FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Golan Heights
The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

The Golan Heights (Hebrew: רמת הגולןRamat HaGolan, Arabic: هضبة الجولان Habat al-Ǧūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


The name "Golan" refers both to the historical name of a geographic region, and, in contemporary usage, to territory captured by Israel from Syria. (See Names and their applications below)


Israel captured the Heights from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War (and again in the 1973 Yom Kippur War). Most of the Druze population of around 53,000 fled[2] .In the 1970s, new Jewish settlements were founded in the captured area.[1] In addition to its strategic importance[3][4] the Golan Heights watershed, including the Sea of Galilee, provides 50 per cent of Israel's water supply, and is thus an important source of water for the country.[1] Although the Heights were annexed by Israel in 1981 this was not internationally recognized[1] and United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 considers the area part of Israeli occupied territories. Israel maintains it may retain the area following text of the resolution calling for its right for "safe and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force". [5] (See Current status below). In 1981, Israel applied its "laws, jurisdiction and administration" in the Golan Heights with the Golan Heights Law, governing it as part of its North District. Syria asserts that the Heights are part of the governorate of al Qunaytirah. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli Knessets law, ratified on December 14, 1981, which applies Israels laws to the Golan Heights. ... The North District of Israel, highlighted. ... The town of Al-Qunaytirah in September 2001 Quneitra or Al Qunaytirah (Arabic القنيطرة) is a city of southwestern Syria that is now largely abandoned. ...

Sites on the Golan in blue are Jewish communities. Sites on the Golan in black are Druze and Circassian communities. Areas of the Golan controlled by Israel are light-coloured while those under Syrian control are grey. The Golan Heights are surrounded by four countries: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel.
Sites on the Golan in blue are Jewish communities. Sites on the Golan in black are Druze and Circassian communities. Areas of the Golan controlled by Israel are light-coloured while those under Syrian control are grey. The Golan Heights are surrounded by four countries: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1022x1308, 231 KB) This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1022x1308, 231 KB) This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ...

Names and their applications

Panoramic view of the Golan Heights, with the Hermon mountains on the left side, taken from Snir

Clarification of the name "Golan" is warranted since: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 159 pixels Full resolution (3171 × 631 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of the Golan Heights, with the Hermon mountains (left) Photo by beivushtang http://www. ...

  1. Multiple areas with differing borders are each called "Golan"
  2. Numerous additional names, variants derived from "Golan" are employed in specific contexts.

The origin of the name "Golan" is from an ancient city mentioned in the Bible as a "City of Refuge" (see Golan). Eventually, Golan became known as the name of an informal geographic region stretching from that ancient biblical site west towards the Sea of Galilee. Additional names used in this context are Gaulanitis or Gaulonitis. The Cities of Refuge were six Biblical towns in Israel that offered asylum to someone who had unintentionally slain another. ... Golan (aka Gaulonitis; gō´lan; גּולן, gōlān; Γαυλανῖτις, Gaulanítis) was a city in the territory allotted to Manasseh in Bashan, the most northerly of the three cities of refuge... The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ...


That historic name has been applied over the past century to the geographic-geological volcanic plateau characterized by its basalt stone and its dark soil. This definition refers to the area bordered by the Jordan Valley to its west, the Yarmuk River to its south and the Sa'ar River to its north. The Sa'ar River divides the dark-soiled volcanic Golan and the distinct white limestone of Mount Hermon. The region's eastern border with the Hauran is not clearly defined, though the Allan River and Ruqad River are sometimes considered. Additional names used in this context are Gaulan and Jaulan. The region also lent its geographic name to a breed of cattle native to the area, the Jaulan.[1] Rangipo Desert of the North Island Volcanic Plateau. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... ... Ignimbrite is a deposit of a pyroclastic flow. ... -1... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ...


The name "Golan" has been adopted in Israeli culture to refer to that territory occupied by Israel from Syria. The territory taken does not include all of the geographic or historic Golan; furthermore it does include areas belonging to other geographic regions, such as the Hermon and the Jordan Valley. The boundaries of that territory are somewhat less rigid than the geographic definition; a sizable portion of the area conquered by Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was later returned to Syria. Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ...


