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Encyclopedia > Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
Carries 6 lanes of U.S. Route 101/State Route 1, pedestrians and bicycles
Crosses Golden Gate
Locale San Francisco, California and Marin County, California
Maintained by Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District[1]
Design Suspension, truss arch & truss causeways
Longest span 4,200 feet (1,280 m)[2]
Total length 8,981 feet (2,737 m)
Width 90 feet (27 m)
Height 746 feet (227 m)
Vertical clearance 14 feet (4.3 m) at toll gates, higher truck loads possible
Clearance below 220 feet (67 m) at mean higher high water
AADT 100,000[2]
Opening date 27 May 1937
Toll US$5.00 (southbound) (US$4.00 with FasTrak)
Connects:
San Francisco Peninsula with Marin County

Location 2 on map Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Central bank Federal Reserve System Golden Gate Bridge Tax Bank for International Settlements Income tax Tax, tariff and... U.S. Route 101, also known as Highway 101, The 101 in Southern California, and simply 101 in Northern California, is one of the last remaining and longest U.S. Routes still active in California. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Golden Gate Transit is a public transportation system in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, United States. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... A truss arch bridge combines elements of a truss and an arch. ... A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. ... Annual average daily traffic, abbrevated AADT, is a term used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USD redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... Mounted FasTrak transponder FasTrak is an electronic toll collection system in the state of California in the United States. ... USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ...

Coordinates 37°49′11″N, 122°28′43″W

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. As part of both US Highway 101 and State Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... This article is about the structure. ... The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... U.S. Highway 101, or U.S. Route 101 (U.S. 101), is a north-south highway that is aligned along the Pacific West Coast of the United States. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ...


The Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1937 and has become an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California. Since its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Verrazano Bridge redirects here; for the bridge to Assateague Island, see Verrazano Bridge (Maryland). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Contents

Setting

The Golden Gate Bridge spans the Golden Gate, a narrow, 400-foot (120 m) deep strait that serves as the mouth of the San Francisco Bay, between San Francisco at the northernmost tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Marin Headlands at the far southern end of Marin County. Although close by proximity, the two sides of the strait are separated by significant natural obstacles. Crossing the strait directly by boat is treacherous due to strong currents and lack of suitable landings. Ocean tides drive an average of 528 billion gallons (2 billion cubic meters) of water every six hours, at peak currents exceeding 5.6 miles per hour (2.5 m/s). Circumnavigating the Bay, however, involves a trip of several hundred miles and crossing several major rivers.[3] Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... View to the northwest, towards the Marin headlands The Golden Gate Bridge in morning fog, viewed from the north, just below and east of the headlands. ...


History

Ferry service

Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route from San Francisco to what is now Marin County was by boat, through the interior of the San Francisco Bay. Ferry service began as early as 1820, with regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for purposes of transporting water to San Francisco from what is now Marin County.[4] The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service launched in 1868, which eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s.[4][5] Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy.[6] The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier at the foot of Van Ness Avenue in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1.00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge.[7] The trip from the Ferry Building took twenty-seven minutes. Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... The Southern Pacific Railroad (AAR reporting marks SP) was an American railroad. ... The Hyde Street Pier is an historic ferry pier located on the northern waterfront of San Francisco, California, amidst the tourist zone of Fishermans Wharf. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Sausalito is a city located in Marin County, California. ... Marin County is a county located in Californias San Francisco Bay Area, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... USD redirects here. ... The Embarcaderos Ferry Building The Ferry Building is a terminal for ferries that travel across the San Francisco Bay and a shopping center located on The Embarcadero in San Francisco, California. ...

Air show over Golden Gate Bridge
Air show over Golden Gate Bridge

Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city’s growth rate was below the national average.[8] Many experts said a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6,700 ft (2,042 m) strait. It had strong, swirling tides and currents, with water 335 ft (102 m) deep at the center of the channel, and almost constant winds of 60 mph (97 km/h). Experts said ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... Red Bull Air Race heat held at Kemble airfield, Gloucestershire, England in June 2004 The Red Bull Air Race World Series, established in 2003 and sponsored by Red Bull, is an international series of air races with the participation of at least five pilots for each race, in which competitors...


Conception

Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new, the proposal that eventually took root was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins.[9] San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, impractical for the time, and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less.[4] One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had for his graduate thesis designed a 55-mile (89 km) long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait.[10] At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges, but mostly inland and nothing on the scale of the new project.[2] Strauss' initial drawings[9] were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million.[4] Strauss' design was widely derided as ugly.[4] Joseph Baermann Strauss (January 9, 1870 - May 16, 1938) was an American engineer and designer. ... The San Francisco Call was a newspaper that served San Francisco, California. ... Joseph Baermann Strauss (January 9, 1870 - May 16, 1938) was an American engineer and designer. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ...


