 4.2.0198.2451 (Win) / 4.2.0198.2451 (Mac) / 4.2.0198.2451 (Linux)  (September 12, 2007 (Win) / September 16, 2007 (Mac) / September 16, 2007 (Linux)) [+/-]
Preview release: N/A [+/-]
OS: Windows 2000, XP & Vista, Mac OS X, Linux
Natural language(s): Multilingual[1]
Use: Virtual globe
License: Proprietary
Website: http://earth.google.com/

Google Earth is a virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole, Inc. It maps the earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. It is available under three different licenses: Google Earth, a free version with limited functionality; Google Earth Plus ($20 per year), which includes additional features; and Google Earth Pro ($400 per year), which is intended for commercial use.[2] Image File history File links GoogleEarthLogo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In software engineering, software maintenance is the process of enhancing and optimizing deployed software (software release), as well as remedying defects. ... This article is about the corporation. ... A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe with stars and advanced atmosphere & sunlight effects Microsoft Virtual Earth 3D within Windows Live Local site Earthsim, real-time Earth render with atmosphere modeling 3D Weather Globe & Atlas, Earth render with satellite cloud coverage and atmosphere A virtual globe is a 3D... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe with stars and advanced atmosphere & sunlight effects Microsoft Virtual Earth 3D within Windows Live Local site Earthsim, real-time Earth render with atmosphere modeling 3D Weather Globe & Atlas, Earth render with satellite cloud coverage and atmosphere A virtual globe is a 3D... Keyhole, Inc, founded in 2001, was a pioneering software development company specializing in geospatial data visualization applications that was acquired by Google in 2004. ... Superimposition is a graphics term meaning the placement of an image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to conceal something (such as when a different face is superimposed over the original face in a... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based... GIS redirects here. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ...

Contents

Overview

Formerly known as Earth Viewer, Google Earth was developed by Keyhole, Inc., a company acquired by Google in 2004. The product, renamed Google Earth in 2005, is currently available for use on personal computers running Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, or Vista, Mac OS X 10.3.9 and above, Linux (released on June 12, 2006), and FreeBSD. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google also added the imagery from the Earth database to their web based mapping software. The release of Google Earth caused a more than tenfold increase in media coverage on virtual globes between 2005 and 2006,[3] driving public interest in geospatial technologies and applications. Keyhole, Inc, founded in 2001, was a pioneering software development company specializing in geospatial data visualization applications that was acquired by Google in 2004. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Google Earth, a highly detailed virtual globe that comes with atmosphere and a simple star dome NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe with stars and advanced atmosphere & sunlight effects Microsoft Virtual Earth 3D within Windows Live Local site Earthsim, real-time Earth render with atmosphere modeling 3D Weather... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geomatics is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information. ...


The viewer displays houses, the color of cars, and even the shadows of people and street signs. The degree of resolution available is based somewhat on the points of interest, but most land (except for some islands) is covered in at least 15 meters of resolution.[4] Las Vegas, Nevada and Cambridge, Massachusetts include examples of the highest resolution, at 15 cm (6 inches). Google Earth allows users to search for addresses (for some countries only), enter coordinates, or simply use the mouse to browse to a location. For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ...


Google Earth also has digital elevation model (DEM) data collected by NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view the Grand Canyon or Mount Everest in three dimensions, instead of 2D like other map programs/sites. Since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage.[5] 3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a research effort that obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth to date. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ... Everest redirects here. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... 3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. ... The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a research effort that obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth to date. ...


Many people using the applications are adding their own data and making them available through various sources, such as the BBS or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show all kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is also a Web Map Service client. Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language (KML). An OGC Web Map Service (WMS) produces maps of spatially referenced data dynamically from geographic information. ... Geomatics is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information. ... Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based language for describing three-dimensional geospatial data and its display in application programs. ...


