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Encyclopedia > Golden Age of Athens

The Age of Pericles is the term used to denote the historical period in Ancient Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE. Pericles - an Athenian general, politician and orator - distinguished himself above the other shining personalities of the era, men who excelled in politics, philosophy, architecture, sculpture, history and literature. He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. He executed a large number of public works projects and improved the life of the citizens. Hence, this important figure gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age. The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... The title page to The Historians History Of The World. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ...


During this century, Athens was governed by 10 strategoi (or generals) who were elected each year by the 10 clans of citizens. These strategoi had duties which included planning military expeditions, receiving envoys of other states and directing political affairs. During the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, Pericles was his deputy. When Ephialtes was assassinated by personal enemies, Pericles stepped in and was elected strategos in 445 BCE, a post he held continuously until his death in 429 BCE, always by election of the Athenian Assembly. See the Aloadae article for information about the giant Ephialtes of Greek mythology For Ephialtes, the prominent Athenian politician see Ephialtes of Athens Ephialtes (Greek: ) was the son of Eurydemus of Malis. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC 447 BC 446 BC - 445 BC - 444 BC 443 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC...


Pericles was a great orator; this quality brought him great success in the Assembly, presenting his vision of politics. One of his most popular reforms was to allow thetes (Athenians without wealth) to occupy public office. Another success of his administration was the creation of the misthophoria (μισθοφορία, which literally means paid function), a special salary for the citizens that attended the Assembly. This way, these citizens were able to completely dedicate themselves to public service without facing financial hardship. With this system, Pericles succeeded in keeping the Assembly full of members, and in giving the people experience in public life. As Athens' ruler, he made the city the first and most important polis of the Greek world, acquiring a resplendent culture and democratic institutions. Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in...


The sovereign people governed themselves, without intermediaries, deciding the matters of state in the Assembly. The Athenian citizens were free and only owed obedience to their laws and respect to their gods. They achieved equality of speech in the Assembly: the word of a poor person was the same worth as that of a rich person. The censorial classes did not disappear, but their power was more limited; they shared the fiscal and military offices but they did not have the power of distributing privileges. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For omission and secrecy, see censorship. ...


The principle of equality granted to all citizens had the danger of constituting a fraud, since many of them were incapable of exercising political rights due to their extreme poverty or ignorance. To avoid this, the Athenian democracy applied itself to the task of helping the poorest in this manner:

  • Concession of salaries for public functionaries.
  • To seek for and supply work to the poor.
  • To grant lands to dispossessed villagers.
  • Public assistance for invalids, orphans and indigents.
  • Other social helps.

These norms should have been carried out in great measure since the testimony has come to us (among others) from the Greek historian Thucydides (c. 460 - 400 BCE), who comments: Everyone who is capable of serving the city meets no impediment, neither poverty, nor civic condition... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...

Contents

Institutions

The magistrates

The magistrates were people who occupied a public post and formed the administration of the Athenian state. They were submitted to a rigorous public control. The magistrates were chosen by lot, using fava beans. Some black and white beans were put in a box and depending on which color the person drew out they obtained the post or not. This was a way of eliminating all personal influence of rich people and possible intrigues and use of favors. There were only two categories of posts which were chosen not by lot, but by election in the Popular Assembly, that of strategos, or general, and that of magistrate of finance. It was generally supposed that significant qualities were needed to exercise each of those two offices. A magistrate's post did not last more than a year, including that of the strategoi and in this sense the continued selection of Pericles year after year was an exception. At the end of every year, a magistrate would have to give an account of his administration and use of public finances.


The most honored posts were the ancient archontes, or archons in English. In previous ages they had been the heads of the Athenian state, but in the Age of Pericles they lost their large influence and power, although they still presided over tribunals.


The strategoi (generals) were the most important office holders in their capacity as army and navy officers and as diplomats. The Assembly elected 10 every year.


There were also more than 40 public administration officers and more than 60 to police the streets, the markets, to check weights and measures and to carry out arrests and executions.


The Assembly of the People

The Assembly (in Greek, ἐκκλησία, that is to say, an assembly by summons), was the first organ of the democracy. In theory it intended to bring together in assembly all the citizens of Athens, but the maximum number which came to congregate is estimated at 6,000 participants. The gathering place was a space situated on the hill called Pnyx, in front of the Acropolis. The sessions sometimes lasted at from dawn to dusk. They gathered forty times a year. Acropolis of Athens from the south-west with the Propylaea and the Temple of Nike (left centre) and the theatre of Herodes Atticus (below left) Acropolis (Gr. ...


