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Encyclopedia > Goldenrod
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Goldenrod
Inflorescences of Solidago virgaurea minuta
Inflorescences of Solidago virgaurea minuta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species

See text. Image File history File links Solidago_virgaurea_minuta0. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Alseuosmiaceae Argophyllaceae Asteraceae - Daisies Calyceraceae Campanulaceae (incl. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae...

The goldenrod is a yellow flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae. It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae...

Contents

Description

About 80 perennial species make up the genus Solidago, most being found in the meadows and pastures, along roads, ditches and waste areas in North America, and a few from Europe that were introduced some 250 years ago. For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Many species are difficult to distinguish. Probably due to their bright, golden yellow flower heads blooming in late summer, the goldenrod is often unfairly blamed for causing hay fever in humans. The pollen causing these allergy problems is mainly produced by Ragweed (Ambrosia sp.), blooming at the same time as the goldenrods. Actually, goldenrod pollen is too heavy and sticky to be blown far from the flowers. Furthermore, goldenrods are pollinated mainly by insects. For the play, see Hay Fever. ... Species See text. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


Goldenrods are easily recognized by their golden inflorescence with hundreds of small capitula, but some are spike-like and other have auxiliary racemes. This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ...


They have slender stems, usually hairless but S. canadensis shows hairs on the upper stem. They can grow to a length between 60 cm and 1.5 m. A stem is the main axis of a vascular plant that is divided into nodes and internodes and has one or more leaves or buds at the nodes. ...


Their alternate leaves are linear to lanceolate. Their margins are usually finely to sharply serrated.


Propagation is by wind-disseminated seed or by underground rhizomes. They form patches that are actually vegetative clones of a single plant. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ...


Use and cultivation

Goldenrod is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Goldenrods. The Goldenrod then forms a leathery bulb (called a gall) around the invading insect as a quarantine to keep it confined to a small part of the plant. Parasitoid wasps have evolved to find these galls, and lay eggs in the insect after penetrating the bulb. In a final nod to evolutionary complexity, woodpeckers have learned to blast open the gall and eat the wasp-infested insect holed up in the center.[1] A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Goldenrods (Solidago spp) are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: [edit] Monophagous species which feed exclusively on Solidago Bucculatrix leaf-miners: Coleophora case-bearers: - feeds on - feeds on - feeds on - feeds on [edit] Polyphagous species which feed on Solidago among other plants... Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ...


Goldenrods can be used for decoration and making tea. Goldenrods are, in some places, held as a sign of good luck or good fortune; but they are considered weeds by some. Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Goldenrods bloom in late summer and early fall and some species produce abundant nectar when moisture is plentiful before bloom, and the bloom period is relatively warm and sunny. Honey from goldenrods often is dark and strong due to admixtures of other nectars. However when there is a strong honey flow, a light (often water white), spicy-tasting honey is produced. While the bees are ripening the honey there is a rank odor and taste, but finished honey is much milder. A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ... Honey flow is a term used by beekeepers. ... Monofloral honey is a type of honey which has a high value in the marketplace because it has a distictive flavor or other attribute due to its being predominately from the nectar of one plant species. ...


Garden use

British gardeners adopted goldenrod long before Americans. Goldenrod only began to gain some acceptance in American gardening (other than wildflower gardening) during the 1980s. A hybrid with aster, known as x Solidaster is less unruly, with pale yellow flowers, equally suitable for dried arrangements. Aster (flower) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Solidago canadensis was introduced as a garden plant in Central Europe, and is now common in the wild. In Germany, it is considered an invasive species that displaces native vegetation from its natural habitat. Lantana Invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel; May 2, 2006 The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species or non-indigenous species. ...


Goldenrod is a companion plant, playing host to some beneficial insects, repelling some pests Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is planting of different crops in close physical proximity. ...