Geography

Geographically, the Heights are bordered on the west by a rock escarpment that drops 1,700 feet (500 m) to the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River; on the south by the Yarmouk River; on the north by the international border with Lebanon, and on the east by a largely flat plain, called the Hauran. The Golan is usually divided into three regions: northern (between the Sa'ar and Jilabun valleys), central (between the Jilabun and Daliyot valleys), and southern (between the Dlayot and Yarmouk valleys). The Golan Heights themselves are between 400 and 1,700 feet (120–520 m) high. Map of the Earth Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The metre or meter is a measure of length. ... The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ...


Geologically, the Golan Heights are a plateau, and part of a Holocene volcanic field that extends northeast almost to Damascus. The entire area is scattered with inactive cinder cones such as Majdal Shams. Mount Hermon is in the northern Golan Heights but is geologically separate from the volcanic field. Near Hermon is a crater lake called Birkat Ram ("Ram Pool") which is fed by underground springs. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Image:NONE Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... A volcanic field is a spot of the earths crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... PuÊ»u ʻŌʻō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on KÄ«lauea, HawaiÊ»i Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. ... Majdal Shams, an Arab Druze village in the Golan Heights Majdal Shams (Arabic مجدل شمس) is a Druze village in the northern part of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. ... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... Crater Lake is a caldera lake in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... Birkat Ram is a crater lake in The Northeastern Golan Heights. ...


List of Streams

Majraseh section of Daliyot stream in the Golan hights
Majraseh section of Daliyot stream in the Golan hights
  • Yarmouk River
  • Jilabun
  • Daliyot
  • Yehudia
  • Zavitan
  • Meitzar
  • Samakh
  • Orvim
  • Hamdal
  • El Al
  • Nov

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1512 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Current status

View of the Golan Heights plateau from Mt. Bental
View of the Golan Heights plateau from Mt. Bental
Wind turbines in the Golan Heights
Wind turbines in the Golan Heights
The Jilabun Waterfall
Overview of the Golan Heights
Overview of the Golan Heights
Oil route
Mt. Hermon from the Road to Masaade

The Israel Defense Forces captured the Heights and put it under military administration from 1967 until 1981, when the Knesset (the legislature of Israel) passed "The Golan Heights Law",[6] similar to its 1967 measures concerning Jerusalem. Most of the Arab residents of the Golan Heights, mainly Druze, are Syrian Arabs who retain their Syrian citizenship, though they are also Israeli citizens.[7] Syria continues to offer them benefits such as free university tuition.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of the Golan Heights plateau from Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View of the Golan Heights plateau from Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Windmillsgolan2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Windmillsgolan2. ... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 624 KB)This is a photo of the Israeli Golan Heights border with Syria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 624 KB)This is a photo of the Israeli Golan Heights border with Syria. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (512 × 768 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oil Route, Golan Heights Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (512 × 768 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oil Route, Golan Heights Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mt. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mt. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli Knessets law, ratified on December 14, 1981, which applies Israels laws to the Golan Heights. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo...


In 2005 the Golan Heights had a population of approximately 38,900, including approximately 19,300 Druze, 16,500 Jews, and 2,100 Muslims.[8] The Jewish villages, including moshavim and kibbutzim, are consolidated municipally under the Golan Regional Council, and are inhabited by Israeli citizens. The Golan Muslims reside in the Israel-Lebanon border-straddling village of Ghajar, and accepted Israeli citizenship in 1981.[9]The Druze reside in the villages of Ein Qinya, Buq'ata, Majdal Shams, and Mas'ada. Most are involved in farm work. Both personal and business relations exist between the Druze and their Jewish neighbors. As a humanitarian gesture, since 2005, Israel allows Druze farmers to export some 11,000 tons of apples to Syria each year, the first kind of trade ever made between Syria and Israel. Since 1988, Israel has allowed Druse clerics to make annual religious pilgrimages to Syria.[10] Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Moshav (Hebrew: מושב Translit. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... The Golan Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is the regional council consolidating virtually all the Jewish Israeli settlements located on the Golan Heights, made up of 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim, and other villages. ... Ghajar (or al-Ghajar) is an Alawite village on the Lebanese-Israeli border. ... Buqata (Arabic: بقعاتة) is a Druze town in the northern Golan Heights, currently occupied by Israel. ...


