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Encyclopedia > Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Ордын улс Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4]khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. At its peak the Golden Horde's territory included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the right banks of the Dniper River, extending east deep into Siberia. On the south the Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Il-Khans.[4] The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s Years: 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 Events and Trends Hungary was partially demolished with a great loss of life in 1241–1242 by Mongol armies of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Dnieper, Dnepr (Russian), or Dnipro (Ukrainian) can mean: Dnieper River Dnieper Ukraine, central Ukraine under the Russian Empire Dnipro launch vehicle, a space rocket. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...

Contents

Name

History of Mongolia
Before Genghis Khan
Mongol Empire
Khanates
- Chagatai Khanate
- Golden Horde
- Ilkhanate
- Yuan Dynasty
- Timurid Empire
- Mughal Empire
Crimean Khanate
Khanate of Sibir
Dzungar
Qing Dynasty (Outer Mongolia, Mongolia during Qing)
Mongolian People's Republic
Modern Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Buryat Mongolia
Kalmyk Mongolia
Hazara Mongols
Aimak Mongols
Timeline
edit box

The name Golden is believed to have come from the steppe colour system for the cardinal directions: black — north, blue — east, red — south, white — west, and yellow (or gold) — center. Although people have inhabited Mongolia since the Stone Age, Mongolia only became politically important after iron weapons entered the area in the 3rd century B.C. In general, Mongolia at this point had a similar history to the rest of the nomadic steppe that lies between Siberia Northern Russia to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... In the 1440s, the Golden Horde was racked by civil war. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mongolia (Mongolian Proper, including modern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tannu Urianhai, Höh Nuur - Qinghai, Ili Tarbagatai - Northern Xinjiang and excluding Buryatia) was subject to Qing dynasty between the end of the 17-th and beginning of the 20-th centuries. ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... Following the collapse of the Peoples Republic of Mongolia, Mongolias first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral Peoples Khural were held on July 29, 1990. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ... 1911: Mongolia declares independence under Bogd haan. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to another version, the name was derived from the Russian designation Zolotaya Orda, a magnificent golden tent camp along the Volga River that Batu Khan established to mark a place of his future capital on the Volga[5]. In Mongolian, Golden Horde (Altan Orda) means Golden Camp, or palace.[3][6] “Volga” redirects here. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...

Destruction of Suzdal by the Mongol armies. From the medieval Russian annals.
Destruction of Suzdal by the Mongol armies. From the medieval Russian annals.

In 1235, Batu (Being the eldest son) with the great general Subedei began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs and then moving on Volga Bulgaria in 1236. From here, in 1237 he conquered the southern steppes of the Ukraine, forcing the Cumans to flee westwards. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus and for three years subjugated the Russian principalities, whilst his cousins Kadan and Guyuk moved southwards into Alania. Image File history File links Suzdal-invasion2. ... Image File history File links Suzdal-invasion2. ... This article is about the Russian town. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Subutai was the primary strategist and good friend of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Kadaň (Kadan, Kaaden in German) is a town in North Bohemia. ... Güyük (c. ... ALania can refer to: Yhe feudal state of Alans. ...


Blaming the migration of the Cumans as his Casus belli, Batu's Horde with an assortment of brothers and cousins including Shiban, Orda, Kadan and Mongke Khan continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the Battles of Legnica and Muhi. In 1241, however, the Great Khan Ogedei died in Mongolia, and Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna to take part in disputing the succession. The Mongol armies would never again travel so far west. Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Shiban or Shayban was a sub-commander in the White Horde. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... Kadaň (Kadan, Kaaden in German) is a town in North Bohemia. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... The Battle of Muhi was fought on April 11, 1241 between Hungary and the Mongols. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


In 1242, after retreating through Hungary (And destroying Pest in the process), and subjugating Bulgaria.[7], Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga River, on the site of the Khazarian capital of Atil. Shortly before that, Batu and Orda's younger brother Shiban left Batu's army and was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountains along the Ob and Irtysh Rivers. // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... Look up Pest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Pest may refer to: A pest, an animal (usually an insect), or sometimes a plant (weed) with characteristics that are injurious or harmful to humans. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (literally meaning Big River), was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. ... Shiban or Shayban was a sub-commander in the White Horde. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... lauren rocks my world The river splits into more than one arm, especially after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. Originating in China, the Irtysh is actually longer than the Ob from their sources to the point of their confluence. ... Irtysh (Russian:  ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Siberia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ...