Canadian Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)
Canadian Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 1561 KB) Beschreibung / Description Alt-Treptow, Berlin, Germany – Kanadische Goldrute (Solidago canadensis) / (Solidago canadensis) Quelle / Source selbst fotografiert / taken by myself Datum der Aufnahme / Time of creation 2005-08-15 Fotograf / Photographer Georg Slickers Bearbeitung / edits gedreht / rotated Kommentar / comment... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 1561 KB) Beschreibung / Description Alt-Treptow, Berlin, Germany – Kanadische Goldrute (Solidago canadensis) / (Solidago canadensis) Quelle / Source selbst fotografiert / taken by myself Datum der Aufnahme / Time of creation 2005-08-15 Fotograf / Photographer Georg Slickers Bearbeitung / edits gedreht / rotated Kommentar / comment...

Industrial use

Inventor Thomas Edison experimented with goldenrod to produce rubber, which it contains naturally. Edison created a fertilization and cultivation process to maximize the rubber content in each plant. His experiments produced a 12 foot tall plant that yielded as much as 12 percent rubber. The rubber produced through Edison's process was resilient and long lasting. The tires on the Model T given to him by his friend Henry Ford were made from goldenrod. Examples of the rubber can still be found in his laboratory, elastic and rot free after more than 50 years. However, even though Edison turned his research over to the U.S. government a year before his death, goldenrod rubber never went beyond the experimental stage. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life worldwide into the 21st century. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... 1908 Ford Model T advertisement The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1928. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ...


Medicinal use

The variety Solidago virgaurea is a traditional kidney tonic. It has diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antiseptic action and seems to strengthen kidney function. This makes it useful as an agent to counter inflammation and irritation of the kidneys when infection or stones are present. The diuretic action is also useful in helping to dissolve kidney stones. See herbal medicine Dioscorides’ Materia Medica, c. ...


Cultural significance

The goldenrod is the state flower of the U.S. states of Kentucky (adopted March 16, 1926) and Nebraska (adopted April 4, 1895). It used to be the state flower of Alabama, being adopted as such on September 6, 1927, but was later rejected in favour of the camellia. Goldenrod was recently named the state wildflower for South Carolina. This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External link Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: Lists of flowers | U.S. state insignia ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Species About 100–250 species, including: Camellia assimilis Camellia brevistyla Camellia caudata Camellia chekiangoleosa Camellia chrysantha– Golden Camellia Camellia connata Camellia crapnelliana Camellia cuspidata Camellia euryoides Camellia forrestii Camellia fraterna Camellia furfuracea Camellia granthamiana Camellia grijsii Camellia honkongensis Camellia irrawadiensis Camellia japonica– Japanese Camellia Camellia kissii Camellia lutchuensis Camellia miyagii... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...


In Sufjan Stevens' song, Casimir Pulaski Day, the narrator brings goldenrod to his girlfriend upon finding out that she has been diagnosed with bone cancer. Sufjan Stevens (IPA pronunciation: ) (born July 1, 1975) is an American singer-songwriter and musician from Michigan. ... Casimir Pulaski Day is a United States holiday celebrated on the first Monday of every March to commemorate Casimir Pulaski, a Revolutionary War cavalry officer born March 4, 1747. ...


Carrie Hamby's song, Solidago, tells the story of Thomas Edison's experiments with making goldenrod a domestic source of rubber during the 2nd world war. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life worldwide into the 21st century. ...