Local authorities only agreed to proceed on the assurance that Strauss alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts.[citation needed] A suspension bridge design was considered the most practical, due to recent advances in metallurgy.[4] Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ...


Strauss spent over a decade drumming up support in Northern California.[11] The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service.[4] In May 1924 Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use Federal land for construction. Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association", and both the San Francisco and the Marin counties, pending further bridge plans by Strauss.[12] Another ally was the fledging automobile industry, which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles.[7] Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ...


The bridge earned its name, Golden Gate Bridge, after a mention of it in 1927 by San Francisco city engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy.[13] Michael M. OShaughnessy (born on May 28, 1864) Jointer, Ireland. ...


Design

South pillar seen from walkway
South pillar seen from walkway

Strauss was Chief Engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project.[8] However, because he had little understanding or experience with cable suspension designs,[14] responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. In particular, bridge architect Irving Morrow, a relatively unknown residential architect, designed the overall shape of the bridge towers, the lighting scheme, and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights, railing, and walkways. Morrow also chose the famous International farmers Orange color.[15] Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis, collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff, was the principal engineer of the project.[16] Ellis, who had no engineering degree, was a Greek scholar and mathematician who became an expert in structural design, writing the standard textbook of the time.[17] Moisseiff produced the basic structural design, introducing his "deflection theory" by which a thin, flexible roadway would flex in the wind, greatly reducing stress by transmitting forces via suspension cables to the bridge towers.[16] Although the Golden Gate Bridge design was sound, a later Moisseiff design, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, collapsed in a strong windstorm due to an unexpected resonance mode caused by a too-thin roadway and unexpected wind forces.[16] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 2,400 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 2,400 pixels, file size: 1. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Leon Moisseiff was an American architect primarily notable for having inadequately designed the Tacoma Narrows Bridge across Puget Sound. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridges with main spans of 2800 feet (850 m), they carry Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, USA. The first bridge, nicknamed Galloping Gertie, was opened...


With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who, despite receiving little recognition or compensation,[14] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge. In November, 1931, Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate, Clifford Paine, ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff.[17] Ellis, obsessed with the project and unable to find work elsewhere during the Depression, continued working 70 hours per week on an unpaid basis, eventually turning in ten volumes of hand calculations.[17] The Golden Gate Bridge district issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardship of the famous bridge in May 2007-- and decided to right an old wrong by giving major credit for the design of the bridge to an engineer it had ignored. The engineer was Charles Ellis, a University of Illinois professor of engineering. He did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge but got none of the credit. Strauss initially succeeded in winning credit as the figure most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge.[17] Only later were the contributions of the rest of the design team more fully appreciated.[17]


Finance

The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District, authorized by an act of the California Legislature, was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design, construct, and finance the Golden Gate Bridge.[8] However, after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the District was unable to raise the construction funds so it lobbied for a $35 million bond measure. The bonds were approved in November, 1930,[10] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge.[18] The construction budget at the time of approval was $30.1 million. However, the District was unable to sell the bonds until 1932, when the founder of San Francisco-based Bank of America agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy.[4] Golden Gate Transit is a public transportation system in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, United States. ... The California State Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... A bond measure is a proposal to sell bonds for the purpose of acquiring funds for various public works projects, such as research, transportation infrastructure improvements, and others. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ...

On the south side of the bridge, a 36.5 inches (93 cm) wide cross section of the cable containing 27,572 separate wires is on display.
On the south side of the bridge, a 36.5 inches (93 cm) wide cross section of the cable containing 27,572 separate wires is on display.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Construction

Construction began on 5 January 1933.[4] The project cost over $26 million.[19] is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Strauss remained head of the project, overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati, he had placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured. He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site, which saved the lives of many otherwise unprotected steelworkers. Of eleven men killed from falls during construction, ten were near completion when the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen. Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became proud members of the (informal) Halfway to Hell Club.[20] The University of Cincinnati is a coeducational public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ...


The project was finished by April 1937, $1.3 million under budget.[4]


Opening festivities

A photograph of the bridge from a boat underneath.
A photograph of the bridge from a boat underneath.