Golden Age

The people of the Golden Horde were mostly a mixture of Turks and Mongols. The Horde was gradually Turkified and lost its Mongol identity, while the descendants of Batu's original Mongol warriors constituted the upper class of the society.[8] Most of the Horde's population were Kypchaks, Bulgar Tatars, Kyrgyz, Khwarezmians, and other Turkic peoples. They were commonly named the Tatars by the Russians and Europeans. Russians preserved this common name for this peoples down to the 20th century, whereas the most of this peoples identified themselves with their ethnic or tribal names, some also considered themselves as simply Muslims. The most of the Muslim population, both agricultural and nomadic, adopted the Kypchak language, developed to the regional languages of Kypchak group after the Horde disintegrated. For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... This article is about the people. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ...


The descendents of Batu ruled the Golden Horde from Sarai Batu and later Sarai Berke, controlling an area ranging from the Volga river to the Carpathian mountains and the mouth of the Danube, whilst the descendents of Orda ruled the area from the Ural River to Lake Balkhash. The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ...


Internal organization

History of Belarus,
History of Russia,
History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus’
Vladimir-Suzdal
Halych-Volynia
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
The Hetmanate
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Belarus
A 13th-century cup produced in the Golden Horde.
A 13th-century cup produced in the Golden Horde.

The Horde's supreme ruler was the khan, chosen by the kurultai among Batu Khan's descendants. The prime minister, also ethnically Mongol, was known as "prince of princes", or beklare-bek. The ministers were called viziers. Local governors, or basqaqs, were responsible for levying tribute and extinguishing popular discontent. Civil and military administration, as a rule, was not separated. This article describes the history of Belarus. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Image File history File links Hordecup. ... Image File history File links Hordecup. ... This article is about the title. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... A Darughachi (also referred to as a darugha) was originally an official in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province (they were sometimes referred to as governors). ...


The Horde developed as a settled rather than nomadic culture, with Sarai evolving into a populous and prosperous metropolis. In the early 14th century, the capital was moved considerably upstream to Sarai Berqe, which became one of the largest cities of the medieval world, with 600,000 inhabitants.[9] Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus, also transcribed as Saraj or Saray) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ...


Despite Russian efforts at proselytizing in Sarai, the Mongols clung to their traditional animist or shamanist beliefs until Uzbeg Khan (1312-41) adopted Islam as a state religion. Several Russian rulers - Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver among them - were reportedly assassinated in Sarai for their refusal to worship pagan idols, but the khans were generally tolerant and even freed the Russian Orthodox Church of taxes. Krutitsy is a former ecclesiastical estate and monastery, situated on the steep left bank of the Moskva River, in the south-east of present-day Moscow. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ... Mikhail of Tver before Uzbeg Khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Mikhail Vsevolodovich (Михаил Всеволодович in Russian) (1179? - September 20, 1246) was the last prominent ruler of Kiev from the bloodline of Oleg Svyatoslavich. ... Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич in Russian) (1271 - November 22, 1318), Prince of Tver (since 1285) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (1305-1317). ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Vassals and allies

The Horde exacted tribute from its subject peoples - Russians, Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, Alans, Crimean Greeks, Crimean Goths, and others. The territories of Christian subjects were regarded as peripheral areas of little interest as long as they continued to pay tribute. These vassal states were never incorporated into the Horde, and Russian rulers early obtained the privilege of collecting the Tatar tribute themselves. To maintain control over Russia, Tatar warlords carried out regular punitive raids to Russian principalities (most dangerous in 1252, 1293, 1382). Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ...


