FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain

The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. Over time, the nature and length of this "Golden Age" has become a subject of debate. Some scholars give the start of the Golden Age as either the mid-700s CE (the Muslim conquest of Spain) or 912 (the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman III) and the end of the Golden Age variously as 976 (when the Caliphate began to break apart), 1066 (when the Jews of Granada were expelled) or the mid-1100s, with the invasion of the Almohades. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... Events Orso II Participazio becomes Doge of Venice Patriarch Nicholas I Mysticus becomes patriarch of Constantinople Births November 23 - Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor (+ 973) Abd-ar-rahman III - prince of the Umayyad dynasty Deaths Oleg of Kiev Categories: 912 ... For indivduals with the same or similar name, see Abd-ar-Rahman Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s Years: 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Events and Trends 1107 Emperor Toba ascends the throne of Japan The great Buddhist centre of learning at Nalanda is... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...

Contents


The Nature of the Golden Age

Image of a cantor reading the Passover story in Moorish Spain, from a 14th century Spanish Haggadah.
Image of a cantor reading the Passover story in Moorish Spain, from a 14th century Spanish Haggadah.

Though Moorish Spain was clearly a key center of Jewish life during the early Middle Ages, producing important scholars and one of the most stable and wealthy Jewish communities, there is no clear scholarly consensus over whether the relationship between Jews and Muslims in Spain was truly a paragon of interfaith relations, or whether it was simply similar to the treatment Jews received elsewhere at the same time. Image File history File links Full-page miniature from Haggadah, Spain 14th century. ... Image File history File links Full-page miniature from Haggadah, Spain 14th century. ... The word Cantor can mean more than one thing: Cantor is another name for a Hazzan, a member of the Jewish clergy Cantor is the title of a member of a student society who is the main singer at a cantus Famous people named Cantor include: Eddie Cantor, singer & entertainer... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called ×—×’ המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday that always begins on the 15th day of Nisan (on the Hebrew calendar), which falls in the early spring and commemorates the Exodus and freedom of the Israelites from ancient Egypt. ... Haggadah for Passover, 14th century Haggadah in Hebrew means Telling. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Mark Cohen, in his landmark 1995 book on the subject, Under Crescent and Cross, discusses how the idea of the Golden Age was bolstered in the twentieth century by two sources. On one side, Jewish scholars like Heinrich Graetz used the story of the Golden Age to draw contrasts to the increasing oppression of Jews in mainly Christian Eastern Europe, eventually leading to the Holocaust. On the other side, Arab scholars who wanted to show that modern State of Israel shattered a previously existing harmony between Jews and Arabs in Palestine under the Ottoman rule pointed to the supposed utopia of the Golden Age as an example of previous relationships. Cohen argues that the utopian Golden Age image is overstated, but that the "countermyth" of Jewish persecution is also an oversimplification. For information on the fictional character Mark Cohen, see RENT Mark R. Cohen is a Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. ... Heinrich Graetz (October 31, 1817 - September 7, 1891) was the first historian to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... Selection at the Auschwitz ramp in 1944, where the German Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation, such as those of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ...


Birth of the Golden Age

The Christian Visigoths of Spain persecuted the Jews severely, so naturally the Jews welcomed the Muslim conquerors in the 8th century. The conquered cities of Córdoba, Málaga, Granada, Seville, and Toledo were briefly placed in charge of the Jewish inhabitants, who had been armed by the Arab invaders. The victors removed the restrictions which had oppressed the Jews so heavily, and granted them full religious liberty, requiring them only to pay the tribute of one golden dinar per capita. The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ... Málaga is a port city in Andalucia, southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol coast of the Mediterranean. ... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir (, ). It is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Sevilla. ... Location of Toledo in Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ...

El Albaicín, the ancient Jewish quarter of Granada
El Albaicín, the ancient Jewish quarter of Granada

A period of tolerance dawned for the Jews of the Iberian Peninsula, whose number had been considerably augmented by those who had followed the Arab and Berber conquerors, as well as by later immigrants from Africa. Starting especially after 912, with the reign of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his son, Al-Hakam II the Jews prospered, devoting themselves to the service of the Caliphate of Cordoba, to the study of the sciences, and to commerce and industry, especially to trading in silk and slaves, in this way promoting the prosperity of the country. Southern Spain became an asylum for the oppressed Jews of other parts. 'Abd al-Raḥman's court physician and minister was Ḥasdai ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, the patron of Menahem ben Saruḳ, Dunash ben Labraṭ, and other Jewish scholars and poets. During his term of power, the scholar Moses ben Enoch was appointed rabbi of Córdoba, and as a consequence al-Andalus became the center of Talmudic study, and Córdoba the meeting-place of Jewish savants. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... For indivduals with the same or similar name, see Abd-ar-Rahman Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Al-Hakam II was Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd_ar_rahman III (al_Nasir). ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished, (in knowledge). In the ancient Judean schools (and among Sefaradim today) the sages... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ...


This was a time of partial Jewish autonomy. As "dhimmis",or "protected non-Muslims", Jews in the Islamic world paid the jizya, which was administered separately from the zakat paid by Muslims. The jizya has been viewed variously as a poll tax, as payment for non-conscription in the military, or as a tribute. Jews were made to wear identifying clothing. Nevertheless, Jews had their own legal system and social services. Monotheist religions of the people of the book were tolerated but conspicuously public displays of faith, such as bells and processions, were discouraged. [1] A dhimmi (also zimmi, Arabic ذمي, usually translated as protected, plural: ahl al-dhimma) is a non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia — Islamic law. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


End of the Golden Age

With the death of Al-Hakam II Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman in 976, the Caliphate began to dissolve, and the position of the Jews became more precarious under the various smaller Kingdoms. The first major persecution occurred on Dec. 30, 1066 when the Jews were expelled from Granada and fifteen hundred families were killed when they did not leave. This was the first persecution of Jews on the Peninsula while under Islamic rule. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ...

