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Encyclopedia > Golden Age of Piracy
A painting depicting the era.
A painting depicting the era.

The Golden Age of Piracy is the common designation given the period roughly spanning from the 1680s to the 1720s, during which there was a substantial increase in the number of Anglo-American pirates operating throughout the Caribbean, the American coast, the Indian Ocean, and the western coast of Africa. It is also from this period that the modern conception of pirates as depicted in popular culture is derived. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Schooner-attacking-merchant. ... Events and Trends The Treaty of Ratisbon between France and England in 1684 ended the Age of Buccaneers. ... Events and Trends Manufacture of the earliest surviving pianos. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


During the early 18th century, many European and colonial American sailors and privateers found themselves unemployed. Factors contributing to piracy included the rise in quantities of valuable cargoes being shipped to Europe over vast ocean areas, the weakness of European navies in peacetime, the training and experience that many sailors had gained as conscripts in European navies (particularly the Royal Navy), and the weakness of European government in overseas colonies. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Origins

In 1713, a succession of peace treaties were signed, known as the Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession (also called 'Queen Anne's War'). With the end of this conflict, thousands of seamen, including Britain's paramilitary privateers, were relieved of military duty. The result was a large number of trained, idle sailors at a time when the cross-Atlantic colonial shipping trade was beginning to boom. In addition, Europeans who had been pushed by unemployment to become sailors and soldiers involved in slaving were often enthusiastic to abandon that profession and turn to pirating, giving pirate captains for many years a constant pool of trained European recruits to be found in west African waters and coasts. Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ...


Triangular Trade

Trafficking on shipping lanes between Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe began to soar in the 18th century, a model that was known as triangular trade, and was a rich target for piracy. Trade ships sailed from Europe to the African coast, purchasing slaves. The traders would then sail to the Caribbean to sell the slaves, and return to Europe with goods such as sugar and cocoa. Sugar, rum, and slaves made up the majority of the trade goods. An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... This article is about the beverage. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


As part of the war's settlement, Britain obtained the asiento, a Spanish government contract, to supply slaves to Spain's New World colonies, providing British traders and smugglers more access to the traditionally closed Spanish markets in America. This arrangement also contributed heavily to the spread of piracy across the western Atlantic at this time. Shipping to the colonies boomed simultaneously with the flood of skilled mariners after the war. Merchant shippers used the surplus of sailors' labor to drive wages down, cutting corners to maximize their profits, and creating unsavory conditions aboard their vessels. Merchant sailors suffered from mortality rates as high or higher than the slaves being transported (Rediker, 2004). Living conditions were so poor that many sailors began to prefer a freer existence as a pirate. The increased volume of shipping traffic also could sustain a large body of brigands preying upon it. In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pirates of the Era

Blackbeard's severed head hanging from Maynard's bowsprit
Blackbeard's severed head hanging from Maynard's bowsprit

Many of the most well known pirates in historical lore originate from this Golden Age of Piracy. Image File history File links Blackbeard_head_bow. ... Image File history File links Blackbeard_head_bow. ...

Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Barbados is an independent island nation situated on the boundary of the Atlantic Ocean. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Blackbeard (1680? – November 22, 1718) was the nickname of Edward Teach alias Edward Thatch, a notorious English pirate who had a short reign of terror in the Caribbean Sea between 1716 and 1718. ... A flag often attributed to Blackbeard. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Queen Annes Revenge is haunted, and was the name of the pirate Blackbeards infamous flagship. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Samuel Bellamy (c. ... The Whydah Gally (variously written as Whidah or Whidaw[1]) was the flagship of the pirate Black Sam Bellamy. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Captain William Fly (17??-July 12th 1726) was a British pirate who raided New England shipping until his capture after a month and hanged in Boston, Massachusetts. ...

Female pirates

Women entered the career of piracy as well (most usually disguised as men). Two of the best-known female pirates were Calico Jack Rackham's cohorts, Anne Bonney (also sometimes spelled Bonny) and Mary Read. John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... Anne Bonny (1697?-1720?) was a female pirate of Irish descent who sailed with Calico Jack Rackham. ... Mary Read (c. ...


Bonney grew up ferocious, and, unable to leave an earlier marriage, eloped with Rackham, with whom she was in love. Mary Read had been dressed as a boy all her life by her mother, and had spent time in the British military. She came to the West Indies (Caribbean) after the death of her husband, and fell in with Calico Jack and Anne Bonney.


When their ship was assaulted, the two women were the only ones that defended their ship. The other crew members were too drunk to fight. In the end they were captured and arrested. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crew (disambiguation). ...


After their capture, both women escaped death sentences (the punishment for piracy) by claiming to be pregnant; however, Read died of a fever in jail and Bonney disappeared. These two women exemplified the wide range of people who were involved in piracy during its Golden Age.


Footnotes

References

  • Rediker, Marcus. "Villains of all Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age". Beacon Press: Boston (2004).

External links

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