FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Gondophares" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gondophares
Gondophares
Indo-Parthian king
Profile of Gondophares, on one of his coins, minted in Gandhara. He wears a headband, hearings, a necklace, and a cross-over jacket with round decorations.
Reign Indo-Parthian: 21 CE - 47 CE

Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. "Conqueror of the farn", Greek: ΥΝΔΟΦΕΡΡΗΣ (gen. -ΟΥ), Pali: Gudaphara, other Indian names: Gondapharna, Guduvhara, Armenian: Gastaphar) was the first king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. A member of the Parthian Suren-Pahlav Clan, he seems to have ruled from 21 CE for at least 26 years. He took over the Kabul valley and the Punjab area from the Kushan king Kujula Kadphises. The extent of his territory is indicated by the distribution of 19th century finds of his coins. He assumed the Hellenistic title autokratôr that was adopted by his Arsacid rivals to the West. Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (664 × 844 pixel, file size: 1. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... This article is about the year 21. ... This article is about the year 47. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Crest of Suren-Pahlav Clan. ... This article is about the year 21. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ...

Contents

Origin

Gondophares (formally known as Rustaham-Gondofarr Suren-Pahlav) seems to have been the youngest son or one of the descendants of Eran-Spahbodh Rustaham Suren-Pahlav, the victorious Parthian general of the Battle of Carrhae, known as "Surena" in Western sources. Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionnaires 4,000 cavalry 4,000 light infantry 9,000 cavalry archers 1,000 Cataphract Casualties 20,000 dead 10,000 captured 4,000 wounded Minimal The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought... Bronze Stature of General Surena, National Museum of Iran. ...


Chronology

Gondophares on horse, from his coinage (Click image for reference).
Gondophares on horse, from his coinage (Click image for reference).
Gondophares's Crest
King Gondophares's Crest according to Iranian sources.

On the coins of Gondophares, the royal names are Parthian, but the other legends of the coins are in Greek and Kharoṣṭhī. A votive inscription of the 26th year of Gudavhara or Gondophares, is reported to have been found on a stone at Takht-i-Bahi, northeast of Peshawar with a date in the year 103 of an unspecified era reckoning. This era is likely to have been the Malva or Vikrama era, founded in 57 BCE, this would give a date of 20 CE for his ascension (see Hindu calendar). The stone was formerly in the museum at Lahore. The point is especially important for those Christians who consider that a germ of history is embedded in the Acts of Thomas. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (747 × 1094 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png) Copyright © Khodayar Bahrami Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (747 × 1094 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png) Copyright © Khodayar Bahrami Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 316 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (385 × 729 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyright © Khodayar Bahrami - Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 316 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (385 × 729 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyright © Khodayar Bahrami - Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The KharoṣṭhÄ« script, also known as the GāndhārÄ« script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus... Takht Bhai (or Takht-i-Bahai or Takht-i-Bahi) is a site of historical importance in the Mardan District of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Peshāwar (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Events Roman Empire Tiberias is built on the Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas, in honour of Tiberius. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ... The early 3rd century text called Acts of Thomas is arguably the most Gnostic of the New Testament apocrypha, portraying Christ as the Heavenly Redeemer, independent of and beyond creation, who can free souls from the darkness of the world. ...


The Indo-Parthian kingdom with its capital at Kabul barely lasted one century. It started to fragment under Gondophares' successor Abdagases I. The eastern part was conquered by the Kushans around 75 CE. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Abdagases I, nephew of Gondophares evident from his coin — a copper Tetradrachm — continued ruling up to ca. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ...


After that point the kingdom was essentially restricted to Afghanistan. The last Indo-Parthian king, Pacores (100-135 CE), only ruled Sakastan and Turan. Pacores or Pakores was an Indo-Parthian king who ruled from 100-130 AD. He is well-known from coins minted in Seistan and Kandahar, mostly silver drachms and tetradrachms. ... -1... For other uses, see number 135. ... Sakastan Sakasthana or Sakasthan is a term indicating certain regions of the South Asia where the Scythians or Sakas settled around 100 BC. Sakastan region includes southern Afghanistan; Punjab, NWFP, and Sindh provinces of Pakistan; Northern Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab states of India. ... For the ideology of uniting Ural Altaic peoples, see Turanism. ...


Visit of St Thomas

Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first king of the Indo-Parthians.
Obv: Bust of Gondophares and Greek legend: ΒΑϹΙΛΕΩϹ ϹΩΤΗΡΟϹ ΥΝΔΟΦΕΡΡΟΥ "King Gondophares, the Saviour".
Rev: Winged Nike holding a diadem, with a Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA GUDAPHANISA TRATARASA "King Gondophares, the Saviour".

Gondophares is connected to St Thomas in early Christian traditions embodied in the Acts of Thomas. In that miracle-filled romance Thomas was sold in Syria to Habban, an envoy of Gondophares, and travelled in slavery by sea to India, was presented to Gondophares to undertake the erection of the building the king required: Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Events Roman Empire Tiberias is built on the Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas, in honour of Tiberius. ... This article is about the year 50. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... The early 3rd century text called Acts of Thomas is arguably the most Gnostic of the New Testament apocrypha, portraying Christ as the Heavenly Redeemer, independent of and beyond creation, who can free souls from the darkness of the world. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ...

