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Encyclopedia > Gondor
Gondor
Place from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium
Other names Stoningland, South-kingdom
Description Southern Númenórean realm in exile
Location West of Middle-earth
Lifespan Founded S.A. 3320 [1]
Founder Isildur and Anárion
Lord Kings of Gondor; Stewards of Gondor
Books The Return of the King,
Of the Rings of Power, Unfinished Tales

Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the Third Age. The third volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, is concerned with the events in Gondor during the War of the Ring and with the following restoration of the realm. By author's intention,[2] further history of the kingdom can be glimpsed only cursorily from the appendices to the book, which also cast light on its origins. Tolkien redirects here. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... Anárion is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, born S.A. 3219 and killed S.A. 3440 (lived 221 years). ... This is a list of Kings of Gondor from the fictional universe of Middle-earth by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... This article is about the book. ... Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age is the fifth and last part of The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... This article is about the novel. ... This article is about the book. ... Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel...


According to the narrative, Gondor was founded by brothers Isildur and Anárion, exiles from the downfallen island kingdom of Númenor, and together with Arnor in the north served as last strongholds of the Men of the West. Gondor gradually declined in course of the Third Age, being continually weakened by the allies of the Dark Lord Sauron, and was only restored in dominance after his final defeat and the crowning of Aragorn. In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Isildur was a Dúnadan of Númenor, elder son of Elendil. ... Anárion is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, born S.A. 3219 and killed S.A. 3440 (lived 221 years). ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Dúnedain (singular: Dúnadan) were a fictional race of Men descended from the Númenóreans that survived the fall of their island kingdom and came to Eriador in Middle-earth, led by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ...


Based upon long-foreseen conceptions, the history and geography of Gondor was developed in stages, as a part of the major extension of his legendarium that Tolkien undertook during the writing of The Lord of the Rings. The role of the kingdom emerged gradually, from a side "adventure" in the plot becoming the focal figure of later writings. Textual history was traced by Christopher Tolkien in the volumes of The History of Middle-earth, and the overall subject has gained attention among later researchers and fans. Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ...

Contents

Literature

History

The history of Gondor is described in several of Tolkien's works, with different level of detail. Within the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the kingdom is first introduced at the Council of Elrond, with a brief summary of the Second and Third Ages. The events of the latter are elaborated in the appendices to the book, and those of the former – in the last parts of The Silmarillion. Retellings at an ample scale of some particular episodes are included into Unfinished Tales. In The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Council of Elrond is a fictional secret council called by Elrond in Rivendell in order to decide what should be done with the One Ring. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ...


Foundation and the Last Alliance

The territory of future Gondor had been widely colonised by the Númenóreans from around mid-Second Age, especially by the Elf-friends loyal to the house of Elendil.[3] When his sons Isildur and Anárion landed in Middle-earth after the drowning of Númenor, they were welcomed by the colonists and their claim of lordship was accepted, while Elendil was held to be the High King of all lands of the Dúnedain.[4] Within the South-kingdom, the hometowns of Isildur and Anárion were Minas Ithil and Minas Anor respectively, and the capital city Osgiliath was situated between them. Elendili or Elf-friends are, in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, a faction of Númenóreans who advocated continued friendship with the Elves. ... In Middle-earth, the fantasy universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, Elendil was a heroic figure. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Dúnedain (singular: Dúnadan) were a fictional race of Men descended from the Númenóreans that survived the fall of their island kingdom and came to Eriador in Middle-earth, led by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion. ... Minas Morgul (Sindarin for Tower of Black Magic), also known by its earlier name Minas Ithil (Tower of the Moon), is a fictional city in J.R.R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Osgiliath is a city of Middle-earth, the old capital city of Gondor. ...


Sauron, however, had survived the destruction of Númenor and secretly returned to his realm of Mordor just to the east of Gondor. Soon he launched a war against the Númenórean kingdoms, hoping to destroy them before their power was established. He captured Minas Ithil, but Isildur escaped and fled by ship to Arnor; meanwhile, Anárion was able to defend Osgiliath.[3] Elendil and the Elven-king Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, and together with Isildur and Anárion they besieged and defeated Mordor. Sauron was overthrown, but the One Ring that Isildur took from him was not destroyed, and thus Sauron was able to regain power in the next age. Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Ereinion Gil-galad was the son of Orodreth,[1] and his mother was a Sindarin Elf. ... Combatants Mordor and allies Lindon, Gondor, Arnor and allies Commanders Sauron Gil-galad and Elendil Strength The Hosts of Mordor: Many Orc-hosts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Both Elendil and Anárion had been slain in the war, so Isildur conferred rule of Gondor upon Anárion's son Meneldil and went north to accent to the kingship of Arnor, retaining suzerainty over Gondor as High King of the Dúnedain.[5] However, Isildur and his three elder sons were ambushed and killed by Orcs, and his remaining son Valandil never attempted to reclaim his father's place in Gondor monarchy. Meneldil (S.A. 3318 - T.A. 158) is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy writings, Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings — Morgoth, Sauron and Saruman. ...


Golden Age

The first millennium of the Third Age was characterized for Gondor by the gradual increase of the wealth of the kingdom and a sequence of victorious wars. In the wake of Sauron's defeat, Gondor assumed responsibility for maintaining a watch over Mordor and enjoyed peace for several centuries, until the first of many Easterling invasions occurred in T.A. 490.[1] The resulting war, which lasted well into the following century, saw Gondor conquer a great deal of territory in Rhûn north of Mordor. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Easterlings were Men who lived in the east of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free Peoples. ... Location of Rhûn in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhûn is a large region of eastern Middle-earth. ...


Under the rule of the four "Ship-Kings", Gondor established a powerful navy and increased the territory along the coasts in both directions from the Mouths of Anduin. Especially important was the conquest in 933[1] of the southern port city Umbar, which had been continuously in hands of the hostile Black Númenóreans. Gondor later suffered a defeat on land from the Haradrim, who proceeded to invest the haven; but after the Gondor army had been strengthened, the submission of the kings of Harad was secured in the victory of T.A. 1050. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Arda, a great haven to the far south of Gondor in Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional prehistory of the world (Arda), the Black Númenóreans were men of Númenorean descent that dwelt on the coasts of Middle-earth below the River Anduin from the late Second Age onwards. ... Harad is a town in Saudi Arabia. ...


Gondor was now at the peak of its power: its territory was at its greater extent and it enjoyed suzerainty over several other nations, including the Haradrim and the Men of the Vales of Anduin in the north; Mordor was desolate and guarded by fortresses; the kingdom enjoyed such wealth and splendour that, according to The Lord of the Rings, "men said precious stones are pebbles in Gondor for children to play with".[4]


Decline

Gondor began to decline during the reign of several next kings who lived in ease and luxury, doing little to maintain Gondor's strength. The first casualty of this period was the watch on Mordor, which was largely neglected. King Rómendacil II, who in his youth had been appointed as his uncle's regent, defeated a new invasion of the Easterlings in 1248 and strengthened friendly relations with the Northmen. His son Valacar was sent to their lands as an ambassador; while there, he married the daughter of one of their lords and returned to Gondor only after some years. Rómendacil II was a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... J. R. R. Tolkien adopted the term Northmen in his fiction; his Northmen were Men that lived in the north of Rhovanion in Middle-earth, and were friendly to Gondor. ... Valacar (1194 T.A. - 1432 T.A.) is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ...


This marriage proved disastrous to Gondor: when it was affirmed that the heir to the throne would be Valacar's son Eldacar, who was of mixed blood, southern provinces of the realm began to rebel. After Valacar died, several members of the House of Anárion claimed the crown and a full-scale civil war, called the Kin-strife, broke out in 1432.[1] The rebel with the largest following was Castamir, who besieged and captured Osgiliath. Eldacar managed to escape to his homeland in Rhovanion, but his elder son was captured and executed. Castamir proved a very poor ruler and earned hatred of the inner provinces; consequently, Eldacar acquired a great following when he returned after several years with the Northmen allies, slew Castamir and defeated his army. Castamir's sons, however, retreated to Umbar and declared independence. Eldacar (1255–1490) is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Kin-strife was a disastrous civil war in Gondor. ... Castamir the Usurper is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhovanion or Wilderland was a large region of northern Middle-earth. ...


A century later the kings of Harad raised a rebellion and defeated the Gondor army, but were soon routed and subdued; and after another hundred of years descendants of Castamir organised a devastating raid on the haven of Pelargir.[6] The losses from the Kin-strife and southern wars were somewhat replenished by the intermingling with the Northmen, but the population of Gondor seriously decreased again with the coming of the Great Plague in T.A. 1636.[1] The capital was moved from Osgiliath to the less affected Minas Anor, and the fortifications against the re-entry of evil into Mordor were finally abandoned, enabling the return of the Nazgûl there several centuries later. The Plague left Gondor's enemies in no better condition than the realm itself, and neither side was capable of mounting new offensives. In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Great Plague was a disastrous pestilence. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Nazgûl (from Black Speech Nazg (ring) and Gûl (wraith, spirit); Ringwraiths, sometimes written Ring-wraiths), also known as the Nine Riders or Black or Dark Riders (or simply the Nine), are evil servants of Sauron. ...


In 1810 the strengthened Gondor navy defeated the Corsairs of Umbar and retook the haven, but eventually it was lost to the Harad. A new threat appeared four decades later, when one of the Easterling peoples, called the Wainriders, defeated the Northmen and began to raid eastern Gondor. Although the first battles were lost to the invaders, the enemy was stemmed after half a century. The war broke out anew when the Wainriders joined together with the Haradrim in 1944, attacking respectively from the east and from the south. The Northern Army of Gondor, led by King Ondoher and joined by cavalry of the Éothéod, descendants of the Northmen,[7] was defeated. Its survivors linked up with the victorious Southern Army commanded by a talented general Eärnil, and they destroyed the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp once and for all. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Easterlings were Men who lived in the east of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free Peoples. ... Ondoher is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... Eärnil II is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... This article does not make a clear distinction between fact and fiction. ...