There is a point of view, much propagated by Lev Gumilev, that the Horde and Russian polities concluded a defensive alliance against the fanatical Teutonic knights and pagan Lithuanians. Enthusiasts point to the fact that the Mongol court was frequented by Russian princes, notably Yaroslavl's Feodor the Black, who boasted his own ulus near Sarai, and Novgorod's Alexander Nevsky, the sworn brother of Batu's successor Sartaq Khan. Although Novgorod never acknowledged the Horde's ascendancy, a Mongol contingent supported Novgorodians in the Battle of the Ice. Lev Gumilyov and Anna Akhmatova, 1960s Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov (Russian: ) (October 1, 1912, St. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... An ulus (Russian: улу́с) is the subdivision type of Sakha (Yakutia) Republic of the Russian Federation. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... Saqtaq Khan (also spelt as Sartak or Sartach, died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Empress Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (Khanate of Kipchak). ... Combatants Novgorod Republic Teutonic Knights, Danish knights, militia of Dorpat Commanders Prince Alexander Nevsky Master Dietrich von Grüningen, Prince-Bishop Hermann Strength 4000-5,000 1,500-2500 Casualties Light around 400 knights killed and 90 captured, a number of infantry killed A monument in Pskov Oblast marking the...


Sarai carried on a brisk trade with the Genoese trade emporiums on the Black Sea littoral - Soldaia, Caffa, and Azak. Mamluk Egypt was the khans' long-standing trade partner and ally in the Mediterranean. Berke, the khan of Kipchak had drawn up an alliance with the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in 1261.[10] For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Azov is a town in the Rostov Oblast of the Russian Federation, situated on the Don River just 4 miles from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...


Political evolution

Metropolitan Alexis healing Jani Beg's wife from blindness.
Metropolitan Alexis healing Jani Beg's wife from blindness.

After Batu's death in 1255, the prosperity of his empire lasted for a full century, until the assassination of Jani Beg in 1357, though the intrigues of Nogai did invoke a partial civil war in the late 1290's. The Horde's military clout peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312-41), whose army exceeded 300,000 warriors. Image File history File linksMetadata Taidula. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Taidula. ... Saint Alexis (Алексей in Russian, (before 1296 – 1378) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (since 1354), who presided over Muscovite government during Dmitri Donskois minority. ... Jani Beg (? — 1357) was a khan of the Golden Horde in 1342-1357, succeeding his father Uzbeg Khan. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Jani Beg (? — 1357) was a khan of the Golden Horde in 1342-1357, succeeding his father Uzbeg Khan. ... // May 28 - Peter I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his father, Alfonso IV. July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague is founded King David II of Scotland is released by the English in return for a ransom. ... The term Nogai can refer to more than one thing: Nogai Khan was a Khan of the Golden Horde. ... Mikhail of Tver before Uzbeg Khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ...


Their Russian policy was one of constantly switching alliances in an attempt to keep Russia weak and divided. In the 14th century the rise of Lithuania in North East Europe posed a challenge to Tatar control over Russia. Thus Uzbeg Khan began backing Moscow as the leading Russian state. Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other Russian potentates. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ...


Disintegration and fall

Tokhtamysh's invasion of Russia in 1382.

The Black Death of the 1340s was a major factor contributing to the Golden Horde's eventual downfall. Following the disastrous rule of Jani Beg and his subsequent assassination, the empire fell into a long civil war, averaging one new Khan per annum for the next few decades (Though Orda's white horde carried on generally free from trouble until the late 1370's). By the 1380s, Khwarezm, Astrakhan, and Muscovy attempted to break free of the Horde's power, while the lower reaches of the Dnieper were annexed by Lithuania and Poland in 1368 (Whilst the eastern principalities were generally annexed with little resistance). Image File history File links Vasily Sergeievich Smirnov (1858-90). ... Image File history File links Vasily Sergeievich Smirnov (1858-90). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... This article is about the river. ...