The bridge opening celebration began on 27 May 1937, and lasted for one week. The day before vehicle traffic was allowed, 200,000 people crossed by foot and roller skate.[4] On opening day, Mayor Angelo Rossi and other officials rode the ferry to Marin, then crossed the bridge in a motorcade past three ceremonial "barriers", the last a blockade of beauty queens who required Joseph Strauss to present the bridge to the Highway District before allowing him to pass. An official song, "There's a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate", was chosen to commemorate the event. Strauss wrote a poem now on the Golden Gate Bridge entitled "The Mighty Task is Done." The next day, President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington, DC signaling the official start of vehicle traffic over the Bridge at noon. When the celebration got out of hand, the SFPD had a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area. Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed. A statue of Strauss was moved in 1955 to a site near the bridge.[9] Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 968 KB) This is a photograph from a boat underneath the Golden Gate Bridge. ... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 968 KB) This is a photograph from a boat underneath the Golden Gate Bridge. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Angelo Joseph Rossi (1878 - 1948) was a U.S. political figure. ... A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition between people, based largely, though not always entirely, on the beauty of their physical appearance. ... Theres a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate is the official song commemorating the opening the Golden Gate Bridge in May, 1937. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The San Francisco Police Department or SFPD is responsible for policing in the City and County of San Francisco. ... This article is about the San Francisco neighborhood. ...


Description

Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco
Fog at the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 681 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Golden Gate Bridge Fog Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Morning fog at Golden Gate Bridge... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 681 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Golden Gate Bridge Fog Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Morning fog at Golden Gate Bridge... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...

Specifications

The center span was the longest among suspension bridges until 1964 when the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge was erected between the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City. The Golden Gate Bridge also had the world's tallest suspension towers at the time of construction, and retained that record until more recently. In 1957, Michigan's Mackinac Bridge surpassed the Golden Gate Bridge's length to become the world's longest two tower suspension bridge in total length between anchorages. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of the largest suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... Verrazano Bridge redirects here; for the bridge to Assateague Island, see Verrazano Bridge (Maryland). ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Mackinac Bridge (pronounced , with a silent c), is a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the non-contiguous Upper and Lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Structure

The bridge has approximately 1,200,000 total rivets. Solid rivets Metal wheel with riveted spokes and tyre. ...


Traffic

Traffic crossing the Bridge during a foggy morning
Traffic crossing the Bridge during a foggy morning

As the only road to exit San Francisco to the north, the bridge is part of both U.S. Route 101 and State Route 1 and on an average day there are 120,000 vehicles crossing the bridge.[2] The bridge has six total lanes of vehicle traffic, and walkways on both sides of the bridge. The median markers between the lanes are moved to conform to traffic patterns. On weekday mornings, traffic flows mostly southbound into the city, so four of the six lanes run southbound. Conversely, on weekday afternoons, four lanes run northbound. While there has been discussion concerning the installation of a movable barrier since the 1980s, the Bridge Board of Directors, in March 2005, committed to finding funding to complete the $2 million study required prior to the installation of a moveable median barrier. The eastern walkway is for pedestrians and bicycles during the weekdays and during daylight hours only, and the western walkway is open to bicyclists on weekday afternoons, weekends, and holidays. The speed limit on the Golden Gate Bridge was reduced from 55 mph (89 km/h) to 45 mph (72 km/h) on 1 October 1983. Download high resolution version (1142x687, 88 KB)Golden Gate Bridge Photograph taken 19 April 2002 by Peter Craig Photo placed in the public domain by photographer. ... Download high resolution version (1142x687, 88 KB)Golden Gate Bridge Photograph taken 19 April 2002 by Peter Craig Photo placed in the public domain by photographer. ... U.S. Route 101, also known as Highway 101, The 101 in Southern California, and simply 101 in Northern California, is one of the last remaining and longest U.S. Routes still active in California. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... Barrier Transfer machines, also known as Zipper Machines, are heavy vehicles used to transfer Jersey barriers or other concrete lane dividers to relieve traffic congestion during rush hours. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed as allowed by law for road vehicles. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


Aesthetics

The Golden Gate Bridge by night, with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left.
The Golden Gate Bridge by night, with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left.

Despite its red appearance, the color of the bridge is officially an orange vermilion called international orange.[21] The color was selected by consulting architect Irving Morrow because it blends well with the natural surroundings yet enhances the bridge's visibility in fog. Download high resolution version (1136x852, 141 KB)Golden Gate Bridge by night looking south across the Golden Gate towards San Francisco. ... Download high resolution version (1136x852, 141 KB)Golden Gate Bridge by night looking south across the Golden Gate towards San Francisco. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... International Orange was a band featuring the talents of Snuzz (Bus Stop, Ben Folds) guitar/vox, Django Haskins on guitar/vox, and Robert Sledge (Ben Folds Five) on vox/bass and anchored by the drumming of Jason Faggotron. ...