Unlike Druze in Israel proper, fewer than 10% of them are Israeli citizens and the remainder hold Syrian citizenship. The latter are permanent residents of Israel, and they hold a laissez-passer. Syria offers free tuition to Druze students who wish to study in their universities. The pro-Israeli Druze are ostracized by pro-Syrian Druze.[11] Reluctance to accept citizenship also reflects fear of ill treatment or displacement by Syrian authorities.[12]. According to The Independent, most Druze in the Golan Heights live relatively comfortable lives in a freer society than they would face in Syria under the present regime.[13] According to Egypt's Daily Star, they have a standard of living vastly surpassing that of their counterparts on the Syrian side of the border, which causes them to fear a return to Syria, though most of them identify themselves as Syrian.[14] Ties to Syria are on the wane, and many have come to appreciate aspects of Israel's liberal-democratic society, although few risk saying it publicly for fear of Syrian retribution.[10] A laissez-passer is a travel document issued by a national government or an international treaty organization. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... The Daily Star is an Egyptian daily newspaper established in 2005 and owned by Egyptian Media Services. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


Israel's measures are frequently termed "annexation" but the word "annexation" or equivalent concepts, like "extending sovereignty," are not used in the law itself. In any case, the extension of sovereignty/annexation has placed the Golan Heights, an area claimed by Syria, under Israeli civilian and military control. For this reason, the Golan Heights have been a crucial part of peace negotiations between Syria and Israel. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ...


When Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin was asked in the Knesset why he was risking international criticism for this annexation, he replied "You use the word annexation, but I am not using it."[15] The governmental Jewish Agency for Israel states that "Although reported as an annexation, it is not: the Golan Heights are not declared to be Israeli territory."[16] On the other hand, the Benjamin Netanyahu government's Basic Policy Guidelines stated "The government views the Golan Heights as essential to the security of the state and its water resources. Retaining Israel's sovereignty over the Golan will be the basis for an arrangement with Syria."[17] The UN did not recognise the "annexation" and they officially consider the Heights to be Israeli occupied. This view was expressed in the unanimous non-binding UN Security Council Resolution 497 stating that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." It, like other relevant UN resolutions takes care to not explicitly call it an "annexation", referring at most to Israel's "annexationist policies."   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Jewish Agency for Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to withdraw from Golan Heights. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ...


Additionally, Lebanon claims a small portion of the area known as Shebaa Farms on Mount Dov in the area of Mount Hermon. Syria's position on the subject is unclear. Syria's foreign minister has orally declared that the Shebaa farms are Lebanese, but Syria has refused to notify the UN of its position officially. Thus, from the UN perspective, Shebaa remains Syrian until the Syrian government confirms its position through official channels. UN Security Council Resolution 425 confirmed[18] that as of June 16, 2000, Israel had completely withdrawn its forces from Lebanon, thereby indirectly designating the farms as part of the Golan, and therefore Syrian territory. Map of the Shebaa Farms. ... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The reason behind this diplomatic imbroglio may be that Syria fears that recognizing the Shebaa territory as Lebanese will allow Lebanon to negotiate a separate deal with Israel. It has also been suggested that Syria regards all of Lebanon as fundamentally part of Syria, and avoids taking any step that would imply formal recognition of Lebanese independence.[citation needed] At the same time, Syria would prefer the Shebaa territory to be under Lebanese rather than Israeli control, so it informally supports the Lebanese claim.


UNDOF (the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force) was established in 1974 to supervise the implementation of the disengagement agreement and maintain the ceasefire with an area of separation known as the UNDOF Zone. Currently there are more than 1,000 UN peacekeepers there trying to sustain a lasting peace. Syria and Israel still contest the ownership of the Heights but have not used overt military force since 1974. The great strategic value of the Heights both militarily and as a source of water means that a deal is uncertain. United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDOF was established by the United Nations by the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces on the Golan Heights signed on May 31, 1974. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) Zone was established by the United Nations after the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 350 [1] on the same day the Agreement on Disengagement (S/11302/Add. ... The United Nations has authorized 61 peacekeeping missions as of 2005. ...