Species

  • Solidago albopilosa E.L. Braun : Whitehair Goldenrod
  • Solidago altiplanities C.& J. Taylor : High Plains Goldenrod
  • Solidago arguta Ait. : Atlantic Goldenrod
    • Solidago arguta. var. arguta : Atlantic Goldenrod
    • Solidago arguta var. boottii (Hook.) Palmer & Steyermark : Boott's Goldenrod
    • Solidago arguta var. caroliniana Gray : Atlantic Goldenrod
    • Solidago arguta var. harrisii (Steele) Cronq. : Harris' Goldenrod
    • Solidago arguta var. neurolepis (Fern.) Steyermark : Atlantic Goldenrod
  • Solidago auriculata Shuttlw. ex Blake : Eared Goldenrod
  • Solidago bicolor L. : White Goldenrod
  • Solidago brachyphylla Chapman : Dixie Goldenrod
  • Solidago buckleyi Torr. & Gray : Buckley's Goldenrod (VU)
  • Solidago caesia L. : Wreath Goldenrod
    • Solidago caesia var. caesia : Wreath Goldenrod
    • Solidago caesia var. curtisii (Torr. & Gray) Wood : Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod
  • Solidago calcicola Fern. : Limestone Goldenrod
  • Solidago californica Nutt. : California Goldenrod
  • Solidago canadensis L. : Canada Goldenrod, Canadian Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. canadensis : Canada Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. gilvocanescens Rydb. : Shorthair Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. hargeri Fern. : Harger's Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. lepida (DC.) Cronq. : Canada Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. salebrosa (Piper) M.E. Jones : Salebrosa Goldenrod
    • Solidago canadensis var. scabra Torr. & Gray : Canada Goldenrod
  • Solidago cutleri Fern. : Cutler's alpine Goldenrod
  • Solidago deamii Fern. : Deam's Goldenrod
  • Solidago discoidea Ell. : Rayless Mock Goldenrod
  • Solidago fistulosa P. Mill. : Pinebarren Goldenrod
  • Solidago flaccidifolia Small : Mountain Goldenrod
  • Solidago flexicaulis L. : Zigzag Goldenrod
  • Solidago gattingeri Chapman : Gattinger's Goldenrod
  • Solidago gigantea Ait. : Giant Goldenrod
  • Solidago glomerata Michx. : Clustered Goldenrod
  • Solidago gracillima Torr. & Gray : Virginia Goldenrod
  • Solidago guiradonis Gray : Guirado Goldenrod
  • Solidago hispida Muhl. ex Willd. : Hairy Goldenrod
    • Solidago hispida var. arnoglossa Fern. : Hairy Goldenrod
    • Solidago hispida var. hispida : Hairy Goldenrod
    • Solidago hispida var. lanata (Hook.) Fern. : Hairy Goldenrod
    • Solidago hispida var. tonsa Fern. : Hairy Goldenrod
  • Solidago juliae Nesom : Julia's Goldenrod
  • Solidago juncea Ait. : Early Goldenrod
  • Solidago latissimifolia P. Mill. : Elliott's Goldenrod
  • Solidago leavenworthii Torr. & Gray : Leavenworth's Goldenrod
  • Solidago ludoviciana (Gray) Small : Louisiana Goldenrod
  • Solidago macrophylla Pursh : Largeleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. : Missouri Goldenrod
    • Solidago missouriensis var. fasciculata Holz. : Missouri Goldenrod
    • Solidago missouriensis var. missouriensis : Missouri Goldenrod
    • Solidago missouriensis var. tenuissima (Woot. & Standl.) C.& J. Taylor : Missouri Goldenrod
    • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. var. tolmieana (Gray) Cronq. : Tolmies' Goldenrod
  • Solidago mollis Bartl. : Velvety Goldenrod
    • Solidago mollis var. angustata Shinners : Velvety Goldenrod
    • Solidago mollis var. mollis : Velvety Goldenrod
  • Solidago multiradiata Ait. : Rocky Mountain Goldenrod, Alpine Goldenrod
    • Solidago multiradiata var. arctica (DC.) Fern. : Arctic Goldenrod
    • Solidago multiradiata var. multiradiata : Rocky Mountain Goldenrod
    • Solidago multiradiata var. scopulorum Gray : Manyray Goldenrod
  • Solidago nana Nutt. : Baby Goldenrod
  • Solidago nemoralis Ait. : Gray Goldenrod, American Western Goldenrod
    • Solidago nemoralis var. longipetiolata (Mackenzie & Bush) Palmer & Steyermark : Gray Goldenrod
    • Solidago nemoralis var. nemoralis : Gray Goldenrod
  • Solidago odora Ait. : Anise-scented Goldenrod, Sweet Goldenrod
    • Solidago odora var. chapmanii (Gray) Cronq. : Chapman's Goldenrod
    • Solidago odora var. odora : Anise-scented Goldenrod
  • Solidago ouachitensis C.& J. Taylor : Ouachita Mountain Goldenrod
  • Solidago patula Muhl. ex Willd. : Roundleaf Goldenrod
    • Solidago patula var. patula : Roundleaf Goldenrod
    • Solidago patula var. strictula Torr. & Gray : Roundleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago petiolaris Ait. : Downy Ragged Goldenrod
    • Solidago petiolaris var. angusta (Torr. & Gray) Gray : Downy Ragged Goldenrod