Because of the deaths of Ondoher and both his sons in war, Gondor faced a constitutional crisis. Arvedui, heir of the King of Arthedain in the north, claimed the throne of Gondor as a descendant of Isildur and as the husband of Ondoher's daughter, but was denied by the Council of Gondor. For a year the realm was ruled by Pelendur, Steward to King Ondoher, and then the crown was given to the victorious general Eärnil, who came from the House of Anárion and had gained popularity during the war. His son Eärnur, however, became the last King: still during his father's reign, he led the forces of Gondor to the aid of Arthedain in the north and was offended there by the Witch-king of Angmar. Shortly afterwards, the Ringwraiths captured Minas Ithil and took it as their abode; the city was renamed to Minas Morgul, and Minas Anor was changed to Minas Tirith. After Eärnur became King, the Witch-king twice sent messengers tempting him to single combat. At the second challenge in 2050, Eärnur was overcome by wrath and rode with a small company of knights to Minas Morgul, where they never returned from. A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... Arvedui is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... location of Arthedain in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arthedain was one of the three kingdoms of Middle-earth that resulted from the breakup of Arnor during the Third Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings, Pelendur was Steward of Gondor in the year 1944 Third Age. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... Eärnur is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, the thirty-third and last King of Gondor. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl, the Black Captain, and the Morgul-lord, among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ...


Stewardship

At the loss of childless Eärnur, the rule of Gondor was left to the Stewards, due to fears of a new civil war and the absence of a more or less legitimate Heir of Anárion with enough authority and support. By this time Arnor had been destroyed and the Line of Isildur had gone into hiding, so no more claims were expected. The early Stewards enjoyed four centuries of uneasy quiet, known as the Watchful Peace, during which Gondor slowly declined and Sauron's strength grew. In 2475 the Peace was broken with a large attack of Uruk-hai on eastern borders, which, though beaten off, led to the inhabitants' migration from Ithilien and final desolation of Osgiliath. According to The Lord of the Rings, from this time onwards "there was never full peace again" in Gondor, and "its borders were under constant threat".[4] The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Watchful Peace is a relatively peaceful period during the Third Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional realm of Middle-earth, the Uruk-hai (Black Speech: Orc folk) were a new breed of Orcs that appeared during the Third Age. ...


In T.A. 2510 the nation faced a new serious peril: an Easterling tribe, named the Balchoth, invaded northern parts of the realm with mass force. Gondor army marched to fight them, but was cut off from Minas Tirith and pushed back in the direction of the Limlight river. Messengers had already been sent to get help from the allied Éothéod in the north, and in the nick of time their cavalry arrived, turning the tide of the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. In gratitude for their aid, Steward Cirion ceded to them the province of Calenardhon, where the Éothéod established the realm of Rohan with Eorl the Young as their first king. A permanent alliance between Gondor and Rohan was established by the oaths of Eorl and Cirion. In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Easterlings were Men who lived in the east of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free Peoples. ... In Tolkiens Middle-earth, the river Limlight (from Elvish Limlîht) was a stream rising in the eastern Misty Mountains near Treebeards dwellings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Battle of the Field of Celebrant was a fierce battle fought on the the Field of Celebrant, which ultimately led to the creation of the kingdom of Rohan. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Cirion, son of Boromir I, was the twelfth ruling Steward of Gondor. ... For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... Eorl the Young is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, lord of the Éothéod (T.A. 2501–2510) and King of Rohan (T.A. 2510–2545). ...


The later Stewards had to contend with Orcs in Ithilien and with Corsairs of Umbar raiding the coasts. In 2758 Gondor faced another great invasion when five great fleets from Umbar and Harad ravaged the southern shores, and no help was expected from Rohan as the latter was assailed by the Dunlendings and Eaterlings, further weakened by the Long Winter. The invasions were beaten off only in the following year, and help was then sent to Rohan. location of Dunland in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Dunland was a place in north-west Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Long Winter was an extremely cold and long-lasting winter in Middle-earth. ...


Gondor recovered quickly from this war, although its fortunes continued to decline. In 2885[1] Ithilien was invaded from the south by a large force of Haradrim, which was only repelled with the Rohirric help, and several decades later the region was further depopulated due to increased Orc attacks, with several hidden refuges built for the Rangers of Ithilien to continue to strike at the enemy. The last people of Ithilien fled over the Anduin in 2954,[1] when Sauron officially declared himself in Mordor and Mount Doom burst into flame again. In 2980[4][1] the forces of Gondor, led by Aragorn under alias, attacked Umbar and destroyed the Corsair fleet, allowing the Stewards to devote all of their attention to the threat posed by Mordor. In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Rangers of Ithilien, also known as the Rangers of the South and Rangers of Gondor, were an elite group of the Southern Dúnedain warriors who scouted in and guarded Ithilien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Mount Doom, or Orodruin, is a volcano in Mordor where the One Ring was forged in the Crack of Doom, a fiery chasm within the mountain. ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ...


War of the Ring and restoration

Several decades later, Sauron had prepared for the final conquest, and in T.A. 3018 he began the War of the Ring with a capture of Osgiliath. The city was later retaken by Gondorians and several minor conflicts were won, but next year the kingdom faced an all-out attack on its capital Minas Tirith in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, further worsened by the invasion of the Corsairs of Umbar into Lebennin and Belfalas. The combat was won at the cost of great losses, only with the help of the Rohirrim and after the southern lands were cleansed from the enemies by the Dead Men of Dunharrow, summoned by Aragorn. The army of Gondor later engaged in the hopeless Battle of the Morannon, providing an opportunity for the One Ring to be destroyed in the Mount Doom by a hobbit Frodo Baggins. Combatants Free peoples: Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Esgaroth, Erebor, The Shire, Lothlórien, the Woodland Realm and the Fangorn forest Evil forces: Under Sauron: Mordor, Rhûn, Morgul, Harad, Umbar, Khand Under Saruman: Isengard, Dunland Commanders Gandalf (died but later resurrected) Aragorn Théoden† Éomer Denethor† Dáin II† Brand† Galadriel... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Dúnedain of the North Mordor, Harad, Rhûn, Khand, Umbar Participants Gandalf, Éomer, Éowyn, Aragorn, Imrahil, Merry, Denethor†, Théoden† Witch-king of Angmar†, Nazgûl, Gothmog† War of the Ring 1st Fords of Isen - 2nd Fords of Isen - Isengard - Hornburg - Lothlórien - Mirkwood - Osgiliath - Pelennor... In J. R. R. Tolkiens high fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Dead Men of Dunharrow (also referred as the Shadow Host, the Grey Host, the oathbreakers, or simply the Dead) were the shades of Men of the White Mountains (Ered Nimrais), who were cursed to remain in Middle... Combatants Gondor, Rohan, Arnor (Rangers of the North), Eagles Mordor, Harad, Rhûn Participants Gandalf, Imrahil, Éomer, Aragorn, Gwaihir, Legolas, Gimli, Pippin Sauron†, Mouth of Sauron, Khamûl† In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Battle of the Morannon or Battle of the Black Gate is a fictional event... Frodo redirects here. ...


After the second and final defeat of Sauron, the Kingship was restored, with Aragorn crowned as King Elessar of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor, and Faramir, last heir of the Ruling Stewards, retaining his office as the Steward to the King. The oaths between Gondor and Rohan were renewed, and several joint campaigns were fought in the east and south;[8] all former territories of the South-kingdom were won back during the following centuries, and its power and wealth were restored. Several Tolkien's writings state that "of Eldarion son of Elessar it was foretold that he should rule a great realm, and that it should endure for a hundred generations of men after him, that is until a new age brought in again new things; and from him should come the kings of many realms in long days after".[9][6] Properly, the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor is a fictional realm from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... Eldarion Telcontar is a character from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...


Tolkien's perception of further history of the kingdom is illustrated by The New Shadow, an experimental story that he decided to abandon, set during the reign of Eldarion. The author imagined that because of the "quick satiety with good" of Men, "the people of Gondor in times of peace, justice and prosperity, would become discontented and restless ... even so early there was an outcrop of revolutionary plots, about a centre of secret Satanistic religion; while Gondorian boys were playing at being Orcs and going round doing damage".[10] The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Names and etymology

Tolkien intended the name Gondor to represent a sample of Sindarin, an Elven language devised by him, and within the books used by the Dúnedain for nomenclature.[11] The word means "land of stone",[12] and is echoed in the text of The Lord of the Rings by the name for Gondor among the Rohirrim, Stoningland.[13] The implications of these names were not explained by the author, although his early writings suggest that this was a reference to the highly developed masonry of Gondorians in contrast to their rustic neighbours'.[14] This view is supported by the Drúedain terms for Gondorians and Minas Tirith – Stonehouse-folk and Stone-city.[15] Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, the Drúedain, also known as Drûgin (singular being Drug), Woses, Wild Men of the Woods and Púkel-men, were a strange race of Men which was counted amongst the Edain. ...


In addition, Gondor is often referred to in the books as the South-kingdom or Southern Realm, and together with Arnor as the Númenórean Realms in Exile. Researchers Wayne Hammond and Christina Scull has also proposed a Quenya translation of Gondor, Ondonórë.[16] ... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Geography

The physical nature of Gondor is most prominently illustrated by the maps for The Lord of the Rings and Unfinished Tales made by Christopher Tolkien on the basis of his father's sketches, and can be supplemented by several geographical accounts such as The Rivers and Beacon-Hills of Gondor and Cirion and Eorl. In addition, the narrative and appendices of The Lord of the Rings describe the history and nature of particular regions and settlements in the kingdom. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Rivers and Beacon-Hills of Gondor was a historical-etymological essay written by J.R.R. Tolkien sometime after June 1969. ...