The bridge is widely considered one of the most beautiful examples of bridge engineering, both as a structural design challenge and for its aesthetic appeal. It was declared one of the modern Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. According to Frommer's travel guide, the Golden Gate Bridge is "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world"[22] (although Frommers also bestows the "most photographed" honor on Tower Bridge in London, England).[23] For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... “ASCE” redirects here. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected. Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan he added details, such as lighting, to outline the bridge's cables and towers.[24]


The Golden Gate Bridge has a similar sister bridge in Lisbon, Portugal. The red-painted Ponte 25 de Abril (25th April Bridge) is 2,278 m (7,470 ft) spans 1,013 m (3,320 ft). For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Tagus River Bridge or 25th of April Bridge (Ponte 25 de Abril) in Lisbon, Portugal, was built by the American Bridge Company and completed in 1966, after four years of construction, for $32 million. ...


Paintwork

The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat, which was touched up as required. In the mid-1960s, a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint off and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and, originally, vinyl topcoats.[25][26] Acrylic topcoats have been used instead since 1990 for air quality reasons. The program was completed in 1995, and there is now maintenance by 38 painters to touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously eroded.[27] Red lead, also called minium or lead tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A topcoat is: An overcoat The guard hairs of an animal; a conformation point in the hobby of animal fancy. ... Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... A Bigger Splash, 1967. ...

Golden Gate Bridge, with its approach arch over Fort Point at the San Francisco terminus (right). Behind the arch is Angel Island, and to the left of that, Tiburon, California, mostly obscuring the East Bay hills.
Golden Gate Bridge, with its approach arch over Fort Point at the San Francisco terminus (right). Behind the arch is Angel Island, and to the left of that, Tiburon, California, mostly obscuring the East Bay hills.

Fort Point is a location at the south entrance to San Francisco Bay. ... Angel Island Angel Island is an island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, offering spectacular views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. ... A View of Downtown Tiburon, near the Ferry Docks. ... The East Bay, in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, lies on the east shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay, and includes Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. ...

Current issues

Economics

The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971, with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest raised entirely from bridge tolls.[28]


On September 1, 2002, the auto cash toll for Southbound motor vehicles was raised from $3 to $5, and the FasTrak toll was increased from $3 to $4. Northbound motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic remains toll free. The rate for two-axle vehicles and motorcycles is $5 cash, or $4 with FasTrak electronic RF payments. For vehicles with more than two axles, the toll rate is $2.50 per axle.[29][30] is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Mounted FasTrak transponder FasTrak is an electronic toll collection system in the state of California in the United States. ...


In November 2006, the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District recommended a corporate sponsorship program for the bridge to address its operating deficit, projected at $80 million over five years. The District promised that the proposal, which it called a "partnership program", would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself. In October 2007, the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means, most likely a toll increase.[31][32] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Advert redirects here. ...

San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge as viewed from the Marin Headlands

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 272 pixelsFull resolution (5799 × 1972 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 272 pixelsFull resolution (5799 × 1972 pixel, file size: 1. ... View to the northwest, towards the Marin headlands The Golden Gate Bridge in morning fog, viewed from the north, just below and east of the headlands. ...

Suicides

The Golden Gate Bridge is a frequent site for suicide. The deck is approximately 260 feet above the water. After a fall of approximately four seconds jumpers hit the water at 75 miles per hour (121 km/h), which is nearly always fatal. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The first suicide occurred only days after the Bridge opened.[citation needed] There is no accurate figure on the number of suicides since 1937, because many were not witnessed. People have been known to travel to San Francisco specifically to jump off the bridge, and may take a bus or cab to the site; police sometimes find abandoned rental cars in the parking lot. Currents beneath the bridge are very strong, and some jumpers have undoubtedly been washed out to sea without ever being seen. The water may be as cold as 47 degrees F, and great white sharks, which tend to congregate around the Farallon Islands, are sometimes seen under the bridge. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York was built without pedestrian access partly because authorities feared it would attract suicide jumpers. Binomial name Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as white pointer, white shark, or white death, is an exceptionally large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. ... Farallon Islands, with border of Farallon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Southeast Farallon Islands (from nautical chart of 1957) View of research station at Marine Terrace, with Farallon Island Light above The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast... Verrazano Bridge redirects here; for the bridge to Assateague Island, see Verrazano Bridge (Maryland). ...