Members of the UN Disengagement force are usually the only individuals who cross the Israeli-Syrian border, but since 1988, Israel has allowed Druze pilgrims to cross the border to visit the shrine of Abel in Syria. In 2005, Syria allowed a few trucks of Druze-grown Golan apples to be imported. The trucks themselves were driven by Kenyan nationals. Since 1967, Druze brides have been allowed to cross the Golan border into Syria, but they do so in the knowledge that the journey is a one-way trip. This phenomenon is shown in the Israeli film The Syrian Bride. The Golan Heights contains the only ski resort under Israeli control,[19] and the extreme-weather unit of the IDF, the Alpinistim, train there. According to the Holy Bible and the Quran, Cain and Abel were the first and second sons of Adam and Eve, born after the Fall of Man (the only other child of Adam and Eve to be named in the Bible was Seth). ... The Syrian Bride is a 2004 film directed by Eran Riklis. ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Members of the U.S. Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest Downhill Ski Racing This article is about snow skiing. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Following the Knesset's approval of the law, Professor Julius Stone of Hastings College of the Law wrote: "There is no rule of international law which requires a lawful military occupant, in this situation, to wait forever before [making] control and government of the territory permanent… Many international lawyers have wondered, indeed, at the patience which led Israel to wait as long as she did."[20] Julius Stone (July 7, 1907 — 1985) was Challis Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law at the University of Sydney from 1942 to 1972, and thereafter a visiting Professor of Law at the University of New South Wales and concurrently Distinguished Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law at the Hastings College... University of California, Hastings College of the Law is a law school located in downtown San Francisco, California. ...


History

Landscape in the Golan
Landscape in the Golan
The Hermon stream
The Hermon stream

Image File history File linksMetadata Ein-Pik-2005-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ein-Pik-2005-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1309 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tourism in Israel Golan Heights Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1309 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tourism in Israel Golan Heights Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... For the city in northwestern Syria, see Baniyas For information on the processor formerly codenamed Banias, please see Centrino The spring at Banyas - one of the three sources of the Jordan river The remains of the city of Banias (Arabic pronunciation of Panias) are located at the foot of Mt. ...

Ancient history

The area has been occupied by many civilizations. During the 3rd millennium BC the Amorites dominated and inhabited the Golan until the 2nd millennium, when the Arameans took over. Later known as Bashan, two tribes were associated with the region during the time of Joshua, the tribe of Dan — Dt 33:22: "And of Dan he said: Dan is a lion's whelp, that leapeth forth from Bashan" and Tribe of Manasseh. The city of Golan was used as as a city of refuge. King Solomon appointed 3 ministers in the region — 1 Kg 4:13: "the son of Geber, in Ramoth-gilead; to him pertained the villages of Jair the son of Manasseh, which are in Gilead; even to him pertained the region of Argob, which is in Bashan, threescore great cities with walls and brazen bars". After the split of the United Monarchy, the area was contested between the Kingdom of Israel (the northern of the two Jewish kingdoms existent at that time) and the Aramean kingdom from the 800s BC. King Ahab of Israel (reigned 874–852 BC) defeated Ben-Hadad I in the southern Golan. According to Jewish law the Golan is regarded as part of Canaan which is holier than the parts east of the Jordan river.[21] The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, seminomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Bashan (meaning light soil) is a biblical place first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth, where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Tribe of Dan was also a band from the mid 1990s. ... The Tribe of Manasseh (Hebrew alphabet מְנַשֶּׁה, Samaritan Hebrew Manatch, Standard Hebrew MÉ™naÅ¡Å¡e, Tiberian Hebrew MÉ™naÅ¡Å¡eh: from נשני naššānî who makes to forget) is one of the Hebrew tribes, which the Bible says was founded by Manasseh, the son of Joseph. ... Golan (aka Gaulonitis; gō´lan; גּולן, gōlān; Γαυλανῖτις, Gaulanítis) was a city in the territory allotted to Manasseh in Bashan, the most northerly of the three cities of refuge... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Ahab or Achav (אַחְאָב Brother of the father, Standard Hebrew Aḥʼav, Tiberian Hebrew ʼAḥăʼāḇ, ʼAḫʼāḇ) was King of the province of Samaria in the greater Kingdom of Israel, and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


In the 700s BC the Assyrians gained control of the area, but were later replaced by the Babylonian and the Persian Empire. In the 5th century BC, the region was settled by returning Jewish exiles from Babylonian Captivity. Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ...