The Assembly decided on the laws and the decrees which were proposed but relying always on the ancient laws which had long been in force. Bills were voted in two stages: first the Assembly itself decided and afterwards the Council or βουλη gave definitive approval.


The Council or Boule

The Council or Boule (βουλή) consisted of 500 members, 50 from each tribe. These were chosen by chance, by the system described earlier, from which they were familiarly known as "councillors of the bean"; officially they were known as prytaneis (πρύτανις, meaning "chief" or "teacher"). The prytaneis (literally presidents) of ancient Athens were members of the boule chosen to perform executive tasks during their term (a prytany), which lasted about two months and then was rotated to other members of the boule. ...


The council members examined and studied legal projects and, moreover, looked over the magistrates and saw that the daily administrative details were on the right path; similarly, they oversaw the city state's external affairs. This council was like a prolongation of the Assembly. They also met at Pnyx hill, in a place expressly prepared for the event. The 50 prytaneis in power were located on grandstands carved into the rock. They had stone platforms which they reached by means of a small staircase of three steps. On the first platform were the secretaries and scribes; the orator would climb up to the second.


Finances

Reproduction of an Athenian tetradrachma with the efigie de Pallas Athena —protector of the city— on the front and an owl —symbol of wisdom— on the back (circa 490 BC)

The economic resources of the Athenian State were not excessive. All the glory of Athens in the Age of Pericles, its constructions, public works, religious buildings, sculptures, etc. would not have been possible without the treasury of the Delian League. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... Families Strigidae Tytonidae Ogygoptyngidae (fossil) Palaeoglaucidae (fossil) Protostrigidae (fossil) Sophiornithidae (fossil) Synonyms Strigidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist Owls are a group of birds of prey. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ...


Other small incomes came from customs fees and fines. In times of war a special tax was levied on rich citizens. These citizens were also charged permanently with other taxes for the good of the city. This was called the system of liturgy. The taxes were used to maintain the triremes which gave Athens great naval power and also to pay and maintain a chorus for big religious festivals. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... A Greek trireme. ...


Athenians in the Age of Pericles

The Athenians lived modestly and without great luxuries. There were very few great fortunes. The economy was based on maritime commerce. Agriculture was also important, but it did not produce enough to feed the populace, so some food had to be imported. There was also an artisanal industry, whose products were sought after by natives and foreigners alike. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 732 KB) Parthenon origine : http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 732 KB) Parthenon origine : http://www. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ...


The state oversaw all the major religious festivals. The most important one was the Panathenaia in honor of the goddess Athena, a ritual procession carried out once a year in May and once every four years in July, in which the town presented a new veil (peplos) to the old wooden statue of Athena Poliada. Phidias immortalized this procession in the frieze of the Parthenon, which is currently at the British Museum. In the July Panathenaia (Great Panathenaia), large competitions were organized which included gymnastics and horseback riding, the winners of which received amphoras full of sacred olive oil as a prize. The other important festival was that of the god Dionysus. The Panathenaic Games were a set of games held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece. ... Terracotta of a Greek woman 2. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ...


Education

The education of boys began in their own home, up until the age of seven when they had to attend school. There, they had several teachers who taught them to read and write, as well as subjects such as mathematics and music. Boys also had to take part in physical education classes where they were prepared for future military service with activities such as wrestling, racing, jumping and gymnastics. At eighteen they served in the army and were instructed on how to bear arms. Physical education was very intense and many of the boys ended up becoming true athletes. In addition to these compulsory lessons, the students had the chance to discuss and learn from the great philosophers, grammarians and orators of the time. Students in Rome, Italy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Writing is the process of inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other larger language constructs. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article discusses mainly the development and use of music in western culture. ... Physical instruction at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Newport, Rhode Island, 1917 Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all areas of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ...