Gondor was located in the west of the continent of Middle-earth, and the main part of its territory lay on the northern shores of the Bay of Belfalas and around the White Mountains. Tolkien noted that the capital Minas Tirith was situated on a latitude comparable to that of Venice,[citation needed] and the total area of Gondor as represented on Tolkien's maps was estimated by Karen Wynn Fonstad at 716,426 square miles (1,854,742 km2).[17] To the north-west of the kingdom originally lay the realm of Arnor; to the north, Gondor was neighboured by the Wilderland and, after its settlement, by Rohan; to the north-east, by the land of Rhûn; to the east, by Sauron's realm of Mordor; to the south, by the deserts of Harad. A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Bay of Belfalas was a large southern bay in the Great Sea. ... The White Mountains, a loose translation of the Sindarin Ered Nimrais (White-horn mountains), is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Karen Wynn Fonstad is the author of several atlases of fictional worlds, including: Pern, basis for the Dragon Riders stories by Anne McCaffrey The Atlas of Pern (1984, ISBN 0345314344) The Land, basis for The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant by Stephen R. Donaldson The Atlas of the Land (1985, ISBN... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhovanion or Wilderland was a large region of northern Middle-earth. ... For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... Location of Rhûn in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhûn is a large region of eastern Middle-earth. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... Harad is a town in Saudi Arabia. ...


The original borders of Gondor were: rivers Gwathló and Glanduin up to the Misty Mountains; eaves of the Fangorn forest and river Entwash; marshes of Nindalf and the Mountains of Shadow; and river Poros.[18] At the time of its noontide, the realm extended to river Limlight[19] and south-eaves of Mirkwood; to the western shores of the inland Sea of Rhûn, north of Ered Lithui; and to river Harnen, also including the coastland around Umbar.[4] By the beginning of the War of the Ring, the confines of land fully controlled by Gondor had retreated in the north to rivers Isen and Adorn, line of the White Mountains and the Mering Stream; in the east to Anduin; and in the south back to Poros.[20][21][22] In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Gwathló or Greyflood is a river in middle Eriador. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Glanduin was a river of Eriador and a northern arm of the Gwathló. Beginning in the Hithaeglir south of Khazad-dûm, it flowed west-north-west until it was met by the Sirannon near the old... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... Spoiler warning: Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Entwash was a great river in Rohan, notable for its huge inland delta. ... In the fictional topography of J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth the swamps of Nindalf or Wetwang lie to the south of Emyn Muil and east of the Great River Anduin, fed by the great inland delta of the Entwash. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth, the Ephel Dúath or Mountains of Shadow are a range of mountains that guard Mordors western and southern borders. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Poros was a river in south of Gondor. ... In Tolkiens Middle-earth, the river Limlight (from Elvish Limlîht) was a stream rising in the eastern Misty Mountains near Treebeards dwellings. ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Sea of Rhûn, or the Eastern Sea, is a large saltwater lake or sea in the east of Middle-earth. ... The Ered Lithui (Sindarin for Mountains of Ash) is a fictional mountain range in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Harnen (Southing) was a river south of Gondor. ... Location of the river Isen in Middle-earth. ... Middle-earth, the main setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Mering Stream was a border river of Rohan and Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ...


Regions

Ithilien (Illustration by Matěj Čadil)
Ithilien (Illustration by Matěj Čadil)
Ithilien
The easternmost province of Gondor, lying between the river Anduin and the Mountains of Shadow, subdivided by the stream of Morgulduin into North and South Ithilien.[23] It was a fair and prosperous land during the first part of the Third Age, filled with many woods and gardens, but after the fall of Minas Ithil the population gradually migrated across the Anduin to escape the looming threat of the Ringwraith's city. Ithilien was reoccupied by hardy folk during the Watchful Peace, but most of them fled with the beginning of attacks by Orcs and Haradrim several centuries later, and after the return of Sauron to Mordor the land was finally abandoned. From that time, Ithilien was kept free from Sauron's servants only by the Rangers, who maintained secret refuges such as Henneth Annûn.[4][6]
In the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, Frodo and Sam passed through North Ithilien on their way to Cirith Ungol. The land is described in the text as "a fair country of climbing woods and swift-falling streams", with gentle slopes, "shielded from the east by the Ephel Dúath and yet not under the mountain-shadow, protected from the north by the Emyn Muil, open to the southern airs and the moist winds from the Sea". It is also stated that "a wealth of sweet-smelling herbs and shrubs" and a vast array of tree species grew in Ithilien, some of them having been planted by men in days of peace, and that despite desolation the land "kept still a dishevelled dryad loveliness".[24]
During the Fourth Age, the region was ruled by the Princes of Ithilien, a line that started with Faramir and Éowyn. A colony was settled in Ithilien by the Elves of Mirkwood, welcomed there by Legolas, and "it became once again the fairest country in all the westlands",[25] until after some time all Elves had departed over the Sea.[26]
Anórien
A narrow strip of land consisting of the northern valleys of the White Mountains, bordered by the Mering Stream in the west, the Mouths of the Entwash in the north and Anduin in the east. Anórien is stated to have been well-populated,[20] although no settlements appear in Tolkien's writings, escept for the garrisons of the warning beacons, built along the line of the Great West Road. The name for the region among the Rohirrim is recorded as Sunlending,[27] which echoes the derivation of the Sindarin original from Anor "Sun", in parallel to Ithil "Moon" in Ithilien.
Calenardhon
A vast region of plains and rolling hills north of the White Mountains and west of Anórien; the name translates from Sindarin as "green province".[28] It never had a large population during the early Third Age due to its remote location, and the Great Plague left the province virtually deserted, with many people migrating eastward during the following centuries.[8][29] Forts that were built along the line of Anduin from Emyn Muil to the inflow of Limlight to guard the passage of the river were originally manned by the people of Calenardhon,[7] but were mostly abandoned during the Watchful Peace.[30] In 2510 the Balchoth destroyed the forts and overran Calenardhon up to the White Mountains,[31] and the army of Gondor was only saved by the coming of the Éothéod cavalry out of the north. In gratitude, Steward Cirion granted all Calenardhon to the Éothéod, and the region became the kingdom of Rohan.
Enedhwaith
The wide land between rivers Isen and Greyflood, stated in different Tolkien's writings either to have been held by Gondor and Arnor jointly,[18] to have been a part of the South-kingdom,[4] or to have belonged to neither of them.[19][31] No Númenórean population was present in Enedhwaith except for the town of Tharbad at the crossings of river Gwathló.
Anfalas
A promontory of Gondor between the rivers Lefnui and Morthond, south of the hills of Pinnath Gelin. The name means "long beach" in Sindarin,[32] and is also translated in the texts as Langstrand. It was not densely populated, being distant from the capital and occasionally harassed by the Corsairs of Umbar; the regiments sent to Minas Tirith during the War of the Ring consisted of "men of many sorts, hunters and herdsmen and men of little villages, scantly equipped save for the household of Golasgil their lord".[23]
Belfalas
A fairly settled[23] shoreland between rivers Anduin and Lefnui, after which the great southern Bay was named. Belfalas was formed by an out-thrust peninsula, with highlands in the middle and a large town of Dol Amroth on the western shores. The element falas in the name of the region is a Sindarin word for "shore" or "beach",[32] while bel was stated by Tolkien to derive from a pre-Númenórean name of Elvish origin.[33]
Dor-en-Ernil
Literally, the "Land of the Prince", located in the south of Gondor; its boundaries are not stated, but Christopher Tolkien assumed that it spanned both sides of the highlands in Belfalas. The land was ruled by the Prince of Dol Amroth, subject to the King of Gondor, and was stated by Tolkien to have been populated by Númenóreans since the Second Age.[33][34]
Morthond Vale
The uplands of the river Morthond or Blackroot, rendered to Sindarin as Imlad Morthond in some of Tolkien's texts[35] and described in The Lord of the Rings as a prosperous and densely populated region, except in the vicinity of the Hill of Erech.[36] The regiments sent from the Vale to Minas Tirith consisted of bowmen.[23]
Lamedon
A region formed by a series of valleys on the southern slopes of the White Mountains, separated from Belfalas by highlands; river Ciril sprang from this land. The only reinforcements from this region to Minas Tirith before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields were "a few grim hillmen without a captain",[23] while the greater part of population under their lord Angbor defended the city of Linhir against the Corsairs. After they had been relieved by Aragorn, Angbor led some troops of horsemen to Pelargir and Minas Tirith.[37] The name Lamedon was listed by Tolkien as Sindarin,[34] but no etymology was provided.
Ringló Vale
The land around the northern course of the river Ringló, separated by outliers of the White Mountains from Lamedon in the west and Lebennin in the east.[38] During the War of the Ring, three hundred men were led from this region to Minas Tirith by Dervorin, son of their lord.[23] The name also appears in Sindarin form as Imlad Ringló.[35]
Lebennin
The central and one of the most populated regions of Gondor,[23] bordered by river Anduin in the east and south and by the White Mountains in the north. Lebennin translates from Sindarin as "five waters",[39] which is a reference to the Five Streams that flowed through it: Erui, Sirith, Celos, Serni and Gilrain. The rivers are stated to have fallen swiftly from the mountains,[33] but in Legolas's song Lebennin appears as a region of "green fields" and grasslands with an abundance of flowers.[37] In parts of Lebennin around the Mouths of Anduin lived a fairly numerous fisher-folk.[23]
Lossarnach
A densely populated region of "flowering vales"[13] just to the south of Minas Tirith, locked between the White Mountains and Anduin. The fief was expected to have sent around two thousand warriors to Minas Tirith before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, but because of the threat of the Corsairs of Umbar a far smaller number arrived; these are described in the text as "well-armed and bearing great battle-axes".[23] The element arnach is stated to have been pre-Númenórean and thus of an unknown meaning,[11] while loss was apparently intended to derive from an Elvish stem for "snow", since in early Tolkien's drafts the name appears as Glossarnach.[35][40]
South Gondor
The territory between rivers Harnen and Poros, which belonged to Gondor from the time of King Falastur,[4] but became "a debatable and desert land" by the end of the Third Age.[22] An early Tolkien's working map gives a Sindarin rendering of its name as Harondor.[41]