The Golan Heights, along with the rest of the region, came under the control of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, following the Battle of Issus. Following Alexander's death, the Golan came under the domination of the Macedonian noble Seleucus and remained part of the Seleucid Empire for most of the next two centuries. It is during this period that the name Golan, previously that of a city mentioned in Deuteronomy, came to be applied to the entire region (Greek: Gaulanitis). Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Combatants Macedon, Greek allies Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 13,000 peltasts,[1] 22,000 hoplites,[2] 5,850 cavalry[2] 103,000 (Modern Consensus)[3] (See below) Casualties 7,000[4] 30,000 The Battle of Issus (or more commonly The Battle at Issus) occurred... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


The Maccabean Revolt saw much action in the regions around the Golan and it is possible that the Jewish communities of the Golan were among those rescued by Judas Maccabeus during his campaign in the Galilee and Gilead (Transjordan) mentioned in Chapter 5 of 1 Maccabees. The Golan, however, remained in Seleucid hands until the campaign of Alexander Jannaeus from 83–80 BC. Jannaeus established the city of Gamla in 81 BC as the Hasmonean capital for the region. The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... From the Scriptures, Gilead means hill of testimony or mound of witness, (Gen. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... Coin of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC). ... The remains of the city of Gamala lies on the Golan Hights. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ...

During the time of the Hasmonean Kingdom the district capital of the Golan was Gamla

Following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC, Augustus Caesar adjudicated that the Golan fell within the Tetrarchy of Herod's son, Herod Philip I. After Philip's death in 34 AD, the Romans absorbed the Golan into the province of Syria, but Caligula restored the territory to Herod's grandson Agrippa in 37. Following Agrippa's death in 44, the Romans again annexed the Golan to Syria, promptly to return it again when Claudius traded the Golan to Agrippa II, the son of Agrippa I, in 51 as part of a land swap. Although nominally under Agrippa's control and not part of the province of Judea, the Jewish communities of the Golan joined their coreligionists in the First Jewish-Roman War, only to fall to the Roman armies in its early stages. Gamla was captured in 67; according to Josephus, its inhabitants committed mass suicide, preferring it to crucifixion and slavery. Agrippa II contributed soldiers to the Roman war effort and attempted to negotiate an end to the revolt. In return for his loyalty, Rome allowed him to retain his kingdom, but finally absorbed the Golan for good after his death in 100. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x691, 27 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x691, 27 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Hordes (Hebrew: , ; Greek: , ; trad. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Herod Philip I (4 BC–AD 34), or Philip the tetrarch, was son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem and half-brother of Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... Front and back of a Judean coin from the reign of Agrippa I. // Agrippa I also called the Great (10 BCE - 44 CE), King of the Jews, the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Agrippa II (AD 27–100), son of Agrippa I, and like him originally named Marcus Julius Agrippa. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... The remains of the city of Gamala lies on the Golan Hights. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures was a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ...


In about 250, the Ghassanids, Arab Christian immigrants from Yemen, established a kingdom which encompassed southern Syria and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah on the Golan. Like the later Herodians, the Ghassanids ruled as clients of Byzantine Rome; unlike the Herodians, the Ghassanids were able to hold on to the Golan until the Sassanid invasion of 614. Following a brief restoration under the Emperor Heraclius, the Golan again fell, this time to the invading Arabs after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636. language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


After Yarmouk, Muawiyah I, a member of Muhammad's tribe, the Quraish, was appointed governor of Syria, including the Golan. Following the assassination of his cousin, the Caliph Uthman, Muawiya claimed the Caliphate for himself, initiating the Umayyad dynasty. Over the next few centuries, while remaining in Muslim hands, the Golan passed through many dynastic changes, falling first to the Abbasids, then to the Shi'ite Fatimids, then to the Seljuk Turks, then to the Kurdish Ayyubids. During the Crusades, the Heights represented a formidable obstacle the Crusader armies were not able to conquer. The Mongols swept through in 1259, but were driven off by the Mamluk sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. Ain Jalut ensured Mamluk dominance of the region for the next 250 years. Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ... // Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa † Strength About 120,000 10-30,000 Casualties light all the force died or was captured The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September...