"According to the lot, therefore, India fell unto Judas Thomas... And while he thus spake and thought, it chanced that there was there a certain merchant come from India whose name was Abbanes, sent from the King Gundaphorus, and having commandment from him to buy a carpenter and bring him unto him." Acts of Thomas, I, 1-2 [1]
"Now when the apostle was come into the cities of India with Abbanes the merchant, Abbanes went to salute the king Gundaphorus, and reported to him of the carpenter whom he had brought with him. And the king was glad, and commanded him to come in to him." Acts of Thomas I, 17 [2]

Thomas instead spent all the king's money on alms, and as a consequence was imprisonned by him. Allegedly, Gondophares ultimately rehabilitated Thomas and recognized the validity of Christianity.


Passing on to the realm of another king, named in the Syrian versions as "Mazdai" (thought to refer to the Kushan king Vasudeva), he allegedly suffered martyrdom before being redeemed. St Thomas thereafter went to Kerala and baptized the natives, whose descendants form the Saint Thomas Christians. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Vasudeva is one of the many names of God in Sanatana Dharma. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ...

Profile of king Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian kingdom, according to his clearest coins.
Profile of king Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian kingdom, according to his clearest coins.[3]

The fanciful legendary material of much of the Acts, which approaches the genre of Romance, as well as some of its unmistakably unorthodox theology, made its historicity dismissible for many centuries. "Gondophares" was dismissed as an invention. Then in 1854 General Alexander Cunningham reported (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal vol.xxiii. pp.679-712) that since the British had been in Afghanistan an estimated 30,000 coins bearing Greek and Indian legends had been found in Afghanistan and the Punjab. The mintings covered three centuries after the conquests of Alexander: coins in the hoards were minted for Scythian conquerors and for Parthian kings such as Gondophares, who thereby emerged from pious legend into history (Medlycott 1905). Image File history File links GondopharesProfile. ... Image File history File links GondopharesProfile. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Alexander Cunningham (23 January 1814–28 November 1893) was an English archaeologist and army engineer, known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Biblical Magi "Gaspar"

The name of Gondaphares was translated in Armenian in "Gastaphar", and then in Western languages into "Gaspard". He may be the "Gaspard, King of India", who, according to apocryphal texts and eastern Christian tradition, was one of the three Biblical Magi who attended the birth of Christ. [4] Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ...


Phraotes

It has also been suggested that Gondophares may be identical with Phraotes, a Greek-speaking Indo-Parthian king of the city of Taxila, met by the Greek philosopher Apollonius of Tyana around 46 CE according to the Life of Apollonius Tyana written by Philostratus. Like the Acts of Thomas it is doubted if there is any truth in the story given by Philostratus, and most scholars see Phroates as a stock name deployed by Philostratus in what is otherwise an opportunity for him to deploy his sophist training. [5] Phraotes is an Indo-Parthian king of the city of Taxila in northern India, met by the Greek philosopher Apollonius of Tyana around 46 CE according to the Life of Apollonius Tyana written by Philostratus. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Engraved portrait of Apollonius of Tyana. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Life of Apollonius Tyana is the story of Apollonius of Tyana (170-247 CE), a sophist teacher of the school of Pythagoras, written by Philostratus. ... Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ...


Coin types

Preceded by:

Parthian Suren Princes

(In Gandhara and Punjab)
Kushan King:
Kujula Kadphises
Indo-Parthian Ruler
(21-47 CE)
Succeeded by:
...
Abdagases I

Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Abdagases I, nephew of Gondophares evident from his coin — a copper Tetradrachm — continued ruling up to ca. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Acts of Thomas
  2. ^ Acts of Thomas
  3. ^ Photographic reference to the profile of Gondophares
  4. ^ Mario Bussagli, "L'art du Gandhara", p207
  5. ^ Bracey, R "Pilgrim's Progress: The Acts of Thomas and the Life of Apollonius of Tyana" Kushan History

See also

The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Bronze Stature of General Surena, National Museum of Iran. ... Kuh-e Khwajeh aerial view of Rostam Castle Kuh-e Khwajeh’ citadel view Kuh-e khwajeh Eastern Slope, known as Kuk-i Kohzadh One of the Kuh-e Khwajeh Murals Kuh-e Khwajeh (Persian کوه خواجه, kuh-e xwājé) Mount Khwajeh, also spelled Kuh-e Khajeh, Kuh-i Khaja, is a...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gondophares (the palm leaf) (510 words)
Based on the reports of Damis, a native of Mesopotamia, who was linguist and diarist, we have a detailed report of the life of Gondophares, an Indo-Parthian king in Taxila.
Gondophares, who ruled while Jesus Christ was alive, is also mentioned in early Christian texts, especially in connection with St. Thomas.
John Keay notes that the word referred in the Acts of St Thomas was actually 'Gudnaphar' and it bears coincidental resemblance to Gondophares, the name found in the coins.
Iranica.com - GONDOPHARES (780 words)
Coins of Gondophares, and his Indo-Parthian successors, including Abdagases (q.v.), Orthagnes, and Pacores, besides minor rulers, are widely distributed in the territories described.
Ernst Herzfeld maintained that the dynasty of Gondophares represented the house of Suren, highest of the five premier families of Arsacid Iran, invested with the hereditary right of commanding the royal armies, and placing the crown on the king's head at the coronation.
Bivar, "Gondophares and the Sha@hna@ma," Iranica Antiqua 16: In Memoriam Roman Ghirshman II, 1981, pp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m