Google Earth has the capability to show 3D buildings and structures (such as bridges), which consist of users' submissions using SketchUp, a 3D modeling program. In prior versions of Google Earth (before Version 4), 3D buildings were limited to a few cities, and had poorer rendering with no textures. Many buildings and structures from around the world now have detailed 3D structures; including (but not limited to) those in the United States, Canada, Ireland, India, Japan, United Kingdom,[6] Germany, Pakistan and the cities, Amsterdam and Alexandria.[7] In August 2007, Hamburg became the first city entirely shown in 3D, including textures such as facades. Three-dimensional renderings are available for certain buildings and structures around the world via Google's 3D Warehouse[8] and other websites. SketchUp is a 3D modeling program designed for professional architects, civil engineers, filmmakers, game developers, and related professions. ... This article is about computer modeling within an artistic medium. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Sky mode

In version 4.2, released August 22, 2007, Google Earth added a Sky tool for viewing stars and astronomical images.[9] Google Sky is produced by Google through a partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, the science operations center for Hubble. Dr. Alberto Conti and his co-developer Dr. Carol Christian of the Space Telescope Science Institute, plan to add the public images from 2007,[10] as well as color images of all of the archived data from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. Newly released Hubble pictures will be added to the Google Sky program as soon as they are issued. New features such as multi-wavelength data, positions of major satellites and their orbits as well as educational resources will be provided to the Google Earth community and also through Christian and Conti's website for Sky. Also visible on Sky mode are constellations, stars, galaxies and animations depicting the planets in their orbits. A real-time Google Sky mashup of recent astronomical transients, using the VOEvent protocol, is being provided by the VOEventNet collaboration. is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the corporation. ... See: Hubble Space Telescope Edwin Hubble Hubbles law Hubble sequence This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alberto Conti (born September 27, 1966 in Palmanova,Italy) is an Italian astrophysicist in the Community Missions Office at the Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute. ... Dr. Carol Christian, PhD, (born December 28, 1950) is an American Astronomer, Educator, and Information Technologist. ... The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is an organization founded by NASA to manage and direct research done with the Hubble Space Telescope. ... See: Hubble Space Telescope Edwin Hubble Hubbles law Hubble sequence This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A mashup is a web application that combines data from more than one source into a single integrated tool; a typical example is the use of cartographic data from Google Maps to add location information to real-estate data from Craigslist, thereby creating a new and distinct web service that... VOEvent is a standardized language used to report observations of astronomical events; it was officially adopted[1] in 2006 by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). ...


Wikipedia and Panoramio integration

In December 2006 Google Earth added a new layer called "Geographic Web" that includes integration with Wikipedia and Panoramio. In Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates. If the options to show Wikipedia or Panoramio entries are selected, users will be presented with clickable dots in their current Google Earth view. When any of these dots are selected, the user will be shown the Wikipedia or Panoramio entry right in Google Earth. There is also a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World. More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. See: *dynamic resp. static layer. Google announced on May 30, 2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio.[11] Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Panoramio is a location aware photo sharing website. ... Panoramio is a location aware photo sharing website. ...


Influences

The Google Earth interface bears a noted similarity to the ‘Earth’ program described in Neal Stephenson’s sci-fi classic Snow Crash. Indeed, a Google Earth co-founder claimed that Google Earth was modeled after Snow Crash, while another co-founder said it was inspired by Powers of Ten.[12] Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... Sci-fi is an abbreviation for science fiction. ... Snow Crash is Neal Stephensons third science fiction novel, published in 1992. ... Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. ...


Specifications

  • Coordinate System and Projection
    • The internal coordinate system of Google Earth is geographic coordinates (latitude/longitude) on the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) datum.
    • Google Earth shows the earth as it looks from an elevated platform such as an airplane or orbiting satellite. The projection used to achieve this effect is called the General Perspective. This is similar to the Orthographic projection, except that the point of perspective is a finite (near earth) distance rather than an infinite (deep space) distance.[13]
  • Baseline resolutions
    • U.S.: 15 m (some states are completely in 1 m or better)
    • Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark, United Kingdom, Andorra, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Vatican City: 1 m or better
    • Global: Generally 15 m (some areas, such as Antarctica, are in extremely low resolution), but this depends on the quality of the satellite/aerial photograph uploaded.
  • Typical high resolutions
    • U.S.: 1 m, 0.6 m, 0.3 m, 0.15 m (extremely rare; e.g. Cambridge and Google Campus, or Glendale)
    • Europe : 0.3 m, 0.15 m (e.g. Berlin, Zürich, Hamburg)
  • Altitude resolution:
    • Surface: varies by country
    • Seabed: Not applicable (a colorscale approximating sea floor depth is "printed" on the spherical surface).
  • Age: Images dates vary. The image data can be seen from squares made when Digital Coverage is enabled. The date next to the copyright information is not the correct image date. Zooming in or out could change the date of the pictures. Most of the international urban image dates are very old, from 2004, and have not been updated. However, most US images are kept current.