In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Morgulduin (river of sourcery) was a river of Gondor which began in Cirith Ungol. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Rangers of Ithilien, also known as the Rangers of the South and Rangers of Gondor, were an elite group of the Southern Dúnedain warriors who scouted in and guarded Ithilien. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... For the US heavy metal band, see Cirith Ungol (band). ... Emyn Muil In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth the hills of Emyn Muil upon either side of Nen Hithoel are a maze of impenetrable rocky crags. ... The Dryad by Evelyn De Morgan Dryads are female tree spirits in Greek mythology. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Mering Stream was a border river of Rohan and Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Entwash was a great river in Rohan, notable for its huge inland delta. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ... Emyn Muil In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth the hills of Emyn Muil upon either side of Nen Hithoel are a maze of impenetrable rocky crags. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Easterlings were Men who lived in the east of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free Peoples. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Enedwaith, also spelled Enedhwaith, originally referred to both a region of Middle-earth and the men that inhabited it, although the region Enedwaith retained that name even when the Enedwaith people were no more. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Tharbad was a city on the southern edge of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Gwathló or Greyflood is a river in middle Eriador. ... The river Lefnui occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... The river Morthond exists in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Bay of Belfalas was a large southern bay in the Great Sea. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Dol Amroth is a fictional place being a princedom which forms part of the kingdom of Gondor. ... The river Ciril occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... The river Ringló occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... The river Erui occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, there are two common lists of rivers of Gondor. ... Middle-earth, the main setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, there are two common lists of rivers of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, there are two common lists of rivers of Gondor. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Harnen (Southing) was a river south of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the river Poros was a river in south of Gondor. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Natural features

See also: List of Middle-earth rivers
Andrast
A peninsula in the south-west of Gondor; the name translates from Sindarin as "long cape"[28] and is also given an alternative in some of Tolkien's works, Ras Morthil with the meaning either "cape of dark sheen" or "cape of dark horn".[42] Nominally part of Gondor, Andrast was not populated by the Númenóreans, but colonies of the Drúedain were believed to have survived in the mountains of the cape since the First Age, and the northern parts of the peninsula were known as Drúwaith Iaur.[43]
Pinnath Gelin
Hills in the west of the kingdom, between the White Mountains and Anfalas; the name means "green ridges".[27] Before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, "three hundreds of gallant green-clad men" came from this land to Minas Tirith.[23]
Erech
A hill near the sources of river Morthond, upon which Isildur set the Black Stone brought by him to Middle-earth from Númenor. Local tribes, descendants of the Drúedain, swore allegiance to Isildur on the Stone, but proved treacherous and were cursed by him, remaining as wraiths after their deaths and becoming known as the Dead Men of Dunharrow. The Hill of Erech was their trysting-place, and consequently the land around it remained unsettled, until after the Dead had been summoned to the Stone by Aragorn, fulfilled their oath and had been permitted by him to pass in peace.[36][37] Erech is stated to be untranslatable as deriving from a language of pre-Númenórean inhabitants.[11]
Mornan
A deep cleft on the southern side of the White Mountains, from which sprang the Morthond. Christopher Tolkien stated that the name, which means "black valley",[44] was given to it "not only because of the two high mountains between which it lay, but because through it passed the road from the Gate of the Dead Men, and living men did not go there".[28]
Tarlang's Neck
A narrow pass in the branch of the White Mountains that separated the Morthond Vale in the west from Lamedon in the east.[38] The word tarlang means "stiff neck" in Sindarin,[45] and was stated by Tolkien to have originally been the name of the mountain ridge, later interpreted by folk as a personal name.[46]
Tumladen
The "vales of Tumladen and Lossarnach" appear in The Lord of the Rings as the target of the southward road from Minas Tirith, before it reaches Lebennin.[23] Nothing more is revealed of the former place, the name of which means "level vale"[47] and is also used of the Vale of Gondolin from The Silmarillion.
Imloth Melui
A place noted by the character Ioreth in The Lord of the Rings for exceptionally fragrant roses growing there, possibly located in her homeland of Lossarnach.[48] A Tolkien researcher H. K. Fauskanger has interpreted the name as "lovely flower-vale".[49]
Drúadan Forest
Pine-woods[15] that covered outskirts of the White Mountains in east Anórien, south of the Great West Road. Its name, which is a partial translation of Sindarin Tawar-in-Drúedain,[34] derives from the fact that the forest was populated by the Drúedain or the Wild Men, who survived here since the First Age and shunned the Númenóreans. The Forest was made by Aragorn after his crowning into an independent state under Gondor's protection.[50]
Stonewain Valley
A long narrow cleft in the northern outskirts of the White Mountains, running east-west behind a ridge that connected the hills of Amon Dîn, Eilenach and Nardol and was covered by the Drúadan Forest.[38] The floor of the valley was levelled by the Gondorians in their early days, and a wain-road was made to transport stone from quarries to Minas Tirith, but by the end of the Third Age it became neglected and overgrown. In the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the westward target of the road appears as Min-Rimmon,[15] but elsewhere it is stated that the valley ended at Nardol, where the quarries were located,[34] and Christopher Tolkien showed that the former statement may be erroneous.[51] The name of the valley is also given in Sindarin as Imrath Gondraich.[28]
Grey Wood
"Wide grey thickets"[15] that grew at the eastern end of the Stonewain Valley, between Amon Dîn and the White Mountains. During the War of the Ring they provided a cover for the Rohirrim army on their passage from behind Amin Dîn to the Pelennor Fields.[1]
Tolfalas
An island in the Great Sea close to the Mouths of Anduin, locked between two capes in Belfalas and South Gondor. Its name is derived from Sindarin toll "island" and falas "shore".[32] According to one of Tolkien's outlines, Tolfalas was originally a far greater island, but in the floods following the Downfall of Númenor it "was almost destroyed, and was left at last like a barren and lonely mountain in the water".[52]
Emyn Arnen
A mass of hills at the centre of Ithilien, standing opposite to Minas Tirith across Anduin and around which the river made a bend. From this place originated the line of later Stewards of Gondor,[4] and after the War of the Ring the Lordship of the hills was granted to Faramir, Prince of Ithilien and Steward to the King Elessar. The element arnen in the name was stated by Tolkien to have been of pre-Númenórean origin,[citation needed] while emyn is a Sindarin word for "hills".[53]
Cair Andros
An island in the middle of the river Anduin, around 40 miles north of Osgiliath. Its name means "ship of long-foam", given because "the isle was shaped like a great ship, with a high prow pointing north, against which the white foam of Anduin broke on sharp rocks".[4] Cair Andros was used as a stronghold already at the time of the Kin-strife,[7] and it was "fortified again" to defend Anórien after Ithilien fell to orcs of Mordor.[4]
The garrison at Cair Andros was maintained until the War of the Ring, but it was defeated and the isle overrun shortly before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Later Aragorn, on his march to the Black Gate, sent a small group of soldiers who were afraid of assaulting Mordor to retake the island instead. After the fall of Sauron, Cair Andros served as a transit point during the preparations for the feast at the Field of Cormallen.
Henneth Annûn
A hidden outpost in Northern Ithilien, founded by the command of Steward Turin II shortly after T.A. 2901[1] and maintained the longest of such refuges.[4] Hobbits Frodo and Sam were temporarily brought here by Faramir during the events of The Lord of the Rings. The name of the refuge, which means "window of the sunset" in Sindarin, is derived from the fact that it was formed by a cave behind a west-facing waterfall, the "Window-curtain", stated to have been the "fairest of the falls of Ithilien". The cave had been excavated by the stream that fed the cascade, which had since been diverted by the men of Gondor to fall from doubled height; the tunnel had been sealed, except for a concealed entrance along the brink of a deep pool beneath the waterfall.[54]
Cormallen
A wide green field in Ithilien close to the Henneth Annûn, where the celebrations after the final defeat of Sauron were held.[26] According to Christopher Tolkien, its name means "golden circle" and refers to the culumalda trees that surrounded it.[55]
Emyn Muil
Hills on the course of Anduin, equally distant from Mirkwood and the White Mountains. They were fortified by Gondorians to serve as their north-eastern defence, with the watchtowers built on the hills of Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw on opposite banks of the river, and the Gates of Argonath constructed at the northern entrance into the straits of Anduin as a warning to trespassers.

Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, the Drúedain, also known as Drûgin (singular being Drug), Woses, Wild Men of the Woods and Púkel-men, were a strange race of Men which was counted amongst the Edain. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Drúwaith Iaur or Old Púkel land is a region on the west of Gondor. ... The river Morthond exists in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In the book The Lord of The Rings The Return of the King by J. R. R. Tolkien The Rangers, Legolas, Gimli, and Aragorn ride through the mountain path to summon the dead, then ride through the Morthond valley to the Stone of Erech, where the dead agree to serve. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens high fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Dead Men of Dunharrow (also referred as the Shadow Host, the Grey Host, the oathbreakers, or simply the Dead) were the shades of Men of the White Mountains (Ered Nimrais), who were cursed to remain in Middle... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Gondolin is a hidden city of the Elves founded by Turgon in the First Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, the Drúedain, also known as Drûgin (singular being Drug), Woses, Wild Men of the Woods and Púkel-men, were a strange race of Men which was counted amongst the Edain. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Belegaer, the Great Sea or the Sundering Seas, is the sea of Arda that is west of Middle-earth. ... The Black Gate or Morannon is a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Túrin II was the twenty-third Ruling Steward of Gondor. ... The Culumalda are a fictional tree species created by J.R.R. Tolkien for use in his book trilogy, The Lord Of The Rings; however, the culumalda tree was only ever mentioned once by Christopher Tolkien. ... Emyn Muil In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth the hills of Emyn Muil upon either side of Nen Hithoel are a maze of impenetrable rocky crags. ... Amon Hen (Sindarin for Hill of the Eye) is the name of a fictional hill in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Amon Lhaw (S. Hill of Ear) is a fictional geographical feature in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, The Argonath, also known as The Gates of Argonath or The Pillars of the Kings, is a fictional monument comprising two enormous pillars, carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River...