An official suicide count was kept, sorted according to which of the bridge's 128 lamp posts the jumper was nearest when he or she jumped. The count exceeded 1,200 when the count ended in 2005, and new suicides were averaging one every two weeks.[33] There were 34 bridge jump suicides in 2006 whose bodies were recovered, in addition to four jumps which were witnessed but whose bodies were never recovered, and several bodies recovered suspected to be from bridge jumps. The California Highway Patrol removed seventy apparently suicidal people from the bridge that year.[34] Currently, it is said that a person jumps off the Golden Gate Bridge every 15 days.[citation needed]


As of 2006, only 26 people are known to have survived the jump.[35] Those who do survive strike the water feet-first, usually suffering broken bones and internal injuries. Even when a jumper is promptly rescued from the water and rushed to the hospital, most die of internal bleeding from ruptured spleens.[citation needed] Only one person has ever been recorded as having made the jump without serious injury: in 1985 a 16-year-old wrestler landed on his buttocks and swam ashore; his first words reportedly were, " I can't do anything right."[citation needed] Another young man survived a jump in 2000, although the impact broke his back and shattered multiple vertebrae.[36] A young woman from Piedmont, California, may be the only person to have jumped from the bridge twice. She survived the first jump in early 1988, but died in her second attempt later that year.[citation needed] A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Piedmont is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. ...


Engineering professor Natalie Jeremijenko, as part of her Bureau of Inverse Technology art collective, created a "Despondency Index" by correlating the Dow Jones Industrial Index with the number of jumpers detected by "Suicide Boxes" containing motion-detecting cameras, which she claimed to have set up under the bridge.[37] The boxes purportedly recorded 17 jumps in three months, far greater than the official count. The Whitney Museum, though questioning whether Jeremijenko's suicide detection technology actually existed, nevertheless included her project in its prestigious Whitney Biennial.[38] Natalie Jeremijenko is a new media artist and engineer. ... The Bureau of Inverse Technology [bit and sometimes BIT] is an organisation of artist-engineers whos stated aim is to be an information agency servicing the Information Age. Bureau engineers, so-called BIT agents, are involved from design to deployment and documentation of radical products based on commercially available... Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow industrials, the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created... The Whitney Museum of American Art is an art gallery and museum in New York City founded in 1931 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ... The banner of the 2006 Whitney Biennial: Day For Night in front of the Whitney Museum of American Art. ...


Suicide on the Golden Gate Bridge is a theme of Jenni Olson's experimental film, The Joy of Life (2005).[citation needed] Eric Steel's 2006 documentary The Bridge recorded 23 of the 24 known suicides during 2004.[citation needed] Jenni Olson, writer and director Jenni Olson is one of the worlds leading experts on GLBT cinema. ... The Joy of Life (2005) is an experimental landscape film about the history of suicide and the Golden Gate Bridge, and the adventures of a butch lesbian in San Francisco, California. ... Filmmaker and Producer, known for his work on Shaft and Angelas Ashes [edit] The Bridge     In 2005, documentarian Eric Steel revealed that he had tricked the Golden Gate Bridge committee into allowing him to film the bridge for months and had filmed people committing suicide by leaping off the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline
As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline

Various methods have been proposed and implemented to reduce the number of suicides. The bridge is fitted with suicide hotline telephones, and staff patrol the bridge in carts, looking for people who appear to be planning to jump. The bridge is now closed to pedestrians at night. Cyclists are still permitted across at night, but must be buzzed in and out through the remotely controlled security gates.[39] Attempts to introduce a suicide barrier have been thwarted by engineering difficulties, high costs, and public opposition. The estimated cost of a barrier is between $15 and $20 million.[40] One recurring proposal is to build a barrier to replace or augment the low railing, a component of the bridge's original architectural design. New barriers have eliminated suicides at other landmarks around the world, but were opposed for the Golden Gate Bridge for reasons of cost, aesthetics, and safety (the load from a poorly-designed barrier could significantly affect the bridge's structural integrity during a strong windstorm).[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 2297 KB) Summary Photographed by and copyright of (c) David Corby (User:Miskatonic, uploader) 2006 This is the suicide prevention message on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 2297 KB) Summary Photographed by and copyright of (c) David Corby (User:Miskatonic, uploader) 2006 This is the suicide prevention message on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco California. ... Various suicide prevention strategies have been used: Promoting mental resilience through optimism and connectedness. ... As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign on the Golden Gate Bridge promotes a special telephone that connects to a crisis hotline. ... A crisis hotline is a phone number people can call to get immediate over-the-phone emergency counseling, usually by trained volunteers. ...


Wind

Since its completion, the Golden Gate Bridge has been closed due to weather conditions only three times:[41] on December 1, 1951, due to gusts of 69 mph (111 km/h); on December 23, 1982, due to winds of 70 mph (110 km/h); and on December 3, 1983, due to wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h). is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


Safety

The Golden Gate Bridge is also notorious as the site of head-on collisions between North-bound and South-bound cars. After one such collision, on June 24, 1996, the Bridge District was sued for not installing a movable barrier between North-bound and South-bound traffic lanes.[citation needed] Such a barrier has been designed: it has been estimated that it would cost about $1.3 million to build.[citation needed] For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Art, photography, and culture

The Golden Gate Bridge is among the most recognizable structures in the world. The bridge view is beautiful most times of the day, and especially nice during late Autumn. Its distinctive reddish color also makes it a popular places for photography enthusiasts and tourists.