Mamai, a Tatar general who did not formally hold the throne, attempted to reassert Tatar authority over Russia. His army was defeated by Dmitri Donskoi at the Battle of Kulikovo in his second consecutive victory over the Tatars. Mamai soon fell from power, and in 1378, Tokhtamysh, a descendant of Orda Khan and ruler of the White Horde, invaded and annexed the territory of the Blue Horde, briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power. Mamai (or Mamay) was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde in the 1370s, who resided in the western part of this nomadic state, which is now the Southern Ukrainian Steppes and the Crimean Peninsula. ... Statue of Dmitri Donskoi (1862). ... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength between 60,000 and 80,000 between 75,000 and 125,000 Casualties up to 40,000 killed or wounded Almost entire army killed The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ) was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... Tokhtamysh (d. ...


After Mamai's defeat, Tokhtamysh tried to restore the dominance of the Golden Horde over Russia by attacking Russian lands in 1382. He besieged Moscow on August 23, but Muscovites beat off his storm, using firearms for the first time in Russian history.[11] On August 26, two sons of Tokhtamysh's supporter Dmitry of Suzdal, dukes of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod Vasily and Semyon, who were present in Tokhtamysh's forces, persuaded Muscovites to open the city gates, promising that forces would not harm the city in this case.[12] This allowed Tokhtamysh's troops to burst in and destroy Moscow, killing 24,000 people.[13] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Firearms redirects here. ... Dmitry Konstantinovich of Suzdal (Russian: ) (1324–June 5, 1383), was a powerful Prince of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod who dominated Russian politics during minority of his son-in-law, Dmitri Donskoi. ... Categories: Stub ...

The domains of the Golden Horde in 1389 before the Tokhtamysh-Timur war, with modern international boundaries in light brown. The Principality of Moscow is shown as a dependency, in light yellow.
The domains of the Golden Horde in 1389 before the Tokhtamysh-Timur war, with modern international boundaries in light brown. The Principality of Moscow is shown as a dependency, in light yellow.

A fatal blow to the Horde was dealt by Tamerlane, who annihilated Tokhtamysh's army, destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Tokhtamysh-Tamerlane was a war fought in the 1380s and early 1390s between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde and the Turkic warrior Timur, in the areas of the Caucasus mountains, Turkistan and southern Russia. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


In the first decades of the 15th century, power was wielded by Edigu, a vizier who routed Vytautas of Lithuania in the great Battle of the Vorskla River and established the Nogai Horde as his personal demesne. Edigu, or Edigey (1352-1419) was an emir of the White Horde who founded the new political entity, which came to be known as the Nogai Horde. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Combatants Golden Horde Lithuania, Poland, Moldavia Tokhtamysh forces Commanders Edigu, Temur Qutlugh â€  Grand Duke Vytautas, Tokhtamysh Strength ~200 000 ~75 000, 500 of them - Teutonic knights Casualties Unknown Unknown (Reportedly very heavy) (11 Teutonic Knights including Hanus and Thomas Surville) The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ...


In the 1440s, the Horde was again wracked by civil war. This time it broke up into separate Khanates: Qasim Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Astrakhan, Kazakh Khanate, Uzbek Khanate, and Khanate of Crimea all seceding from the last remnant of the Golden Horde - the Great or Big Horde. Events and Trends Categories: 1440s ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Qasim Khanate was a Tatar territorial formation, vassal of Muscovy, which exsited from 1452 till 1681 on the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with capital Kasimov. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Astrakhan Khanate was a predominantly Turkic ( Tatar) state which existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan is now located. ... Flag¹ Motto Alash! Capital Hazrat-e Turkestan Language(s) Kazakh Religion Sunni Islam Government Monarchy Khan  - 1465—1480 Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan (first) History  - Established 1456  - Disestablished 1731 Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы, Russian: Казахское ханство) was a Kazakh state that existed in 1456-1731, located roughly on the territory of present day... Uzbek khanate is the name given to any of three states that ruled Transoxiana, in what is now the country of Uzbekistan, from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea) was an independent Turkic state (khanate) founded in 1441 by Haci Giray Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. ... Big or Great Horde was the central principality of the Golden Horde. ...