Settlements

See also: List of Middle-earth roads
Osgiliath
The first capital of the kingdom, situated on the river Anduin. The city was heavily depopulated with the coming of the Great Plague and was finally abandoned after an attack of Uruks in T.A. 2475, remaining as an eastern outpost of Minas Tirith.[4]
Minas Anor (Minas Tirith)
Originally a fortress built by Isildur at the eastern end of the White Mountains as a precaution from the hostile natives,[3] later having become the summer residence of the Kings and finally the capital in 1640.[4]
Minas Ithil (Minas Morgul)
A fortress founded by Anárion in a valley of the Mountains of Shadow to watch the pass into Mordor.[3] It was captured by the Nazgûl in 2002 and remained the chief threat to Minas Tirith, until it was destroyed shortly after the final defeat of Sauron.[48]
Isengard
A fortress at the southern end of the Misty Mountains, built by the Gondorians in the Second Age and maintained throughout the Third by a separate garrison,[31] until it was overrun by Dunlendings in 2710 and after half a century officially granted to Saruman.[8]
Aglarond (Hornburg)
A stronghold built in the Second Age near the Glittering Caves in the west of the White Mountains,[3] which was later ceded to the Rohirrim together with Calenardhon in 2510, with its garrison merging with that of Isengard.[31]
Umbar
Originally a haven on the southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas, ruled the Black Númenóreans. Later it was continuously passing between Gondor and the allies of Haradrim, and was finally recaptured only after the fall of Sauron.[4]
Edhellond
An ancient haven of the Woodland Elves, located at the confluence of Morthond and Ringló. It persisted into the Third Age and was considered a part of Gondor, but by T.A. 1981 all Elves had departed over the Sea.[33]
Dol Amroth
A castle and city on the western shores of Belfalas, named after Amroth of Lothlórien. The citizens of Dol Amroth were of high Númenórean blood[23] and their Princes had an Elvish strain, although Tolkien's writings are contradictory on their descent and actual date of establishment of their line.[33][34]
Pelargir infested by the Corsairs, as depicted in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
Pelargir infested by the Corsairs, as depicted in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
Pelargir
The greatest port of Gondor, situated just above the delta of Anduin in Lebennin;[22] its name means "garth of royal ships" in Sindarin.[56] The city was founded in S.A. 2350, before the Downfall of Númenor, and became the main stronghold in Middle-earth of the Elf-friends.[1] According to an outline, during the floods following the drowning of Númenor "the Bay of Belfalas was much filled at the east and south, so that Pelargir which had been only a few miles from the sea was left far inland".[52]
The ancient haven was "repaired" by King Eärnil I, and it became the main naval base during the Ship-kings' conquests. During the Kin-strife, Castamir the Usurper planned to make Pelargir the capital, and after his defeat his sons and followers retreated to this town and withstood a siege for a year, before fleeting to Umbar.[4] Two centuries later their descendants made a raid up Anduin, ravaging Pelargir and killing King Minardil;[6] from that time, the city was under constant threat of Umbar and Harad. It was refortified by Steward Ecthelion II,[6] but during the War of the Ring Pelargir was overrun by the Corsairs of Umbar, who fled at the coming of the Dead Men of Dunharrow led by Aragorn.[37]
Corsair ships at Harlond, as depicted in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
Corsair ships at Harlond, as depicted in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
Harlond
Quays on Anduin adjacent to Minas Tirith, built on the small space between the river and the southern parts of the Pelennor Wall;[23] the name translates as "south harbour".[53] At this place Aragorn and the men of Lebennin disembarked from the Corsair ships during the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
Calembel
A town in the province of Lamedon, situated on a small hill near the fords over the river Ciril.[36] The name Calembel apparently is Sindarin and means "green enclosure".[57]
Ethring
A settlement in Lamedon near the fords over the river Ringló.[38]
Tarnost
A town marked on Tolkien's working maps of Gondor, where it is placed on the southern side of the pass in the hills between rivers Ringló and Gilrain.[58] The highlands of Belfalas are accordingly designated as "hills of Tarnost" in an outline.[59]
Linhir
A town and port in Lebennin, situated at the ford near the confluence of the rivers Gilrain and Serni, not far from their estuary into the Sea. During the War of the Ring, Linhir was defended by men of both Lebennin and Lamedon against the Haradrim and the Corsairs of Umbar, who retreated at the approaching of the Dead Men of Dunharrow.[37]

In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Osgiliath is a city of Middle-earth, the old capital city of Gondor. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Minas Morgul (Sindarin for Tower of Black Magic), also known by its earlier name Minas Ithil (Tower of the Moon), is a fictional city in J.R.R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth. ... Location of Isengard in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Isengard, a translation of the Sindarin Angrenost, was a large fortress. ... location of Dunland in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Dunland was a place in north-west Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Hornburg is a city of 2. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Arda, a great haven to the far south of Gondor in Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional prehistory of the world (Arda), the Black Númenóreans were men of Númenorean descent that dwelt on the coasts of Middle-earth below the River Anduin from the late Second Age onwards. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Edhellond was an ancient harbour in south Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Dol Amroth is a fictional place being a princedom which forms part of the kingdom of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Amroth was an Elf of Lothlórien. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... Elendili or Elf-friends are, in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, a faction of Númenóreans who advocated continued friendship with the Elves. ... Eärnil I is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and the thirteenth King of Gondor and the second Ship-king. ... Castamir the Usurper is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth Minardil is the twenty-fifth King of Gondor. ... Ecthelion II is, in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the twenty-fifth Ruling Steward of Gondor. ... The river Ciril occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... The river Ringló occurs in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, there are two common lists of rivers of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, there are two common lists of rivers of Gondor. ...

Culture

The earliest inhabitants of the future Gondor territory were the Drúedain, who lived in the vales of the White Mountains and lands adjacent. Later they were harried and mostly ousted by new people coming from the east; these were allied to Sauron and unrelated to the Edain.[43] The coastlands remained unsettled until the beginning of colonisation by the Númenóreans,[18] who either mixed blood with the natives or dispersed them if hostile. The original language of the settlers, Adûnaic, was heavily influenced by local speech and ultimately resulted in Westron, becoming used, at least for intercourse, by the majority of peoples in the west of Middle-earth.[11] In J. R. R. Tolkiens world of Middle-earth, the Drúedain, also known as Drûgin (singular being Drug), Woses, Wild Men of the Woods and Púkel-men, were a strange race of Men which was counted amongst the Edain. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Edain were those Men (humans) who made their way into Beleriand in the First Age, and were friendly to the Elves. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Adûnaic (language of the west) was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ...


The exiles of Númenor that arrived in Middle-earth were far fewer in number than the local folk of mixed descent, and this remained the case throughout the history of Gondor. Only the greatest cities populated by men of more or less "high blood", by the end of the Third Age remaining in the townlands of Minas Tirith and Dol Amroth, while the inhabitants of southern provinces are stated to have been shorter and swarthier. The nobles at first spoke solely the Grey-elven Sindarin, following a custom of the Faithful of Númenor, but with the passing of years they gradually switched to the rustic Westron, so that "at the time of the War of the Ring the Elven-tongue was known to only a small part of the peoples of Gondor, and spoken daily by fewer".[11][23][18] Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Elendili or Elf-friends are, in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, a faction of Númenóreans who advocated continued friendship with the Elves. ...


Except in the matter of language, Tolkien described few characteristic features of Gondor culture. His writings only present highly developed masonry, sea- and smith-craft, and mention the customs of looking "west in a moment of silence" before meal[54] and of saluting "with bowed head and hands upon the breast".[23] An essay that was prepared as one of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings but became compressed contains a reference to currency of the South-kingdom: "In Gondor [Westron word] tharni was used for a silver coin, the fourth part of the castar (in [Sindarin] the canath or fourth part of the mirian)."[60]

See also: Dúnedain and Middle-earth calendar

In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the Dúnedain (singular: Dúnadan) were a fictional race of Men descended from the Númenóreans that survived the fall of their island kingdom and came to Eriador in Middle-earth, led by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion. ... Middle-earth calendar refers to one of the systems of keeping time in the fictional Middle-earth devised by J. R. R. Tolkien, and described in The Lord of the Rings. ...

Government

The Appendices to The Lord of the Rings describe that the head of the state of Gondor was King, who apparently exercised the powers of an absolute monarch. The post passed solely by the male line from the time of Meneldil, to the eldest son of the late king if there was any,[4] and the heir usually "took part in the councils of the realm and the command of the armies".[61] A King was accustomed to command the forces of Gondor in major battles, in which case one of his legitimate heirs would remain behind for preservation of the line and act as a regent.[7] This is a list of Kings of Gondor from the fictional universe of Middle-earth by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Meneldil (S.A. 3318 - T.A. 158) is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ...


The office of the Stewards, in Quenya Arandur "king's servant", was established by Rómendacil I as a precaution against loss of royal traditions and knowledge. A Steward was chosen by the King "as a man of high trust and wisdom, usually advanced in years since he was not permitted to go to war or to leave the realm".[34][21] Over time the post rose in importance, "providing as it were a permanent 'under-study' to the King, and an immediate viceroy at need",[29] and since the days of Tarondor the choice was always made from the family of his Steward Húrin.[6] Another highly authoritative position appeared when King Narmacil I granted to his nephew Minalcar "the new office and title of Carma-cundo "Helm-guardian", that is in terms of Gondor Crown-lieutenant or Regent. Thereafter he was virtually king, though he acted in the names of Narmacil and Calmacil, save in the matters of war and defence over which he had complete authority".[61] The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Rómendacil I was the eighth King of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Tarondor was the twenty-seventh King of Gondor. ... Narmacil I is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth He became the seventeenth King of Gondor after the death of his father Atanatar II Alcarin in 1226 T.A. He was as lazy as his father and was soon tired of being King and... Rómendacil II was a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Calmacil is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth He was the eighteenth King of Gondor and the brother of Narmacil I whom he succeeded as King in 1294 T.A. His reign lasted for ten years in which his son Minalcar (known later as...


After the loss of King Eärnur, his steward Mardil continued to rule Gondor in his name, since Eärnur's death was not affirmed, and Mardil's descendants held to this practice. The Ruling Stewards wielded the authority of the Kings, but never presumed to take the title for themselves: each succeeding Steward swore an oath to yield the rule of the realm back to the King, if he should ever return, although with the passing of centuries the oath became more a formality.[4] The office had become hereditary already with Mardil's grandfather, and thereafter passed to the eldest son if there was any; otherwise, the heir was selected among the near kin by the Council of Gondor.[6] Duties and powers of the latter body are not described, but it is also credited with rejecting Arvedui's claim after the death of Ondoher[4] and should possibly be equated with "the elders" that sent Boromir to Rivendell.[54] Eärnur is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, the thirty-third and last King of Gondor. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Mardil Voronwë was the first Ruling Steward of Gondor. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ...