In Popular Culture

  • In the 2005 tele-movie 10.5 the Golden Gate bridge collapses after San Francisco is struck by an earthquake.
  • In the 2003 science fiction film The Core the Golden Gate Bridge is destroyed when huge blasts of microwave radiation break through the atmosphere.
  • In Star Trek, the bridge is frequently used in establishing shots of San Francisco.
  • In the television show "That's So Raven", the bridge is used in shots when the show is beginning or after a commercial break.

Thats So Raven is an American Emmy Award-nominated[1] sitcom television series broadcast on the Disney Channel. ...

See also

49-Mile Scenic Drive sign The 49-Mile Scenic Drive (also known as 49-Mile Drive) in and around San Francisco highlights many of the citys major attractions and historic structures. ... A megaproject is a very large investment project. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d Denton, Harry et al. (2004) "Lonely Planet San Francisco" Lonely Planet, United States. 352 pp. ISBN 1-74104-154-6
  3. ^ By Patrick Barnard. "Giant Underwater Sand Waves Seaward of the Golden Gate Bridge", September 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Two Bay Area Bridges. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  5. ^ Peter Fimrite. "Ferry tale -- the dream dies hard: 2 historic boats that plied the bay seek buyer -- anybody", San Francisco Chronicle, 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  6. ^ George H. Harlan (1967). San Francisco Bay Ferryboats. Howell-North Books. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  7. ^ a b Guy Span. "So Where Are They Now? The Story of San Francisco’s Steel Electric Empire", Bay Crossings, 2002-05-04. 
  8. ^ a b c d Sigmund, Pete (2006). The Golden Gate: 'The Bridge That Couldn't Be Built'. Construction Equipment Guide. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  9. ^ a b c T.O. Owens (2001). The Golden Gate Bridge. The Rosen Publishing Group. 
  10. ^ a b The American Experience:People & Events: Joseph Strauss (1870-1938). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  11. ^ Bridging the Bay: Bridges That Never Were. UC Berkeley Library (1999). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  12. ^ Miller, John B. (2002) "Case Studies in Infrastructure Delivery" Springer. 296 pp. ISBN 0-7923-7652-8.
  13. ^ Gudde, Erwin G. "California Place Names" (2004) University of California Press, London, England. 467 pp. ISBN 0-520-24217-3.
  14. ^ a b People and Events: Joseph Strauss (1870-1938). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  15. ^ The American Experience:People & Events: Irving Morrow (1884-1952). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  16. ^ a b c American Experience:Leon Moisseiff (1872–1943). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  17. ^ a b c d e The American Experience:Charles Alton Ellis (1876-1949). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  18. ^ Jackson, Donald C. (1995) "Great American Bridges and Dams" John Wiley and Sons. 360 pp. ISBN 0-471-14385-5
  19. ^ Bridging the Bay: Bridges That Never Were. UC Berkeley Library. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  20. ^ Frequently Asked Questions about the Golden Gate Bridge. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District.. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  21. ^ Golden Gate Bridge: Construction Data. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  22. ^ Golden Gate Bridge - Museum/Attraction View. Frommers (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  23. ^ Tower Bridge - Museum/Attraction View - London. Frommers (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  24. ^ Rodriguez, Joseph A. (2000) Planning and Urban Rivalry in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1930s. Journal of Planning Education and Research v. 20 pp. 66-76.
  25. ^ Golden Gate Bridge: Research Library: How Often is the Golden Gate Bridge Repainted?. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  26. ^ Golden Gate Bridge: Construction Data: Painting The Golden Gate Bridge. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  27. ^ Golden Gate Bridge: Construction Data: How Many Ironworkers and Painters Maintain the Golden Gate Bridge?. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  28. ^ Key Dates. Research Library. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  29. ^ Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2003) "Lonely Planet California" Lonely Planet, United States. 737 pp. ISBN 1-86450-331-9
  30. ^ http://goldengatebridge.org/tolls_traffic/toll_rates_carpools.php
  31. ^ Jonathan Curiel, Chronicle Staff Writer. "Golden Gate Bridge directors reject sponsorship proposals", San Francisco Chronicle, October 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-27. 
  32. ^ Partnership Program Status. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  33. ^ Jumpers: The fatal grandeur of the Golden Gate Bridge. The New Yorker (2003). Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
  34. ^ 34 confirmed suicides off GG Bridge last year. The San Francisco Chronicle (2006). Retrieved on January 17, 2007.
  35. ^ Jumpers: The fatal grandeur of the Golden Gate Bridge. The New Yorker (2003). Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
  36. ^ Could you jump off a bridge or a tall building and survive the fall?. The Straight Dope. Cecil Adams (2005). Retrieved on 2006-04-12.
  37. ^ ART IN REVIEW: The Bureau of Inverse Technology nytimes.com.
  38. ^ Noah Shachtman. "Tech and Art Mix at RNC Protest", Wired Magazine, August 8, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. 
  39. ^ Golden Gate Bridge: Bikes and Pedestrians. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  40. ^ Deadly Beauty. The Economist (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-10, 2006.