Google Earth is unlikely to operate on older hardware configurations. The most recent downloads available document these minimum configurations: WGS 84 is the 1984 revision of the World Geodetic System. ... General Vertical Perspective; origin at 90W, 0N General Perspective Projection is a map projection of cartography. ... Orthographic projection (equatorial aspect) of the hemisphere 30W–150E Orthographic projection is a map projection of cartography. ... Harvard Square, May 2000 Cambridge is a city in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts, United States. ... County Los Angeles County, California Area  - Total  - Water 79. ...

  • Pentium 3, 500 MHz
  • 128 MB RAM
  • 400 MB free disk space
  • Network speed: 128 kb/s
  • 16MB 3D-capable graphics card
  • Resolution of 1024x768, 16-bit High Color
  • Windows XP or Windows 2000 (not Windows ME compatible), Linux, Mac OS X

The most likely mode of failure is insufficient video RAM: the software is designed to warn the user if their graphics card is not able to support Earth (this often occurs due to insufficient Video RAM or buggy graphics card drivers). The next most likely mode of failure is Internet access speed. Except for the very patient, broadband Internet (Cable, DSL, T1, etc.) is required. The Pentium III is an x86 (more precise - i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... VRAM an acronym for Video RAM. Generally a term used in computers to describe RAM dedicated to the purpose of displaying bitmap graphics in raster graphics hardware. ... Broadband Internet access, often shortened to broadband Internet or just broadband is a high data-transmission rate Internet connection. ...


Mac version

A version for Mac OS X was released on January 10, 2006, and is available for download from the Google Earth website. With a few exceptions noted below, the Mac version appears to be stable and complete, with virtually all the same functionality as the original Windows version. Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Screenshots and an actual binary of the Mac version had been leaked to the Internet a month previously, on December 8, 2005. The leaked version was significantly incomplete. Among other things, neither the Help menu nor its "Display License" feature worked, indicating that this version was intended for Google's internal use only. Google released no statement regarding the leak. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Currently, the Mac version runs only under Mac OS X version 10.4 or later. There is no embedded browser and no direct interface to Gmail. There are a few bugs concerning the menu bar when switching between applications and a few bugs concerning annotation balloons and printing. Mac OS X version 10. ... For other uses, see Gmail (disambiguation). ...


From version 4.1.7076.4558 (released on May 9, 2007) onward, Mac OS X users can now, among other new features, upgrade to the "Plus" version via an option in the Google Earth menu.[14] Some users reported difficulties with Google Earth crashing in the latest version when zooming in.[15] is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Linux version

Starting with the version 4 beta, Google Earth functions under Linux, as a native port using the Qt-toolkit. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... For other uses, see Qt. ...

Minimum System Requirements[16]
  • Kernel: 2.4 or later
  • CPU: Pentium III, 500 MHz
  • System Memory (RAM): 128 MB
  • Hard Disk: 400 MB free space
  • Network Speed: 128 kbit/s
  • Screen: 1024x768, 16 bit color
  • Tested and works on the following distributions:

