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Encyclopedia > Golgi tendon organ
Organ of Golgi (neurotendinous spindle) from the human tendo calcaneus.
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Organ of Golgi (neurotendinous spindle) from the human tendo calcaneus.

The Golgi organ, also called Golgi tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle, is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibres into the tendons of skeletal muscle. Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle fiber (American usage) or muscle fibre (British usage) (also technically known as a myocyte) is a single cell of a muscle. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscleis a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ...

Contents

Anatomy

The body of the organ is made up of strands of collagen that are connected at one end to the muscle fibres and at the other merge into the tendon proper. Each tendon organ is innervated by a single type Ib sensory afferent axon that branches and terminates as spiral endings around the collagen strands. The Ib afferent axon is a large diameter, myelinated axon. Each neurotendinous spindle is enclosed in a fibrous capsule which contains a number of enlarged tendon fasciculi (intrafusal fasciculi). One or more nerve fibres perforate the side of the capsule and lose their medullary sheaths; the axis-cylinders subdivide and end between the tendon fibers in irregular disks or varicosities (see figure). Tropocollagen triple helix. ... In neuroscience, myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ...


Function

During muscle contraction the strands of collagen are stretched as the muscle shortens. This stretching deforms the terminals of the Ib afferent axon, opening stretch-sensitive cation channels. As a result, the axon is depolarized and fires nerve impulses up to the central nervous system via the spinal cord. The action potential frequency signals the force being developed within the muscle. A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... In physics, force is that which changes or tend to change the state of rest or motion of a body. ...


This sensory feedback plays an important role in spinal reflexes and in the central control of muscle contraction. Specifically, it is postulated that because a Golgi tendon organ exists in serial connection with muscle fibers, it can measure the tension that each muscle contraction builds up. The Ib afferent axon synapses with interneurons within the spinal cord and also relays information to the brain. One of the main spinal reflexes receiving an input from the Ib afferent is the autogenic inhibition reflex, which is involved with the regulation of the force profile of on-going muscle contractions. Feedback is (generally) information about actions. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... An interneuron (also called relay neuron or association neuron) is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ...


The ascending or afferent pathways to the cerebellum are the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts and are involved in the cerebellar regulation of movement. In nervous systems, afferent signals or nerve fibers carry information toward the brain. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The spinocerebellar tract is a set of axonal fibers originating in the spinal cord and terminating in the cerebellum. ... In a general sense, locomotion simply means active movement or travel, applying not just to biological individuals. ...


See also

  • Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles

Source

This article incorporates text or images from the public domain Gray's Anatomy, Lea & Febiger, 1917 edition. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Nervous system - Sensory system - Somatosensory system - edit
Spinal pathway: Somatosensory information
Medial lemniscusTouch (Pressure & Vibration) | Proprioception
Spinothalamic tractPain | Temperature
Receptors
Touch: Pacinian corpuscles | Meissner's corpuscles | Merkel's discs | Ruffini endings | Free nerve endings | Hair follicle receptors
Proprioception: Golgi organ | Muscle spindle (Intrafusal muscle fiber)
Pain: Nociceptors    Temperature: Thermoreceptors

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chapter 11 - Muscle Receptors (4903 words)
Also, the material of the tendon in which the Golgi tendon organs are located is stiffer at rest than the muscle is. When the resting muscle is stretched, much of the tension applied is used in stretching the relatively compliant muscle fibers; the stiffer tendon is not much affected.
The tendon organ has both a dynamic and a static response, but it, of course, is signaling tension and rate of change of tension, rather than the length or rate of change of length that the primary muscle spindle signals.
The response of the tendon organ is shown in the middle trace.
Golgi organ - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (424 words)
Organ of Golgi (neurotendinous spindle) from the human tendo calcaneus.
The Golgi organ, also called Golgi tendon organ, or neurotendinous spindle, is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibres into the tendons of skeletal muscle.
The body of the organ is made up of strands of collagen that are connected at one end to the muscle fibres and at the other merge into the tendon proper.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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