Women

The Athenian woman dedicated herself solely to the care of the home. Family homes contained a space, called the gineco, especially for women, where they would spend the day with their servants and young children. Athenian society was a patriarchy in which men held all the rights and advantages, and had access to education and power. Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


However, some women, known as hetaeras, received a careful education so that they could have more complex conversations with men. Among these was Aspasia of Miletus, who was said to be a friend of Pericles and to have debated with Socrates himself. Hetaera (Greek: singular: Εταίρα Hetaera, plural: Εταίραι Hetaerae)In ancient Greece, hetaerae were courtesans, that is to say, sophisticated companions and prostitutes. ... Marble herm in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasias name at the base. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...


Arts and literature

View of the Acropolis

Historians consider the Athenian V and VI century BC as the Golden Age of sculpture and architecture. In this period the ornamental elements and the technique employed did not vary from the previous period. What characterizes this period is the quantity of works and the refinement and perfection of the works. Most were religious in nature, mainly sanctuaries and temples. Some examples from this period are: Image File history File links The Acropolis in Greece By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Image File history File links The Acropolis in Greece By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Acropolis of Athens from the south-west with the Propylaea and the Temple of Nike (left centre) and the theatre of Herodes Atticus (below left) Acropolis (Gr. ...

  • The reconstruction of the Temple of Olympian Zeus.
  • The reconstruction of the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, which was destroyed by an earthquake.
  • The reconstruction of the Acropolis of Athens, the marble city for the glory of the gods. The site had suffered from a fire started by the Persians and lay in ruins for more than 30 years. Pericles initiated its reconstruction with white marble brought from the nearby quarry of Pentelicon. The best architects, sculpturers and workers were gathered to complete the Acropolis. The construction lasted 20 years. Financing came from the Delian League. When finished it was the grandest and most perfect monument in the history of Greek art.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens: the most substantial surviving part of the temple. ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðe̞lˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ...

Sculptors

Phidias is considered the greatest sculptor of this era. He created colossal gold plated marble statues ("chryselephantine statues"), generally face and hands, which were highly celebrated and admired in his own time: Athena, situated in the interior of the Parthenon, whose splendor reached the faithful through the open doors, and Zeus in the Sanctuary of Olympia, considered in its age and in later ages to be one of the marvels of the world. The Athenians were assured that after they had contemplated this statue it was impossible to feel unlucky ever again. Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ...


According to Pliny the Elder's Natural History, in order to conserve the marble of these sculptures, oil receptacles were placed in the temples so that the ivory would not crack. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


The other great sculptors of this century were Myron and Polycletus. Minotaur, from a fountain in Athens, reflecting Myrons lost group of Theseus and the Minotaur (National Archeological Museum, Athens) Myron of Eleutherae (Greek Μύρων) working 480-444 BCE, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-fifth century BCE.[1] He was born in Eleutherae on the borders of Boeotia and... Polycletus ( c. ...


Ceramics

During this age, the production of ceramic pieces was abundant. Many have survived until the present day, all of which are of high quality, which is a testimony to the skill of the artist who worked meticulously and dedicated the necessary time to each object. They are, furthermore, a testimony that a market existed inside and outside of Greece which was very demanding in terms of the perfection and completion of the work.


It is also known that there were many great painters, but their works are lost, both frescos and free-standing paintings. Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ...


Theatre

The theatre reached its greatest height in the 5th century BC. Pericles promoted and favored the theatre with a series of practical and economic measures. The wealthiest families were obligated to care for and to sustain the choruses and actors. By this means, Pericles maintained the tradition according to which theater pieces served the moral and intellectual education of the people. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... In tragic plays of ancient Greece, the chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama. ...


Athens became the great city of Greek theater. Until the Age of Pericles, all theaters had been made of stone, but that period saw the beginning of performances in provisional theaters, made of wood, which existed only for the ten days of those productions. Theater session lasted eight consecutive hours and were a type of competition in which a jury proclaimed a winner. The best dramatists of the era entered their works into these competitions. The decor of these theatres was very simple. Each play would be performed by, at most, three actors, who wore masks to identify them with the personage they portrayed; they were accompanied by a chorus who sang, and by recitadores.


The dramatic writers from this era were:

  • Aeschylus (525–456 BC), who wrote on mythological themes.
  • Sophocles, whose work constituted a bitter criticism on religious and political problems.
  • Aristophanes, who dominated the comic theatre with social criticism and caricature.

This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...

Philosophers and writers

Democritus (c. 460 BC-370 BC) was perhaps the most interesting of all, with his atomic theory of the Universe (the universe as an immense combination of atoms). ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC). ...