Ubuntu (IPA pronunciation (oo-BOON-too[5])) is a predominantly desktop-oriented Linux distribution, based on Debian GNU/Linux but with a stronger focus on usability, regular releases, and ease of installation at the expense of platform diversity. ... SUSE (pronounced IPA: , properly (in German), ZOO-za, loosely SOO-sa [1] in English) is a major retail Linux distribution, produced in Germany and owned by Novell, Inc. ... Fedora Core is an RPM-based Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gentoo Linux operating system (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution named after the Gentoo penguin. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... For other uses, see Red Hat (disambiguation). ... Slackware was one of the earliest Linux distributions, and is the oldest, and most UNIX-like, distribution still being maintained[1]. It was created by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux, Inc. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Arch Linux is a Linux distribution inspired by CRUX and intended to be lightweight and simple for advanced users. ... Xandros is both the name of a line of Linux distributions and Xandros Corporation, the company which creates them. ... Mandriva (merger of Mandrakesoft, Lycoris, and Conectiva) is a French software company, and creator of Mandriva Linux. ... Sabayon Linux or SabayonLinux, (formerly known as RR4 Linux/RR64 Linux), is a Gentoo-based Linux distribution created by Fabio Erculiani. ... PCLinuxOS, often abbreviated as PCLOS, is a desktop Linux distribution. ...

Resolution and accuracy

The Isles of Scilly, showing the very low resolution of some islands. The islands (green area) are about 10 km across.49°56′10.81″N 6°19′22.88″W / 49.9363361, -6.3230222 (Low resolution Isles of Scilly)
The Isles of Scilly, showing the very low resolution of some islands. The islands (green area) are about 10 km across.49°56′10.81″N 6°19′22.88″W / 49.9363361, -6.3230222 (Low resolution Isles of Scilly)
The west side of Gibraltar, tilted view showing the sea rising up the Rock of Gibraltar - claimed altitude of the sea just off the beach at Elliots Memorial, 252 m. 36°6′59.6″N 5°21′5.2″W / 36.116556, -5.351444 (Water altitude problem in Google Earth)
The west side of Gibraltar, tilted view showing the sea rising up the Rock of Gibraltar - claimed altitude of the sea just off the beach at Elliots Memorial, 252 m. 36°6′59.6″N 5°21′5.2″W / 36.116556, -5.351444 (Water altitude problem in Google Earth)

Most land areas are covered in satellite imagery with a resolution of about 15 m per pixel. Some population centers are also covered by aircraft imagery (orthophotography) with several pixels per meter. Oceans are covered at a much lower resolution, as are a number of islands; most notably, Tórshavn, the capital of the Faroe Islands, and the Isles of Scilly off southwest England, are at a resolution of about 500 m or less. These pictures are provided by Terrametrics. Image File history File links Google_Scilly. ... Image File history File links Google_Scilly. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... Image File history File links GoogleGib. ... Image File history File links GoogleGib. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ... An orthophoto or orthophotograph is an aerial photograph that has been geometrically corrected (orthorectified) such that the scale of the photograph is uniform, meaning that the photo can be considered equivalent to a map. ... The peninsula Tinganes is seat of the Faroese Government in Tórshavn. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Google has resolved many inaccuracies in the vector mapping since the original public release of the software, without requiring an update to the program itself. An example of this was the absence from Google Earth's map boundaries of the Nunavut territory in Canada, a territory that had been created on April 1, 1999; this mistake was corrected by one of the data updates in early 2006. Recent updates have also increased the coverage of detailed aerial photography, particularly in certain areas of western Europe, though not including Ireland where imagery remains extremely limited. For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The images are not all taken at the same time, but are generally current to within three years. Image sets are sometimes not correctly stitched together. Updates to the photographic database can occasionally be noticed when drastic changes take place in the appearance of the landscape, like for example Google Earth's incomplete updates of New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, or when placemarks appear to shift unexpectedly across the Earth's surface. Though the placemarks have not in fact moved, the imagery is composed and stitched differently. Such an update to London's photography in early 2006 created shifts of 15-20 metres in many areas, noticeable because the resolution is so high. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


Place name and road detail vary greatly from place to place. They are most accurate in North America and Europe, but regular mapping updates are improving coverage elsewhere.