A special position within the South-kingdom belonged to the Prince of Dol Amroth, who ruled over a land in Belfalas but was subject to the king; according to one of Tolkien's statements, the title was granted to the first Prince by Elendil because of their kingship.[34] An equal authority was later given by Aragorn to Faramir, who became the Prince of Ithilien. Of other Gondor posts, in Tolkien's writings appear "ministers of the Crown concerned with 'intelligence'" who surveyed the palantíri (see below);[29] Captain of the Hosts, borne by future King Falastur during the reign of his father; and Captain of Gondor and Captain-General of Gondor applied to Faramir and Boromir respectively, with the former title also given to Eärnur when he commanded the Gondor army in Arthedain prior to his crowning.[4][24] In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Dol Amroth is a fictional place being a princedom which forms part of the kingdom of Gondor. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Heraldry and heirlooms

The royal standard of Gondor was an image of a white tree in blossom upon sable field, surrounded by seven five-rayed stars and surmounted by a winged crown. This combined references to several symbols of the realm: the White Tree was a unique plant brought by Isildur from Númenor, first planted in Minas Ithil and later three times replanted from seed at Minas Anor; the Crown of Gondor was in the beginning Isildur's war-helmet and later the main symbol of monarchy in the South-kingdom, with wings of a sea-bird being an emblem of the exiled Númenóreans; and the stars "originally represented the single stars on the banners of each of seven ships [out of nine in which Elendil and his sons sailed to Middle-earth] that bore a palantír".[4][27] The palantíri were "seeing-stones" of Elendil, four of which were placed in strongholds of Gondor: Osgiliath, Minas Anor, Minas Ithil and Isengard – and were used by Kings or their servants for surveillance of the lands and communication both within the realm and with Arnor.[29] In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth, the White Tree of Gondor stood as a symbol of Gondor in the Court of the Fountain in Minas Tirith. ... A palantír is a magical artifact from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ...


The Ruling Stewards revered the royal ceremonials and withheld from using most of them, retaining the Kings' throne empty and using "a white rod with a golden knob" as the only token of their lordship. An heirloom of their line was the Horn of Gondor, made by Vorondil the Hunter and borne by the elder son of an acting Steward. During the epoch of the Ruling Stewards, the banner at the top of Minas Tirith was replaced by a plain white flag, although the armour of the Guard of the Citadel still bore devices of tree, crown and stars.[4][23] The Stewards however did maintain the tradition of taking their heirs to the hallowed tomb of Elendil at Halifirien,[21] and just like Kings they were embalmed after death and laid in the Houses of the Dead at the Silent Street behind Minas Tirith.[62] Boromir using the horn in The Fellowship of the Ring (top), and Denethor holding the broken horn in The Return of the King (bottom). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings, Vorondil the Hunter was Steward of Gondor in the year 1998 Third Age. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth legendarium, the Rath Dínen (Sindarin for Silent Street) is the pathway between the city of Minas Tirith and Mindolluin in Gondor. ...


Concept and creation

Tolkien's original thoughts about the later ages of Middle-earth are outlined in his first sketches for the legend of Númenor made in mid-1930s, and already contain conceptions resembling that of Gondor. It is described that the fugitives from the island "became lords and kings of Men" in the west of Middle-earth and soon under the leadership of one Elendil "of Númenórean race" finally overthrew Sauron; a special attention is paid to the exiles' "great tombs" for the dead and to the diminishing of their lifespan.[63]


Development of early history

The ideas were concretized at an early stage during the writing of The Lord of the Rings, beginning with a clearer image of the defeat of Sauron and of the acquisition of the One Ring by "Isildor" son of Elendil,[64] and followed by the slow development of the Númenórean heritage. First to be introduced were their northern descendants – the "Rangers",[65] and the southern people appeared when Tolkien pondered in 1939 over the course of the narrative following the Council of Elrond. As he later recalled, Tolkien thought about "adventures" that the Company would meet on their way to Mordor and considered employing "Stone-Men" as one of them; other preserved notes mention a "city of stone and civilized men", its siege and a "Land of Ond".[14] The name was based upon an already existing stem of Elvish languages, (g)ond with the meaning 'stone'.[12] In J. R. R. Tolkien’s legendarium, the Rangers of the North, also known as the Dúnedain of the North, were the descendants of the Dúnedain from the lost kingdom of Arnor. ...


A new character was immediately introduced: Boromir, a messenger at the Council of Elrond and son of the "King of Ond", whose realm is "besieged by wild men out of the East". Contemporary outlines propose that the main characters would participate in the final battle for the kingdom, already seen as a major climax of story.[66] Another connection between the narrative and the background was achieved with the final solution of the identity of "Trotter": he became Aragorn, "a real ranger" and a descendant of Elendil.[67] This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ...


By the time Tolkien began rewriting "The Council of Elrond" a year later, he had developed a story that Aragorn's ancestors were in past Kings in Boromir's hometown. The citizens were already then conceived as inferior to the Númenóreans, and although at war with Sauron, they were stated to have driven out the heirs of Elendil in a rebellion raised by the Witch-king; these settled in the north and nearly dwindled. At the same time a conception emerged that Elendil had several sons – Ilmandur, Isildur and Anárion – and that the descendants of only one of them survived the war with Sauron.[68]


Ilmandur was discarded at once, but the fate of others remained fluid for some time; Christopher Tolkien assumed that at first it was the son of Isildur that should have inherited the kingship, but was refused the entry into his city due to Sauron's machinations and went to the north.[68] This was replaced by the story that the Land of Ond was ruled by the descendants of Anárion until their failing, while Isildur's son remained at Rivendell and after the death of his father established another realm in the north.[69] Later Tolkien decided that the northern kingdom was founded at the same time with "Ondor", as the southern realm was now renamed, and proposed Elendil and his brother Valandil as respective founders,[70] before settling on the final conception of the co-reigning of Isildur and Anárion.[71] Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Development of geography

The three greatest cities of the Land of Ond were introduced together with the sons of Elendil during the rewriting of "The Council of Elrond" chapter, and originally corresponded to each of them: Osgiliath to Ilmandur, Minas Anor to Anárion, Minas Ithil to Isildur; after the rejection of Ilmandur, Osgiliath temporarily became Elendil's hometown, until the emergence of the final story. The ultimate fate of the cities – loss of Minas Ithil and abandonment of Osgiliath – was present from the start, as well as the later names Minas Tirith and Minas Morgol [sic].[68] Around the same time Tolkien's ideas about the location of the Land of Ond first received written form. The role of anchors was played by the Great River of the Wilderland from The Hobbit, which now was stated to pass through Osgiliath, by Mordor just to the east of Minas Ithil, by the "land of the Horse-lords" conceived of some time before and now neighbouring Ond, and by the "Black Mountains", precursors of the White.[72][73] In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, Anduin is the Sindarin name for the Great River of Wilderland, the longest river in the Third Age (the original Sindarin name means Long River). ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ...


Next element to be introduced was the "Land of Seven Streams"; Tolkien was hesitant for some time about its relation to other places, writing at different times that it was located north or south of Black Mountains, within the Land of Ond or separate from it. First to be conceived of were the rivers Greyflood or the "seventh river", Isen, and Silverlode, the last one soon changed to Blackroot – but without any reference to the sources of such a name.[74][73] The three of them appear roughly at their final places on the original Tolkien's working map of the southern lands, as well as all locations mentioned above, the approximate line of coast, including Tolfalas, and the forerunner of Dol Amroth, apparently brought about with the development of the legend of Nimrodel while writing the "Lothlórien" chapter.[41][75]


The need for a clearer image of the southern lands arose when Tolkien came to plan the narrative after the halt at Lothlórien. Further development of geography was compared by Christopher Tolkien to his father's notes on the creation process: "I wisely started with a map, and made the story fit".[76] A new redrawing of the map of "Ondor" advances on the layout of the mountains and rivers and introduces new locations: Ithilien; Anarion [sic], which combines later Anórien and Lossarnach; "Belfalas (Langstrand)", in place of later Anfalas; rivers Ringló and Harnen; and controversial "Lebennin (Land of Seven Streams)", extending in the west to the later Morthond and covering either seven or five rivers, depending on its eastern border.[41] Umbar and "Harondor (S. Gondor)" also first appeared on this map,[77] while the land to the north of the Black Mountains was developed in the context of Rohan and of Emyn Muil. For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... Emyn Muil In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth the hills of Emyn Muil upon either side of Nen Hithoel are a maze of impenetrable rocky crags. ...


A change in the perception of the eastern confines of Gondor was brought about with the development in 1944 of Frodo's journey to Mordor. At first Tolkien decided to move Minas Morgul northward, in order to combine its functions with the two towers that guarded the only passage into the Land of Shadow, but almost immediately he restored the older conception and introduced a secret pass above Minas Morgul.[78] A new turn in the narrative – extension of Frodo's journey southwards – led to elaboration of Ithilien, which was "proving a lovely land" to Tolkien's surprise.[79] At the same time he decided to rename the Black Mountains into White, possibly to contrast them from the Mountains of Shadow,[80] and introduced the refuge of Henneth Annûn, at first trying out several experimental names such as Henneth, Henlo or Henuil for "window" combined with Nargalad "fiery light", Carandûn "red west" or Malthen "golden".[81][82]


Later that year Tolkien began the chapters dealing with central Gondor, and in his sketches first appear the beacons of Anórien, "immense concentric walls" of Minas Tirith, the idea that Aragorn would come to Minas Tirith passing south of the White Mountains, and the towns of Erech and Pelargir.[77] This led in 1946 to meticulous development of the geography of southern Gondor. While working upon the "Homeric catalogue", as he called it, of the reinforcements coming to Minas Tirith, Tolkien devised the names Lossarnach, Anfalas, Lamedon and Pinnath Gelin,[35] all of which appear on a new version of the map in final locations with the exception of Lamedon, first placed in northern Lebennin and later moved westward. The rivers acquired final courses and names, except Gilrain, then called Lamedui; Celos, which flowed into Lamedui instead of Sirith; and Calenhir, a tributary of Morthond discarded later. The gulf into which flowed Ringló and Morthond was designated as "Cobas Haven", a name afterwards lost.[58] This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ...