    • Solidago petiolaris var. petiolaris : Downy Ragged Goldenrod
  • Solidago pinetorum Small : Small's Goldenrod
  • Solidago plumosa Small : Plumed Goldenrod
  • Solidago porteri Small : Porter's Goldenrod
  • Solidago puberula Nutt. : Downy Goldenrod (VU)
    • Solidago puberula var. puberula : Downy Goldenrod
    • Solidago puberula var. pulverulenta (Nutt.) Chapman : Downy Goldenrod
  • Solidago pulchra Small : Carolina Goldenrod
  • Solidago radula Nutt. : Western Rough Goldenrod
    • Solidago radula var. laeta (Greene) Fern. : Western Rough Goldenrod
    • Solidago radula var. radula : Western Rough Goldenrod
    • Solidago radula var. stenolepis Fern. : Western Rough Goldenrod
  • Solidago roanensis Porter : Roan Mountain Goldenrod EN
  • Solidago rugosa P. Mill. : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod, Rough-stemmed Goldenrod
  • Solidago rugosa subsp. aspera (Ait.) Cronq. : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago rugosa subsp. rugosa : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
      • Solidago rugosa subsp. rugosa var. rugosa : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
      • Solidago rugosa subsp. rugosa var. sphagnophila Graves : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
      • Solidago rugosa subsp. rugosa var. villosa (Pursh) Fern. : Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago rupestris Raf. : Eock Goldenrod
  • Solidago sciaphila Steele : Shadowy Goldenrod
  • Solidago sempervirens L. : Seaside Goldenrod, Beach Goldenrod
    • Solidago sempervirens var. mexicana (L.) Fern. : Seaside Goldenrod
    • Solidago sempervirens var. sempervirens : Seaside Goldenrod
  • Solidago shortii Torr. & Gray : Short's Goldenrod EN
  • Solidago simplex Kunth : Mt. Albert Goldenrod
  • Solidago simplex subsp. randii (Porter) Ringius : Rand's Goldenrod
    • Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. gillmanii (Gray) Ringius : Rand's Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. monticola (Porter) Ringius : Rand's Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. ontarioensis (Ringius) Ringius : Ontario Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. racemosa (Greene) Ringius : Rand's Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. randii (Porter) Kartesz & Gandhi : Rand's Goldenrod
    • Solidago simplex subsp. simplex : Mt. Albert Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. simplex var. nana (Gray) Ringius : Dwarf Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. simplex var. simplex : Mt. Albert Goldenrod
      • Solidago simplex subsp. simplex var. spathulata (DC.) Cronq. : Mt. Albert Goldenrod
  • Solidago simulans Fern. : Fall Goldenrod
  • Solidago speciosa Nutt. : Showy Goldenrod
    • Solidago speciosa var. erecta (Pursh) MacM. : Showy Goldenrod
    • Solidago speciosa var. jejunifolia (Steele) Cronq. : Showy Goldenrod
    • Solidago speciosa var. pallida Porter :Showy Goldenrod
    • Solidago speciosa var. rigidiuscula Torr. & Gray : Showy Goldenrod
    • Solidago speciosa var. speciosa : Showy Goldenrod
  • Solidago spectabilis (D.C. Eat.) Gray : Nevada Goldenrod
    • Solidago spectabilis var. confinis (Gray) Cronq. : Nevada Goldenrod
    • Solidago spectabilis var. spectabilis : Nevada Goldenrod
  • Solidago sphacelata Raf. : Autumn Goldenrod
  • Solidago spithamaea M.A. Curtis : Blue Ridge Goldenrod
  • Solidago squarrosa Nutt. : Stout Goldenrod, Big Goldenrod
  • Solidago stricta Ait. : Wand Goldenrod
  • Solidago tortifolia Ell. : Twistleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago tenuifolia : Slender Goldenrod
  • Solidago uliginosa Nutt. : Bog Goldenrod
    • Solidago uliginosa var. levipes (Fern.) Fern. : Bog Goldenrod
    • Solidago uliginosa var. linoides (Torr. & Gray) Fern. : Bog Goldenrod
    • Solidago uliginosa var. terrae-novae (Torr. & Gray) Fern. : Bog Goldenrod
    • Solidago uliginosa. var. uliginosa : Bog Goldenrod
  • Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd. : Elmleaf Goldenrod
    • Solidago ulmifolia var. microphylla Gray : Elmleaf Goldenrod
    • Solidago ulmifolia var. palmeri Cronq. : Palmer's Goldenrod
    • Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia : Elmleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago velutina DC. : Threenerve Goldenrod
  • Solidago verna M.A. Curtis : Springflowering Goldenrod
  • Solidago virgaurea : Goldenrod, Aaron’s Rod
  • Solidago wrightii Gray : Wright's Goldenrod
    • Solidago wrightii var. adenophora Blake : Wright's Goldenrod
    • Solidago wrightii var. wrightii : Wright's Goldenrod