In the second half of the fifth century the name of sophist (from the Greek sophi, expert, teacher, man of wisdom) was given to the teachers that gave instruction on diverse branches of science and knowledge in exchange for a fee.


In this age, Athens was the "school of Greece". Pericles and his wife Aspasia associated with and had not only great Athenians but also foreigners from within Greece and even outside Greece. Among them were the philosopher Anaxagoras, the historian Herodotus and the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, who reconstructed Peiraeus. Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hippodamus of Miletus (sometimes also called Hippodamos), was a Greek architect of the 5th century BC. He created city plans that featured order and regularity, in contrast to the more common intricacy and confusion common to cities such as Athens. ... Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιά(ς) Pireá(s), Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the prefecture of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ...


Among the most notable were the historians Herodotus (484-425), who described the Greco-Persian Wars, Thucidides (460-395) which left the greatest ancient work written: Peloponnesian War and Xenophon (427-335), who although a partial and poorly documented writer, in the opinion of historians left a useful tool to look up information about the first years of the fourth century BC. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Bust of Thucydides Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian...


Athens was also the capital of eloquence. Since the late fifth century eloquence had been elevated to an art form. There were the logographers (λογογράφος) who wrote courses and created a new literary form characterized by the clarity and purity of the language. It became a lucrative profession. It is known that the logographer Lysias (460-380 B.C.), made a great fortune thanks to his profession. Later, in the IV century, the orators Isocrates and Demosthenes also became famous. Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking in public. ... The title of logographer (from the Ancient Greek λογογράφος, logographos, a compound of λόγος, logos, word, and γράφω, grapho, write) was applied to professional authors of judicial discourse in Ancient Greece. ... Lysias (d. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ...


End of the Age of Pericles

Pericles governed Athens throughout the 5th century BC bringing to the city a splendour and a standard of living never previously experienced. All was well within the internal regiment of government, however discontent within the Delian League was ever increasing. The foreign affairs policies adopted by Athens did not reap the best results; members of the Delian League were increasingly dissatisfied. Athens was the city-state that dominated and subjugated the rest of Greece and these oppressed citizens wanted their independence. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


Previously, in 550 BC, a similar league between the cities of the Peloponnessus—directed and dominated by Sparta—had been founded. Taking advantage of the general dissent of the Greek city-states, this Peloponnesian League began to confront Athens. The year 431 BC let loose a series of bloody wars the like of which Greece had never seen before. The trigger of the conflict was over the island of Corfu which was in dispute with Sparta's ally Corinth, and Athens who intervened on behalf of the island by offering its support. This is how the Peloponnesian War began—a war that would last another 27 years. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ...


The Greek city-states entered the conflict even though the weight of the conflict fell on the two rival cities—Athens and Sparta. Athens displayed her military superiority at sea whereas Sparta proved to be invincible on land. The Spartans eventually invaded Attica, the territory surrounding Athens. Pericles had to bring the people inside the city walls for their protection. The long siege led to terribly unsanitary conditions that created an epidemic, believed by many to have been Typhoid fever, that caused the death of thousands of people including Pericles himself (429 BC). Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC...


Pericles, being the great statesman that he was, proved to be irreplacable. Nicias and Cleon provided forgettable administrations and in their vacuum of leadership, the influence of the politician and general Alcibiades (nephew of Pericles) grew. After a series of lamentable decisions capped by the disastrous Sicilian expedition, Alcibiades eventually turned sides to Sparta and betrayed his own city. After losing confidence with the Spartans, he returned to Athens and was unexpectedly reappointed as general. However he was subsequently dismissed after more failures and finally sought exile in Phrygia where eventually he was assassinated. Nicias expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign. ... Cleon (d. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ...


The classical period of Athens came to its end. The devastating war with Sparta caused such irreparable damage that the city of Athens finally lost its independence in 338 BC, when Philip II of Macedonia conquered the Greeks and subjected them to his supremacy. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ...


See also

Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ...

References

  • This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, which was accessed in the version of 28 August 2005. It was translated by the Spanish Translation of the Week collaboration. That article, in turn, cites:
    • Maurice: Egypte, Orient, Grèce. Bordas, s/l, 1963.
    • Charles: Historia Universal Oriente y Grecia. Daniel Jorro, Madrid, 1930.


 
 

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