Final changes in the geography were caused by the intensification of the scene of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields: the distance between Osgiliath and Minas Tirith was reduced by four times;[35] the northern regions became guarded by "Tol Varad (the Defended Isle)", later renamed Men Falros "place of foam-spray" and then Cair Andros;[83][84] the inhabitants of the newly introduced Drúadan Forest enabled the Rohirrim to pass freely to Minas Tirith;[51] and the hills of Emyn Arnen (originally Haramon "southern hill") justified creating a bend in Anduin so that the revelation of Aragorn and his reinforcements occurred closer to the battlefield, at the quays of Harlond (at first Lonnath-ernin "Arnen-havens").[85][58][53]


Geography of southern Gondor was developed concurrently, in outlines for the story of Aragorn's march to Pelargir, and the distances between the cities and their exact locations were calculated with high precision to accord with the narrative chronology. Erech became temporarily viewed as the landing-place of Isildur and was consequently moved from the sources of Morthond, first in between the mouths of Anduin and Lamedui, then to north-west of the Cobas Haven, and finally retuned to its original site with the abandonment of this idea.[59] Other places were introduced one by one: Linhir (first placed at the confluence of Ringló and Morthond), Tarnost, Tarlang's Neck, and Calembel (originally Caerost).[59][86]


Extension of the Third Age

Christopher Tolkien gathered that originally his father imagined only two or three centuries between the first fall of Sauron and the War of the Ring, foreseeing no complicated events to have happened during this time.[87] With the progress of the narrative during 1941–2 to the breaking of the Fellowship and the war in Rohan, particular aspects in the history and culture of the South-kingdom were introduced one by one: alliance with the Rohirrim and ceding a province to them, in gratitude for their help in the first war with Sauron;[88] the White Tree and the winged crown, at first just as vague images in Aragorn's song;[89] the spelling Gondor;[90] and the palantíri, with Hornburg and Isengard made into former Gondor fortresses and sights of two out of five Stones in the South-kingdom.[91] At a later point, the fifth palantír was imagined to have been at Erech, before being discarded overall.[86] A palantír is a magical artifact from J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ...


When the narrative passed into Ithilen, Tolkien introduced the Rangers of that land,[80] with Faramir, brother of Boromir, as their captain. In speeches of this new character many of the author's conceptions about the history of Gondor either emerged for the first time or were only now set to paper: Boromir's horn was perceived to have been unique, "reasons of decline of Gondor" and its ethnic diversity textually elaborated, the Stewards first referred to, and the surrender of the "fields of Elenarda" to the Rohirrim was postponed to the epoch of the Stewardship and temporarily became regarded not as a gift from Gondor but as an enforcement by the Horse-lords.[81] Most elements of the South-kingdom culture were introduced during the writing of Book V, such as ceremonials of retaining Kings' throne empty by the Stewards[77] and burying the rulers behind Minas Tirith,[35] as well as the royal banner of the Kings, originally described as "crown and stars of Sun and Moon".[92] This article is about the son of Denethor. ...


The notion that the Third Age lasted "about 3000 years" was first written down when Tolkien began to sketch out the history of Númenor and Westlands. Further on, he departed from the date of the foundation of the Realms in Exile, calculated at 3320 of the Second Age on the basis of average reigns of the Kings in Númenor; from the duration of the time of peace before the war of the Last Alliance, approximated at 100 years; and from the date of the failing of the Kings in Gondor, proposed as T.A. "c.2000".[52][9] Original drafts for the account of the rulers of South-kingdom are not preserved, and in the earliest extant manuscript, ascribed by Christopher Tolkien to 1949-50,[52][9] many events of the final history are already present. The rest entered in early revisions, namely the constant conflicts with Umbar; the attacks of the Wainriders, which replaced original wars with the Ringwraiths; the Battle of the Field of Celebrant and the gift of Cirion; and the Long Winter. The depopulation of Osgiliath was first placed some 200 years later, the fall of Minas Ithil was moved back and forth in time, and the last king Eärnur was originally stated to have never returned from a war against Mordor, with the Witch-king challenging him "to fight for the palantir of Ithil" when this element first entered.[6]


The appendices to The Lord of the Rings were brought to a finished state in 1953-54, but a decade later, during preparations for the release of the Second Edition, Tolkien elaborated the events that had led to the Kin-strife and introduced the regency of Rómendacil II.[61] The final development of the history and geographical nature of Gondor took place around 1970, in the last years of Tolkien's life, when he invented justifications for the place-names and wrote full narratives for the stories of Isildur's death and of the battles with the Wainriders and the Balchoth (published in Unfinished Tales).[93]


Reception

The remains of the Númenórean civilization were often likened by Tolkien to the culture of the Mediterranean. He made a trip to Italy soon after completing The Lord of the Rings, and later wrote that "Venice seemed incredibly, elvishly lovely – to me like a dream of Old Gondor, or Pelargir of the Númenórean Ships, before the return of the Shadow".[94] Similar comparisons were drawn by later researches, who observed the resemblance of the history of Gondor to an early medieval myth of the restoration of the Roman Empire (see Further reading). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Adaptations

Gondor as it appeared during in Peter Jackson's film adaptation of The Lord of the Rings has been compared to the Byzantine Empire, for numerous reasons. The production team noted this in DVD commentary, explaining their decision to include some Byzantine domes into Minas Tirith architecture and to have civilians wear Byzantine-styled clothing. The soldiers garrisoned in Minas Tirith are based heavily on Byzantine infantry used up until the end of the First Crusade. Both the Byzantine Empire and Gondor were only echoes of the old greatness of the earlier Roman Empire and the unified kingdom of Elendil. However, they were still strong in their own right. For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Belligerents Christendom: Holy Roman Empire Genoa Lower Lorraine Provence Kingdom of France Blois Boulogne Flanders Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois Kingdom of England Normandy Duchy of Apulia Taranto Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Cilicia Saracen: Great Seljuq Empire Danishmends Fatimids Almoravids Abbasids Commanders Guglielmo Embriaco Godfrey of Bouillon Raymond IV Stephen...