None of these new Khanates was stronger than Muscovite Russia, which finally broke free of Tatar control by 1480. Each Khanate was eventually annexed by it, starting with Kazan and Astrakhan in the 1550s. By the end of the century the Siberia Khanate was also part of Russia, and descendants of its ruling khans entered Russian service. This article is about Muscovite Russia. ... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1550s ... Sibirsky (Russian:Сибирский, pl. ...


The Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde by 1502. Crimean Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow. Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimea continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde. Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... The Great Horde, or Big Horde was the central principality of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde, the westernmost successor state of Genghis Khans legacy. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Crimean Khanate (Khanate of Crimea) was an independent Turkic state (khanate) founded in 1441 by Haci Giray Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...


Reference and notes

  1. ^ G. Vernadsky, M. Karpovich: "The Mongols and Russia", Yale University Press, 1953
  2. ^ "Empire of the Golden Horde", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05.
  3. ^ a b T. May, "Khanate of the Golden Horde", North Georgia College and State University.
  4. ^ a b "Golden Horde", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Quotation: "also called Kipchak Khanate Russian designation for the Ulus Juchi, the western part of the Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde were a mixture of Turks and Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy."
  5. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.
  6. ^ B.D. Grekov and A.Y. Yakubovski "The Golden Horde and its Downfall"
  7. ^ Denis Sinor, "The Mongols in the West", Journal of Asian History v.33 n.1 (1999).
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  10. ^ Mantran, Robert (Fossier, Robert, ed.) "A Turkish or Mongolian Islam" in The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 1250-1520, p. 298
  11. ^ (Russian) Dmitri Donskoi Epoch
  12. ^ (Russian) History of Moscow settlements - Suchevo
  13. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Московское восстание 1382", available online here

A History of Russia by George Verdansky George Vernadsky (1887-1973) (Russian: Георгий Вернадский) an American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... ... Title page of the 3rd ed. ...

Further reading

Boris Dmitrievich Grekov (21 April 1882, Mirgorod near Poltava — 9 September 1953, Moscow) was a Soviet historian noted for his comprehensive studies of Kievan Rus and the Golden Horde. ... A History of Russia by George Verdansky George Vernadsky (1887-1973) (Russian: Георгий Вернадский) an American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history. ...

See also

The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... This is a list of Khans of the Golden Horde and of the Great Horde: Golden Horde Batu Khan (1242-55) Sartak Khan (1255-56) Berke Khan (1256-66) Mengu-Timur (1266-82) Tuda-Mengu (1282-87), actual ruler was Nogai Talabuga Khan (1287-91), actual ruler was Nogai Tokhta... // Food in the Mongolian Empire During the Mongolian Empire there were two different groups of food, “white foods” and “red foods”. “White foods” were usually dairy products and were the main food source during the summer. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The Tokhtamysh-Tamerlane was a war fought in the 1380s and early 1390s between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde and the turkish warrior Timur, in the areas of the Caucasus mountains, Turkistan and southern Russia. ... Eurasian, in English vernacular, is a term that refers to those of mixed European and Asian ancestry, regardless of continent of origin. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Berke-Hulagu war was a war between Berke, khan of the Golden Horde, and Hulagu, khan of the Ilkhanate, that was fought in the Caucasus mountains area in the 1260s after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258. ... This article needs cleanup. ... St. ... This is a list of the Mongol and Tatar military campaigns in Russia following the Mongol invasion of Rus: 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal. ... Islam in the world. ... This article deals with the history and the evolution of the Islamic religion in Europe. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Khanate of the Golden Horde (1075 words)
Despite an intense rivalry with Güyük Khan, Ogodei's son, Batu established the Golden Horde as a semi-independent part of the Mongol Empire.
In addition, the Golden Horde increasingly dominated trade and was the most powerful state in Europe, often exerting its influence with threats of invasion into Poland and Hungary, or through its vassal, Bulgaria.
Between 1313 and 1341 during the rule of Uzbek Khan, the Golden Horde reached its pinnacle in terms of wealth, trade, influence, and military might.
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