  41. ^ Frequently Asked Questions about the Golden Gate Bridge. Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. Retrieved on 2008-03-12.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of the largest suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... For the bridge in New York that crosses the Harlem River, see Washington Bridge. ... Verrazano Bridge redirects here; for the bridge to Assateague Island, see Verrazano Bridge (Maryland). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... San Francisco Cable Car No. ... Lombard Streets famed twists Lombard Street is an east-west street in San Francisco, California. ... For other uses, see Alcatraz (disambiguation). ... The Embarcaderos Ferry Building The Ferry Building is a terminal for ferries that travel across the San Francisco Bay and a shopping center located on The Embarcadero in San Francisco, California. ... Ghirardelli Square is a tourist attraction with shops and restaurants in the Fishermans Wharf area of San Francisco, California. ... Mission San Francisco de Asís is the oldest surviving structure in San Franciso and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions. ... Sea lions on Pier 39 A musician performs at Pier 39. ... 49-Mile Scenic Drive sign The 49-Mile Scenic Drive (also known as 49-Mile Drive) in and around San Francisco highlights many of the citys major attractions and historic structures. ... View of Powell Street heading north from Nob Hill, toward San Francisco Bay and Marin County Nob Hill refers to a small district in San Francisco, California adjacent to the intersection of California and Powell streets (and the respective cable car lines). ... San Francisco City Hall in Summer 2003. ... The main San Francisco Public Library. ... The F Market & Wharves line is one of several light rail lines in San Francisco, California. ... The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge ( ; known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a toll bridge which spans San Francisco Bay and links the California cities of Oakland and San Francisco in the United States, as part of Interstate 80. ... The Transamerica Pyramid. ... Coit Tower with statue of Columbus in foreground Coit Tower was built atop Telegraph Hill in 1933 at the bequest of Lillie Hitchcock Coit to beautify the City of San Francisco. ... San Franciscos Cliff House is a popular restaurant to both locals and vistors. ... Historic wharves near Fort Mason Fort Mason in San Francisco, California is a former U.S. Army base located at the northern Marina District, alongside San Francisco Bay. ... Victorian houses known as the Painted Ladies at Alamo Square park in San Francisco. ... Grace Cathedral Grace Cathedral is an episcopal cathedral located on Nob Hill in San Francisco, California. ... Smoke billows at the exploratorium The Exploratorium is a public science museum located in the Marina District at the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco, California. ... San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (2004). ... The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum is a fine arts museum located in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park. ... Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, California. ... Samurai armour on display. ... Categories: United States-related stubs | Museums in San Francisco | Transport museums ... Zeum is an interactive childrens art and technology museum located in San Francisco, California. ... Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ... Believe It or Not redirects here. ... The historic fleet moored at Hyde Street Pier, with Alcatraz and Angel Island in the background. ... Aquarium of the Bay is an aquarium in Pier 39, San Francisco, California, that has many types of fish including eels, flatfish, rockfish, Wrasse, Gobies, Kelpfish, Pricklebacks, Ronquil, Sculpin and Sturgeons as well as various other sharks and rays. ... The San Francisco Railway Museum Entrance The San Francisco Railway Museum is a local railway history museum located in the South of Market area of San Francisco. ... The Musee Mecanique (Musée Mécanique) is a collection of penny arcade games and related artifacts located in San Francisco, California. ... The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... The domed Conservatory of Flowers is one of the worlds largest. ... Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) is a contemporary arts center in San Francisco, California. ... Angel Island Angel Island is an island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, offering spectacular views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. ... The famous Painted Ladies seen from Alamo Square. ... A park in San Francisco, Crissy Field was originally a rich salt marsh, and a gathering ground for the native people. ... Farallon Islands, with border of Farallon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Southeast Farallon Islands (from nautical chart of 1957) View of research station at Marine Terrace, with Farallon Island Light above The Farallon Islands are a group of islands and rocks found in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast... Fort Point is located at the southern side of the Straits of the Golden Gate at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. ... Glen Canyon Park is a park in San Francisco, California. ... Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park. ... Cloudy Weekend at Ocean Beach Ocean Beach is a beach that runs along the west coast of San Francisco, California at the Pacific Ocean. ... // The Palace of Fine Arts: 2004 For the opera house in Mexico City, see Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palace of Fine Arts in the Marina District of San Francisco, California is a building originally constructed for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. ... The Parade Grounds at the Presidio of San Francisco. ... Red Rock is visible adjacent to the bridge in this photograph taken from an airplane (Daniel McCirmick, 2006) Aerial photograph of Red Rock Island Deserted Coast Guard fog bell on southern point of island Red Rock Island is an uninhabited island in the San Francisco Bay located just south of... The historic fleet moored at Hyde Street Pier, with Alcatraz and Angel Island in the background. ... The San Francisco Zoo, (previously Fleishhacker Zoo) is a zoo in San Francisco, California housing more than 250 different animal species. ... Sigmund Stern Recreation Grove, locally called Stern Grove, is a 33-acre recreational site two miles south of the Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, California administered by the San Francisco Recreation and Parks Department. ... An aerial view of Treasure Island in the foreground, with its link to Yerba Buena Island in the background. ... Looking northwest toward Mission Street from behind the waterfall memorial. ... American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) is a prestigious theater company in San Francisco, USA that offers both contemporary and classical theater productions and a wide range of classes. ... San Francisco Civic Auditorium is an indoor arena in San Francisco, California. ... The Fillmore (also known as the Fillmore Auditorium or, for several years, The Elite Club), is a historic music venue in San Francisco, California made famous by Bill Graham (1931–1991). ... The California Victory is a USL First Division professional soccer team based in San Francisco, California. ... City San Francisco, California Other nicknames Niners, The Red And Gold, Bay Bombers Team colors Cardinal red, metallic gold and black Head Coach Mike Nolan Owner Denise DeBartolo York and John York General manager Lal Heneghan Mascot Sourdough Sam League/Conference affiliations All-America Football Conference (1946-1949) Western Division... The San Francisco Dragons are a lacrosse team based in San Francisco, California. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–85) Other nicknames The Jints, The Gigantes, The G... San Francisco Seals are an American soccer team, originally founded in 1992. ... AT&T Park (also called China Basin) is an open-air baseball park, home to the San Francisco Giants of the Major League Baseball. ... The Cow Palace (originally known as the California State Livestock Pavilion) is an indoor arena in Daly City, California, situated on the border of Daly City and neighboring San Francisco. ... Monster Park (colloquially Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park, and sometimes just simply The Stick) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in San Francisco, California. ... Kezar Stadium is a stadium located in the southeastern corner of Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, California. ... A rack of bread in a Boudin bakery. ... The Ghirardelli Chocolate Company is a United States division of Swiss candy-maker Lindt & Sprüngli. ... The Top of the Mark is a rooftop bar located at the top of the Mark Hopkins Intercontinental Hotel on San Franciscos Nob Hill. ... Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days Sourdough (or, more formally, natural leaven or levain) refers to the process of leavening bread by capturing wild yeasts in a dough or batter, as opposed to using a domestic, purpose-cultured yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Binomial name Dana, 1852 The Dungeness crab is a species of crab that inhabits eelgrass beds and water bottoms from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska to Santa Cruz, California [1]. Its binomial name, Cancer magister, simply means master crab in Latin. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Looking north from Grant Avenue and Sacramento Street in Chinatown, San Francisco. ... Fishermans Wharf sign Aerial view of Fishermans Wharf Fishermans Wharf is a neighborhood and popular tourist attraction in San Francisco, California, U.S. It roughly encompasses the northern waterfront area of San Francisco from Ghirardelli Square or Van Ness Street east to Pier 35 or Kearny Street. ... The commercial district along Geary Boulevard is bookended by the Japan Center pagoda and the AMC Kabuki 8 movie theater complex. ... Metreon, an entertainment shopping center, launched on June 16, 1999 as the first in a proposed succession of Sony urban centers aggregating dining, gaming, music, exhibitions, shopping, and movies. ... The Stonestown Galleria is a shopping mall in San Francisco, California, U.S. There are over 130 stores in the mall, including Macys and Nordstrom. ... Union Square is the central shopping, hotel and theater district in San Francisco. ... Westfield San Francisco Centre is an urban shopping center located in San Francisco, California owned by The Westfield Group. ... The flag at the corner of Market, Castro, and 17th St. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: US geography stubs | San Francisco neighborhoods ... The Sutro Baths were a large privately owned swimming pool complex in San Francisco, California built in the late 19th century. ... Jack Kerouac Alley (formerly Adler Street) is an alleyway in San Franciscos Chinatown. ...


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As part of the 1 50th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1987, a walkway comprised of personalized bricks was constructed at the southeast side of the Bridge in the visitor area, just north of the Strauss Statue.
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