Manuscript page by Maimonides, one of the greatest Jewish scholars of Spain. Arabic language in Hebrew letters
Manuscript page by Maimonides, one of the greatest Jewish scholars of Spain. Arabic language in Hebrew letters

A possible date of the end of the Golden Age might be in 1090 with the invasion of the Almoravides, a puritan Muslim sect from Morocco. Even under the Almoravides, some Jews prospered (although far more so under Ali III, than under his father Yusuf ibn Tashfin). Among those who held the title of "vizier" or "nasi" in Almoravide times were the poet and physician Abu Ayyub Solomon ibn al-Mu'allam, Abraham ibn Meïr ibn Kamnial, Abu Isaac ibn Muhajar, and Solomon ibn Farusal (although Solomon was murdered May 2, 1108). However, the Almoravides were ousted in 1148, to be replaced by the even more puritanical Almohades. Under the reign of the Almohades, the Jews were forced to accept the Islamic faith; the conquerors confiscated their property and took their wives and children, many of whom were sold as slaves. The most famous Jewish educational institutions were closed, and synagogues everywhere destroyed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Events Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides Beginnings of troubadours in Provence Bejaia becomes the capital of the Algeria Births William of Malmsbury Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Saint Famianus Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz Deaths Saint Malcoldia of Asti Saint Adalbero Categories: 1090 ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Ali ibn Yusuf (died in 1142) was a Berber ruler in North Africa and Muslim Spain, reigned 1106–1142, also a member of Almoravids dynasty. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin يوسف ابن تاشفين or Tashufin (died in 1106), was the Almoravid ruler in Muslim Spain and North Africa. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ... A Hebrew term meaning, roughly, Prince. In classical times, Nasi was the title given to the head of the Sanhedrin. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Events Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona conquered Tortosa in posetion of the moors. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


During these successive waves of narrowly interpreted Islam, many Jewish and even Muslim scholars left the Muslim-controlled portion of Spain for the then still relatively tolerant city of Toledo, which had been reconquered in 1085 by Christian forces. Several of them were involved in what became known as the School of Toledo, which produced some of the first translations into Latin of works from the Arab world, notably the works of Averroes and of the Jewish poet and philosopher Solomon Ibn Gabirol, known in Spain as Avicebrón. Jews joined the armies of Alfonso VI of Castile and as many as 40,000 joined in the fight against the Almoravides, who also had large numbers of Jewish troops in their armies. Location of Toledo in Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the liberation of the Christian Iberian Peninsula from Muslim invaders, taking place between 718 and 1492. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... It has been suggested that History of the Latin language be merged into this article or section. ... Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Berber philosopher and physician who wrot in arabic, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Solomon Ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was king of León from 1065 to 1109 and king of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ...


Even after the "Golden Age" had ended, the Spanish Jewish community remained the most important in the world (especially with the decline of the Academies of Babylonia). Scholars such as Maimonides, born in 1135, were major figures in Judaism, although Maimonides himself complained about the treatment of the Jews under Muslim rule. The Jewish presence in Spain ended with the edict of expulsion by Christian Spain in 1492. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the worlds oldest, and historically most important, Jewish communities. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Pedro Berruguete. ...


Notable figures

For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was king of León from 1065 to 1109 and king of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Bodo (823-876) was the palace deacon and confessor to Louis the Pious. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ... Dunash ben Labrat (920-990) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain and a student of Rabbi Saadia Gaon. ... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Solomon Ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, or Judah ben Samuel Halevi (Hebrew רבי יהודה הלוי) (c. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Moses ibn Ezra was a Jewish, Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet. ... Map of the route Benjamin of Tudela (flourished 12th century) was a medieval Spanish Jewish Rabbi, traveler and explorer. ... Samuel ibn Naghrela (993-1056), lived in Spain at the time of the Moorish conquests. ... Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova in Spain, was a Jewish physician, diplomat, and patron of science. ...

See also

The Convivencia (711-1492) was a time of peace, not of the entire iberian peninsula nor anywhere during the entire age, after the arab invasion of Spain (711) where the three prominent religious groups, the muslims, the christians and the jews lived in peace with major economic success in comparison... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Flamenco dancer Belén Maya, photograph taken by Gilles Larrain at his studio, 2001 Flamenco is a song, music and dance style which is strongly influenced by the Gitanos, but which has its deeper roots in Moorish and Jewish musical traditions. ... Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ...

References

  • Mark Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages 1995 ISBN 069101082X
  • Joel Kraemer, "Comparing Crescent and Cross," The Journal of Religion, Vol. 77, No. 3. (Jul., 1997), pp. 449-454. (Book review)
  •   Fred J. Hill et al, A History of the Islamic World 2003 ISBN 0781810159, p.73

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jewish Cuisine -- Kosher Cooking (6713 words)
Fish, white-stewed, with lemon and bread balls, is a specifically Jewish preparation, typical of their fondness for piquant stews in preference to the plain preparation common in non-Jewish families.
Smoked salmon is another Jewish delicacy, and this, together with pickled herrings, pickled (yellow) cucumbers, and olives, is often to be seen on Jewish tables as appetizing adjuncts to fried fish.
Jewish cooks are debarred from using butter in pastries, which are to be eaten in conjunction with meats, and from using milk or cream under the same circumstances.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m