See also

Middle-earth Portal

Image File history File links Arda. ... This is a list of Kings of Gondor from the fictional universe of Middle-earth by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Stewards of Gondor were rulers from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium of Middle-earth. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Return of the King, Appendix B, pp. 362–376
  2. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, no. 173, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  3. ^ a b c d e Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", pp. 290–304, ISBN 0-395-25730-1 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Return of the King, Appendix A, I (iv), pp. 323–336
  5. ^ Unfinished Tales, "Disaster of the Gladden Fields"
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Peoples, "The Heirs of Elendil", pp. 197–206, 211–220
  7. ^ a b c d Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (i)
  8. ^ a b c Return of the King, Appendix A, II, pp. 343–4, 347, 350
  9. ^ a b c Peoples, "The Tale of Years of the Third Age", p. 245; 225–6
  10. ^ Carpenter 1981, nos. 256, 338
  11. ^ a b c d e Return of the King, Appendix F, "Of Men", p. 405
  12. ^ a b Etymologies, entries GOND-, NDOR-
  13. ^ a b Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields", p. 124–5
  14. ^ a b Return of the Shadow, "New Uncertainties and New Projections", pp. 379–381
  15. ^ a b c d Return of the King, "The Ride of the Rohirrim", p. 104–8
  16. ^ Hammond, Wayne & Scull, Christina (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, London: HarperCollins, "The Great River", p. 347, ISBN 0-00-720907-X 
  17. ^ Fonstad, Karen Wynn (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 191, ISBN 0-618-12699-6 
  18. ^ a b c d Peoples, "Of Dwarves and Men", p. 312–6 and notes 66, 76.
  19. ^ a b Unfinished Tales, "History of Galadriel and Celeborn", Appendices C and D
  20. ^ a b Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (iii)
  21. ^ a b c Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (iv)
  22. ^ a b c Unfinished Tales, map of the West of Middle-earth
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Return of the King, "Minas Tirith", pp. 22, 24–7, 36, 38, 41, 43
  24. ^ a b Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", p. 258; 265–6, ISBN 0-395-08254-4 
  25. ^ Return of the King, Appendix A, III, p. 360
  26. ^ a b Return of the King, "The Field of Cormallen", p. 232–5
  27. ^ a b c Return of the King, Index, entries Sunlending, Pinnath Gelin, Star
  28. ^ a b c d Unfinished Tales, Index, entries Calenardhon, Andrast, Morthond, Stonewain Valley
  29. ^ a b c d Unfinished Tales, "The Palantíri"
  30. ^ Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (ii)
  31. ^ a b c d Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen", Appendix (ii)
  32. ^ a b c Etymologies, entries ÁNAD-, PHÁLAS-, TOL2-
  33. ^ a b c d e Unfinished Tales, "History of Galadriel and Celeborn": "Amroth and Nimrodel"
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", notes 14, 39, 49, 51, 53
  35. ^ a b c d e f War of the Ring, "Minas Tirith", pp. 276, 287–294
  36. ^ a b c Return of the King, "The Passing of the Grey Company", pp. 55, 62–3
  37. ^ a b c d e Return of the King, "The Last Debate", pp. 150–3, 157
  38. ^ a b c d Return of the King, map of Gondor
  39. ^ Etymologies, entries LEP-, NEN-
  40. ^ Etymologies, entry GOLÓS-
  41. ^ a b c Treason, "The First Map", pp. 295–323
  42. ^ Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis", note 6; Etymologies, entries MOR-, THIL-, TIL-
  43. ^ a b Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
  44. ^ Etymologies, entries MOR-, NAD-
  45. ^ Etymologies, entries TÁRAG-, LANK-
  46. ^ Lobdell, Jared, ed. (1985), A Tolkien Compass, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings", p. 193
  47. ^ Etymologies, entries TUB-, LAT-
  48. ^ a b Return of the King, "The Houses of Healing", pp. 130–2, "The Steward and the King", p. 244; 247
  49. ^ Fauskanger, Helge Kåre. Sindarin - the Noble Tongue. Ardalambion. Retrieved on 2008-05-12.
  50. ^ Return of the King, "Many Partings", p. 254
  51. ^ a b War of the Ring, "The Ride of the Rohirrim", pp. 343–352
  52. ^ a b c d Peoples, "The Tale of Years of the Second Age", pp. 183; 166–7; 177
  53. ^ a b c Etymologies, entries AM2-, KHYAR-, LOD-
  54. ^ a b c Two Towers, "The Window on the West", pp. 288–9; 291; 280
  55. ^ Silmarillion, Appendix, entry mal-
  56. ^ Silmarillion, Index, entry Pelargir
  57. ^ Etymologies, entries KAL-, PEL(ES)-
  58. ^ a b c War of the Ring, "The Second Map", pp. 433–9
  59. ^ a b c Tolkien, J. R. R. (1992), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Sauron Defeated, Boston, New York, & London: Houghton Mifflin, "The Story of Frodo and Sam in Mordor", pp. 15–7, ISBN 0-395-60649-7 
  60. ^ Peoples, "The Appendix on Languages", p. 45
  61. ^ a b c Peoples, "The Making of Appendix A", pp. 258–261. Letter c in names are used for original k.
  62. ^ Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor", p. 100
  63. ^ Lost Road, "The Fall of Númenor", pp. 8–12, 16–18, 28–29
  64. ^ Return of the Shadow, "Ancient History", pp. 260–1, 270–1
  65. ^ Return of the Shadow, "The Third Phase (2)", pp. 331–2
  66. ^ Return of the Shadow, "In the House of Elrond", pp. 398, 410–1; "The Mines of Moria", p. 462
  67. ^ Treason, "Gandalf's Delay", pp. 8–10
  68. ^ a b c Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 116, 119–122
  69. ^ Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 121, 126–9
  70. ^ Lost Road, "The Fall of Númenor", pp. 33–34; Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 122–4. These texts were written later than "The Lord of Moria", where the form "Ond" is still used (Treason, p. 177), and before the relevant passage in the "fifth version" of "The Council of Elrond", where river Lhûn is present from the start.
  71. ^ Treason, "The Council of Elrond (2)", pp. 144–7
  72. ^ Return of the Shadow, "The Ring Goes South", p. 434–440
  73. ^ a b Treason, "The Lord of Moria", pp. 177, 187
  74. ^ Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", p. 132; "Farewell to Lórien", pp. 272, 282
  75. ^ Treason, "Lothlórien", p. 223 ff.
  76. ^ Carpenter 1981, no. 144
  77. ^ a b c War of the Ring, "Book Five Begun and Abandoned", pp. 231, 243, 262, 265, 268–270
  78. ^ War of the Ring, "The Passage of the Marshes", pp. 106, 113
  79. ^ Carpenter 1981, no. 64
  80. ^ a b War of the Ring, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", pp. 135–7
  81. ^ a b War of the Ring, "Faramir", pp. 146–164
  82. ^ Etymologies, entries NAR1-, KAL-, KARÁN-, NDŪ-, SMAL-
  83. ^ War of the Ring, "The Siege of Gondor", p. 326
  84. ^ Etymologies, entries MEN-, PHAL-, ROS1-
  85. ^ War of the Ring, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields", pp. 370–2
  86. ^ a b War of the Ring, "The Last Debate", pp. 397–9, 411, 419
  87. ^ Treason, "The Great River", p. 361–2; "The King of the Golden Hall", pp. 442–4, 450
  88. ^ Treason, "The Story Foreseen from Lórien", p. 330, "The Story Foreseen from Fangorn", p. 437; War of the Ring, "Helm's Deep", p. 21
  89. ^ Treason, "The Riders of Rohan", pp. 395–6
  90. ^ Treason, "Notes on Various Topics", p. 423
  91. ^ War of the Ring, "The Palantír", pp. 64–77
  92. ^ War of the Ring, "The Story Foreseen from Forannest", pp. 359, 363
  93. ^ Peoples, "Late Writings", p. 293
  94. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, "Cash or kudos", p. 225, ISBN 0-04-928037-6 
General references

Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... ... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Karen Wynn Fonstad is the author of several atlases of fictional worlds, including: Pern, basis for the Dragon Riders stories by Anne McCaffrey The Atlas of Pern (1984, ISBN 0345314344) The Land, basis for The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant by Stephen R. Donaldson The Atlas of the Land (1985, ISBN... The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad is an atlas of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional realm of Middle-earth. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the novel. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... ... The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... The Etymologies is a document edited by Christopher Tolkien which appears in the History of Middle-earth: The Lost Road and Other Writings. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ...

Further reading

  • Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif (2006). "Gondor", in Drout, Michael D. C.: J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge, 248–249. ISBN 0-415-96942-5. 
  • Ford, Judy Ann. "The White City: The Lord of the Rings as an Early Medieval Myth of the Restoration of the Roman Empire." Tolkien Studies 2 (2005): 53-73
  • Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif. "Myth, Late Roman History and Multiculturalism in Tolkien's Middle-earth." In Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader (2004): 101-18

Michael D. C. Drout (1968- ) is the Prentice Associate Professor of English at Wheaton College and an author and editor specialzing in Anglo-Saxon and medieval literature, science fiction and fantasy, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and Ursula K. LeGuin. ... The J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia, subtitled Scholarship and Critical Assessment, edited by Michael D.C. Drout, was published by Routledge in 2006 (ISBN 978-0415969420). ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Tolkien Studies: An Annual Scholarly Review is an academic journal, ISSN 1547-3155, containing papers on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, edited by Douglas A. Anderson, Michael D. C. Drout, and Verlyn Flieger. ...

External links

  • Gondor at Thain's Book
Tolkien redirects here. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin is an epic high fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... This is a list of articles related to J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article aims to list all articles on Wikipedia that are related to J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is a list of all books by J. R. R. Tolkien and writings contained in these books (stories, essays, poems, etc. ... Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... In the fiction of J.R.R. Tolkien, Lond Daer Enedh (also spelt Ened) was a great harbour in Eriador founded by the Númenóreans. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Arda, a great haven to the far south of Gondor in Middle-earth. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dorwinion or Dor-Winion, the Land of Wines, is a land which lay on the northwestern shores of the Sea of Rhûn. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Edhellond was an ancient harbour in south Gondor. ... location of Eregion in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Eregion or Hollin was a kingdom of the Noldorin Elves in Eriador during the Second Age, located near the West Gate of Khazad-dûm under the shadow of the Hithaeglir (Misty Mountains). ... Spoiler warning: In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) in the northwest of Middle-earth. ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, two places are known as Lórien, both exceptionally beautiful. ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Belegost was one of two Dwarven cities in the Ered Luin. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Spoiler warning: Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For the US heavy metal band, see Cirith Ungol (band). ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fictional legendarium of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. ... location of Arthedain in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arthedain was one of the three kingdoms of Middle-earth that resulted from the breakup of Arnor during the Third Age. ... Bree is a fictional village in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain. ... Cardolan is a fictional country from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Dale is a town in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Dol Amroth is a fictional place being a princedom which forms part of the kingdom of Gondor. ... location of Dunland in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Dunland was a place in north-west Middle-earth: the land of the Dunlendings. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Éothéod (horse-people, also horse-land) were a race of Northmen who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim. ... Esgaroth upon the Long Lake, also known as Lake-town, is a fictional community of Men in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Harad is a town in Saudi Arabia. ... The stories of J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, the Kingdom of Rhovanion was a realm of Men. ... Rhudaur is a fictional country from J. R. R. Tolkien universe of Middle-earth. ... Location of Rhûn in Middle-earth marked in red In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Rhûn is a large region of eastern Middle-earth. ... For other uses, see Rohan (disambiguation). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Arda, a great haven to the far south of Gondor in Middle-earth. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Spoiler warning: In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) in the northwest of Middle-earth. ... In J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, two places are known as Lórien, both exceptionally beautiful. ... For the game Mirkwood, see Mirkwood (mud). ... Location of Rivendell in Middle-earth marked in red Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Belegost was one of two Dwarven cities in the Ered Luin. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, the Lonely Mountain (Sindarin Erebor) is a mountain in the northeast of Rhovanion. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Ered Mithrin or Grey Mountains was a large mountain range to the north of Rhovanion. ... The Iron Hills are a range of mountains in the north of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional world of Middle-earth, east of the Lonely Mountain, that are home to a Dwarf mining community. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was an ominous name given by the Eldar to what had once been an enormous underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Bree is a fictional village in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain. ... The Gladden Fields (Sindarin Loeg Ningloron) is a fictional location in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Spoiler warning: Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Dorwinion or Dor-Winion, the Land of Wines, is a land which lay on the northwestern shores of the Sea of Rhûn. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... location of Angmar in Middle-earth marked in red Angmar (Sindarin: Iron-home) is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... Barad-dûr and Mount Doom in Peter Jacksons film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. ... In the fictional world of J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, Dol Guldur, or Hill of Sorcery, was a stronghold of Sauron located in the south of Mirkwood. ... Location of Isengard in Middle-earth marked in red In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Isengard, a translation of the Sindarin Angrenost, was a large fortress. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ...

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Les Archives de Gondor :: Site consacré à l'oeuvre de J.R.R. Tolkien (458 words)
Les Archives de Gondor :: Site consacré à l'oeuvre de J.R.R. Tolkien
Bienvenue sur Les Archives de Gondor, site consacré à l'oeuvre de J.R.R. Tolkien, et plus particulièrement à l'étude du Seigneur des Anneaux et du Hobbit et de leurs adaptations.
Cette partie comprend une présentation du Seigneur des Anneaux et de son prologue; Bilbo le Hobbit.
Gondor (9883 words)
At the end of the Third Age, Gondor included the lands south of the White Mountains between the River Lefnui and the Anduin; the region called Anorien north of the White Mountains between the Mering Stream and the Anduin; and Ithilien east of the Anduin on the borders of Mordor.
The region of South Gondor between the Poros and the River Harnen was disputed between Gondor and Harad.
Gondor was the Kingdom of the Dunedain in the South, while Arnor was the Kingdom of the Dunedain in the North.
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