Errors sometimes occur due to the technology used to measure the height of terrain; for example, tall buildings in Adelaide cause one part of the city to be rendered as a small mountain, when it is in fact flat. The height of the Eiffel Tower creates a similar effect in the rendering of Paris. Also, elevations below sea level are presented as sea level; i.e. Salton City, California; Death Valley; and the Dead Sea are all listed as 0 ft when Salton City is approx −200 ft; Death Valley is −286 ft; and the Dead Sea is −1,378 ft. For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Badwater Basin elevation sign Badwater is a site in Californias Death Valley noted as the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere, with an elevation of 282 feet (86 m) below sea level. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


Where no 3 arc second digital elevation data was available, the three dimensional images covering some areas of high relief are not at all accurate, but most mountain areas are now well mapped. The underlying digital elevation model has been placed 3 arc seconds too far north and up to 3 arc seconds too far west. This means that some steep mountain ridges incorrectly appear to have shadows extending over onto their south facing sides. Some high resolution images have also been misplaced, an example is the image covering Annapurna, which is misplaced by about 12 arc seconds. Elevation data was recently updated to 10-meter (1/3-arc-second) resolution for much of the United States from the previous 30-meter (1-arc-second) resolution. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्ण) is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a 55-km-long massif whose highest point, Annapurna I, stands at 8,091 m (26,538 ft), making it the 10th-highest summit in the world and one of the 14 eight-thousanders. It is located...


The "Measure" function shows that the length of equator is about 40,030.24 km, giving an error of −0.112% compared with the actual value of 40,075.02 km Earth; for the meridional circumference, it shows a length of about 39,963.13 km, also giving an error of −0.112% compared with the actual value of 40,007.86 km. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ...


The Arctic polar ice caps are completely absent from the current version of Google Earth, as are waves in the oceans. The geographic North Pole is found hovering over the Arctic Ocean. There is very low resolution coverage of the Antarctic continent (1m resolution images of some parts of Antarctica were added in June 2007 for the first time). The tiling system produces artifacts near the poles as the tiles become 'infinitely' small and rounding errors accumulate. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... An artifact (also artefact) is a term coined by Sir Julian Huxley meaning any object or process resulting from human activity. ...


Cloud cover and shadows can make it difficult or impossible to see details in some land areas, including the shadow side of mountains.


National security and privacy issues

The software has been criticized by a number of special interest groups, including national officials, as being an invasion of privacy and even posing a threat to national security. The typical argument is that the software provides information about military or other critical installations that could be used by terrorists. The following is a selection of such concerns: This article is becoming very long. ...

  • Former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam has expressed concern over the availability of high-resolution pictures of sensitive locations in India.[17] Google subsequently agreed to censor such sites.[18]
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation has said Google Earth poses a security threat to India, and seeks dialogue with Google officials.[19]
  • The South Korean government has expressed concern that the software offers images of the presidential palace and various military installations that could possibly be used by their hostile neighbor North Korea.[20]
  • In 2006, one user spotted a large topographical replica in a remote region of China. The model is a small-scale (1/500) version of the Karakoram Mountain Range, currently under the control of China but claimed by India. When later confirmed as a replica of this region, spectators began entertaining military implications.[21][22]
  • The Area 51 base in the Nevada desert is clearly visible, with no evidence of intentional obstruction or blurring. The base's runways and even a number of planes are visible, but sources confirm that the government has knowledge of all nearby photography satellites, and personnel are instructed to cover any vital technology and stay within the buildings at all times when one is within range.[citation needed]
  • Morocco's main Internet provider Maroc Telecom has been blocking Google Earth[23] since August 2006 without giving any justification for it.
  • Operators of the Lucas Heights nuclear reactor in Sydney, New South Wales asked Google to censor high resolution pictures of the facility.[24] However, they later withdrew the request.[25]
  • In July 2007, it was reported that a new Chinese navy Jin-class nuclear ballistic missile submarine was photographed at the Xiaopingdao Submarine Base south of Dalian.[26]
  • In October 2007, The Guardian reported that al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades were using Google Earth to plan Qassam rocket attacks on Israel.[27]
Blurred out image of the Royal Stables in The Hague, Netherlands.
Blurred out image of the Royal Stables in The Hague, Netherlands.