Binomial name Solidago virgaurea Solidago virgaurea (goldenrod) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. ...

Natural hybrids

  • Solidago × asperula Desf. (S. rugosa × S. sempervirens)
  • Solidago × beaudryi Boivin (S. rugosa × S. uliginosa)
  • Solidago × erskinei Boivin (S. canadensis × S. sempervirens)
  • Solidago × ovata Friesner (S. sphacelata × S. ulmifolia)
  • Solidago × ulmicaesia Friesner (S. caesia × S. ulmifolia)

Note

  1. ^ [1]

References

  • Croat, T. 1967 - The genus Solidago of the North Central Plains. - Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Croat, T. B. 1970 - Notes: Studies in Solidago. I. The Solidago graminifolia - S. gymnospermoides complex; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 250-251.
  • Nesom GL. 1993. Taxonomic infrastructure of Solidago and Oligoneuron (Asteraceae: Astereae) and observations on their phylogenetic position. Phytologia 75:1–44.

See also

This is a list of undomesticated or feral plants, considered weeds, yet having some positive effects or uses, often being ideal as companion plants in gardens. ... This is a list of companion plant relationships. ...

External links

  • Goldenrod identification: http://www.ontariowildflower.com/goldenrods.htm
  • Goldenrods as state flowers: http://www.geobop.com/Symbols/plants/flowers/goldenrods/
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Solidago

  Results from FactBites:
 
Goldenrod - Herbal Index - herbindex.net (501 words)
Goldenrods are easily recognized by their golden inflorescence with hundreds of small capitula, but some are spike-like and other have auxiliary racemes.
Goldenrods are, in some places, held as a sign of good luck or good fortune; but they are considered weeds by some.
The goldenrod is the state flower of the U.S. states of Kentucky (adopted March 16, 1926) and Nebraska (adopted April 4, 1895).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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