Some citizens may express concerns over aerial information depicting their properties and residences being disseminated freely. As relatively few jurisdictions actually guarantee the individual's right to privacy, as opposed to the state's right to secrecy, this is an evolving, but minor, point. Perhaps aware of these critiques[citation needed], for a time, Google had Area 51 (which is highly visible and easy to find) in Nevada as a default placemark when Google Earth is first installed. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Maroc Telecom (Arabic: ; Ittisalat Al Maghrib; Acronym: IAM) is the main telecommunication company in Morocco. ... Lucas Heights is a suburb in Sydney, Australia. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the Naval branch of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA). ... The Type 094 (NATO reporting name: Jin-class; Chinese: 晋级潜艇) is a new class of ballistic missile submarine developed by the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The remnants of an exploded Qassam rocket that was fired from the Gaza Strip at Israel. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1048x691, 153 KB) Blurred out image of the Royal Stables. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1048x691, 153 KB) Blurred out image of the Royal Stables. ... Hague redirects here. ... The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action. ... This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. ...


As a result of pressure from the United States government, the residence of the Vice President at Number One Observatory Circle is obscured through pixelization in Google Earth and Google Maps. The usefulness of this downgrade is questionable, as high-resolution photos and aerial surveys of the property are readily available on the Internet elsewhere.[28] Capitol Hill used to also be pixelized in this way but this was lifted. The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Number One Observatory Circle, official home of the Vice President of the United States, photographed in 2003. ... This article is about the graphical editing/censorship technique. ... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps... Capitol Hill is the name of a district in the following cities: Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado Capitol Hill, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Capitol Hill, Seattle, Washington Capitol Hill, Washington, DC It is also a common nickname for the United States Congress and the politicians who serve it (e. ...


Critics have expressed concern over the willingness of Google to cripple their dataset to cater to special interests, believing that intentionally obscuring any land goes against its stated goal of letting the user "point and zoom to any place on the planet that you want to explore".


Google Earth Community

The Google Earth Community is an online forum[29] which is dedicated to producing placemarks of interesting or educational perspectives. It may be found on the Google Earth webpage or under the Help section on the program itself. After downloading a placemark, it will automatically run Google Earth (if not opened), and fly to the area specified by the person who placed it. Once there, you can add it to your "My Places" by right clicking on the icon and selecting "Save to My Places". Additionally, anyone can post a placemark for others to download; as long as you have an account.


Google earth also can be used to locate "disasters". Currently a user can find these items within the google earth community. An example is a capsized ship off the shore (69°15′32.22″N 33°14′17.11″E / 69.25895, 33.2380861 (GE Community: Capsized ship)) or a burning car, on A3 autobahn near Gieslenberg, N of Leverkusen, Germany (51°4′47.04″N 6°59′17.77″E / 51.0797333, 6.9882694 (GE Community: Burning car)).


Copyright

Currently, every image created from Google Earth using satellite data provided by Google Earth is a copyrighted map. Any derivative from Google Earth is made from copyrighted data which, under United States Copyright Law, may not be used except under the licenses Google provides. Google allows non-commercial personal use of the images (e.g. on a personal website or blog) as long as copyrights and attributions are preserved.[30] By contrast, images created with NASA's globe software World Wind use the Blue Marble, Landsat or USGS layer, each of which is a terrain layer in the public domain. Works created by an agency of the United States government are public domain at the moment of creation. This means that those images can be freely modified, re-distributed and used for commercial purposes. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ... A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit. ... Screenshot of World Wind showing USGS Urban Ortho-Imagery of Huntington Beach, Los Angeles World Wind is a virtual globe developed by NASA for use on personal computers running Microsoft Windows. ... The Blue Marble is a famous photograph of Earth taken on 7 December 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about 45,000 km. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Google Earth Plus

Google Earth can be upgraded to a "Plus" edition for a $20 annual subscription fee. Google Earth Plus is an individual-oriented paid subscription upgrade to Google Earth and adds the following features: The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

  • GPS integration: read tracks and waypoints from a GPS device. A variety of third party applications have been created which provide this functionality using the basic version of Google Earth by generating KML or KMZ files based on user-specified or user-recorded waypoints. However, Google Earth Plus provides direct support for the Magellan and Garmin product lines, which together hold a large share of the GPS market. The Linux version of the Google Earth Plus application does not include any GPS functionality.
  • Higher resolution printing.
  • Customer support via email.
  • Data importer: read address points from CSV files; limited to 100 points/addresses. A feature allowing path and polygon annotations, which can be exported to KML, was formerly only available to Plus users, but was made free in version 4.0.2416.
  • Higher data download speeds

Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... GPS redirects here. ... This article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Garmin Ltd. ... The comma-separated values (or CSV; also known as a comma-separated list or comma-separated variables) file format is a file type that stores tabular data. ... Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based language for describing three-dimensional geospatial data and its display in application programs. ...

Google Earth Pro

For a $400 annual subscription fee, Google Earth Pro is a business-oriented upgrade to Google Earth that has more features than the "Plus" version. The Pro version includes add-on software such as:

  • Movie making.
  • GIS data importer.
  • Advanced printing modules.

These used to cost extra in addition to the $400 fee but have recently been included in the package.[31]


Flight Simulator

In Google Earth v4.2, a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature. It can be accessed by holding Control+Alt+A at the same time. After this feature has been activated at least one time it appears under the tools menu. As of right now there are only 2 different aircraft that can be used, in addition to a few airports.[32] A virtual Easter egg is a hidden message or feature in an object such as a movie, book, CD, DVD, computer program, or video game. ...

It is also possible to control the simulator with a joystick, although not all models are currently supported.


See also

Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps... Screenshot of Google Maps showing a route from Toronto to Ottawa Penang island and Seberang Prai on the mainland as seen on Google Maps [1] Google Maps is the conventional name of a free, web map server application and technology provided by Google that powers many map based services including... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Google Maps. ...

Related information

Web mapping is the process of designing, implementing, generating and delivering maps on the World Wide Web. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Animation showing atmosphere and shading effects in v1. ... Yinchuan (Simplified Chinese: 银川; Traditional Chinese: 銀川; pinyin: ) is the capital of Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. ...

Google mapping services

This page is a summary of services and tools provided by Google Inc. ... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps...

Other providers

DigitalGlobe, of Longmont, Colorado, USA, is a privately held commercial vendor of space imagery and geospatial content, and operator of civilian remote sensing spacecraft. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) was an early pioneer in the commercial utilization of the Earth observation satellite. ... GeoEye is the worlds largest commercial satellite imagery company, formed in 2006 following the acquisition of Space Imaging by ORBIMAGE. GeoEye provides 1-meter satellite imaging to the public, but it primarily supported by contracts with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agencys Clearview program. ... GlobeXplorer is a website which provides users with satellite imagery of places on Earth. ... Pictometry International is a Rochester, New York-based company that provides detailed aerial photography. ... Spot Image is a French operator of remote-sensing spacecraft and commercial vendor of space imagery. ... ViewGL is a downloadable program developed by Aerials Express that provides updated aerial photography content within Google Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Available in English, Swahili, German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Italian, Japanese and Traditional Chinese
  2. ^ Google Earth Product Family. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  3. ^ Media Coverage of Geospatial Platforms. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  4. ^ Google Earth Coverage: Maps showing a visual representation of Google Earth coverage
  5. ^ Google Earth Community: Nov. 23rd - Thanksgiving Day imagery update.
  6. ^ http://www.skyscrapernews.com/googleearth.php
  7. ^ http://www.infopot.tk/
  8. ^ http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/
  9. ^ Explore the sky with Google Earth. Google (2007-08-22). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  10. ^ http://technology.newscientist.com/article/dn12523
  11. ^ Google is planning to acquire Panoramio. google.com.
  12. ^ Avi Bar-Ze’ev (from Keyhole, the precursor to Google Earth) on origin of Google Earth
  13. ^ http://www1.webng.com/azimuthal/earth_proj.html
  14. ^ Google Earth 4.2.180.1134 - MacUpdate.
  15. ^ Google Earth Community: Viewing forum: Google Earth for Mac OS X.
  16. ^ http://earth.google.com/download-earth.html
  17. ^ "Kalam Concerned Over Google Earth". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  18. ^ "Google Earth agrees to blur pix of key Indian sites".
  19. ^ "Google Earth Poses Security Threat to India, ISRO Chief seeks Dialogue". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  20. ^ "Google Earth images compromise secret installations in S. Korea". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  21. ^ "Chinese X-file excites spotters". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  22. ^ "From sky, see how China builds model of Indian border 2400 km away". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  23. ^ Message au monde - Message to the world
  24. ^ "Google Earth prompts security fears". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  25. ^ " Aussie Nuclear Reactor on Google Earth". Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  26. ^ "New Chinese Ballistic Missile Submarine Spotted". Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  27. ^ Inside Gaza: 'Resistance is our strategy'
  28. ^ Eyeballing the US Vice Presidential Residence.
  29. ^ http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/ubbthreads.php/Cat/0
  30. ^ Google Earth Help Center: Can I post images to the web?
  31. ^ Which version of Google Earth is right for you?.
  32. ^ http://marco-za.blogspot.com/2007/08/google-earth-flight-simulator.html

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based language for describing three-dimensional geospatial data and its display in application programs. ... GeoTagging, sometimes referred to as Geocoding, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as websites, RSS feeds, or images. ...

Official and related sites

  • Official Google Earth Website - Download software from here
  • Official Google Earth User blog - Weblog of John Gardiner, a technical writer with Google Earth
  • Ogle Earth - Google Earth news: Charting innovative uses and political implications of Google Earth
  • Google Earth Wereld - The Dutch Google Earth site with cool placemarks
  • KugelErde - German Google Earth site with lots of placemarks

Placemarks and overlays

  • Google Earth Library - Interesting things to do with Google Earth
  • TierraWiki: Exposes a network link for a digital trail database for outdoor activities.
  • Wikipedia Articles for Google Earth - Mapping 80,000 entries from WP:GEO
  • gCensus Project - Stanford University application to map US Census data
  • Climate Change MediaWatch - KML file of news articles
  • GoogleEarthFindr - Custom Search Engine for Placemarks and Overlays

Unofficial guides and tips

  • (unofficial) Google Earth Blog - Google Earth news and tips.
  • Google Earth Linux instructions
  • World's KML file - downloadable
  • Google Sightseeing - blog of interesting and unusual sights
  • Very large collection of KML databases
  • STScI's community contributions to Sky website
  • Geofumadas- tips about Google Earth and CAD/GIS.

Tools

  • KaMeLwriter - Uses hierarchical maps (Mind maps) to create and manage KML files.
  • Batch Geocoder - Generate a KML file from an address list, works with any tabular data source.
  • CommunityViz - ArcGIS extension illustrates possible future development patterns over time. See also the CommunityViz article.
  • Google Earth Toolbox - A set of Matlab plotting/drawing functions with KML output.
  • TrailRunner - Editor for workout or hiking tracks, imports and exports KML files.
  • GEgpsd - Cross-platform python script allowing real-time GPS tracking from any NMEA device.
  • GeoServer - Server to generate KML from Shapefiles, ArcSDE, Oracle, PostGIS, MySQL, GeoTiff, ArcGrid, with support for Network links, superoverlays, time and custom pop-ups.

A mind map or mindmap is a multicoloured and image centered radial diagram that represents semantic or other connections between portions of learned material. ... CommunityViz is the name of a group of extensions to ArcGIS Geographic Information System software. ... Not to be confused with Matlab Upazila in Chandpur District, Bangladesh. ...

Reviews

  • Comparison with NASA World Wind

  Results from FactBites:
 
Google Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3569 words)
An example of this was the absence from Google Earth's map boundaries of the Nunavut territory in Canada, a territory that had been created on April 1, 1999; this mistake was corrected by one of the data updates in early 2006.
Google Earth came under heavy fire from the Indian Media when it showed the disputed region of Kashmir to be a province of Pakistan.
Google Earth confuses towns in Poland and Germany: Jelenia Gora in Poland is incorrectly referred to as Hirschberg.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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