In the 15th and 16th centuries, Druze began to settle the northern Golan and the slopes of Mount Hermon. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Turks came in control of the area and remained so until the end of World War I. Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In 1886, the Jewish B'nei Yehuda society of Safed purchased a plot of land four kilometers north of the present-day religious moshav of Keshet, but the community, named Ramataniya, failed one year later. In 1887, the society purchased lands between the modern-day Bene Yehuda and Kibbutz Ein Gev. This community survived until 1920, when two of its last members were murdered in the anti-Jewish riots which erupted in the spring of that year. In 1891, Baron Rothschild purchased approximately 18,000 acres (73 km²) of land in the Hauran, about 15 km east of modern Ramat Hamagshimim. Immigrants of the First Aliyah (1881–1903) established five small communities on this land, but were forced to leave by the Ottomans in 1898. The lands were farmed until 1947 by the Palestine Colonization Association and the Jewish Colonization Association, when they were seized by the Syrian army.[22] Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Keshet is a moshav situated in Israels Golan Heights. ... Kibbutz Ein Gev (also spelled En Gev) was founded in 1937 along the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret) in northern Israel. ... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... Baron Edmond James de Rothschild (born August 19, 1845 - died November 2, 1934) was a philanthropist and activist for Jewish affairs and a member of the prominent Rothschild family. ... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ... Members of the Bilu movement in Palestine The First Aliyah is the first Zionist aliyah, having taken place between 1882 and 1903. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... History The Jewish Colonization Association (JCA, in Yiddish ICA) was created in 1891 by the Baron Maurice de Hirsch. ...


Between World War I and the Six-Day War

Majdal Shams, a Druze village in the Golan Heights
Ein Qinya, c. 1978
Ein Qinya, c. 1978

Great Britain accepted a Mandate for Palestine at the meeting of the Allied Supreme Council at San Remo, but the borders of the territory were not defined at that stage.[23][24] The boundary between the forthcoming British and French mandates was defined in broad terms by the Franco-British Boundary Agreement of December 1920.[25] This initial boundary placed a small portion of the Golan Heights within the British territory, while the eastern third of the Sea of Galilee was placed within the French territory. The treaty also established a joint commission to settle the precise details of the border and mark it on the ground.[25] The commission submitted its final report on February 3, 1922, and it was approved with some caveats by the British and French governments on March 7, 1923, several months before Britain and France assumed their Mandatory responsibilities on 29 September 1923.[26][27] In accordance with the same process, a nearby parcel of land that included the ancient site of Tel Dan was transferred from Syria to Palestine early in 1924. The Golan Heights thus became part of the French Mandate of Syria, while the Sea of Galilee was placed entirely within the British Mandate of Palestine. American President Woodrow Wilson protested British concessions in a cable to the British Cabinet.[28] When the French Mandate of Syria ended in 1944, The Golan Heights became part of the newly independent state of Syria. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 906 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 906 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The Sanremo conference was an international meeting held in Sanremo, Italy, from 19-26 April 1920. ... The Franco-British Boundary Agreement of 1920, properly called the Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, was an agreement signed between the British and French governments in Paris, December 23, 1920. ... The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tel Dan is an area in upper Galilee in Northern Israel; fed by melt water from the snows of mount Hermon, it is well watered by streams and covered with lush vegetation that seems out of place amidst its arid surroundings. ... The French Mandate of Syria was a League of Nations Mandate created after the First World War when the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...

View from an old Syrian bunker overlooking Israeli territory
View from an old Syrian bunker overlooking Israeli territory

After the 1948–49 Arab-Israeli War, the Golan Heights were partly demilitarized by the Israel-Syria Armistice Agreement. Over the following years the Mixed Armistice Commission (which oversaw the implementation of the Israel-Syria Armistice Agreement) reported many violations by each side. The major causes of the conflict were a dispute over the disposition of the demilitarized zone between Israel and Syria, competition over water resources, and the Israel-Palestinian conflict.[29] Israel attempted to take water from the Jordan River in the demilitarized zone, to which Syria responded with a plan to divert water from the Jordan's tributaries. Israel ceased its project in the mid 1950s due to UN and US pressure but resuscitated it in the 1960s. Syria's plan, which it started implementing in 1965 with help from Lebanon and Jordan, sparked a series of military exchanges culminating in an Israeli attack in July 1966 which effectively destroyed it.[29] The Palestinian organization Fatah began raids into Israeli territory in early 1965, with active support from Syria. At first the guerillas entered via Lebanon or Jordan, but those countries made concerted attempts to stop them and raids directly from Syria increased.[30] Israel's response was a series of retaliatory raids, of which the largest were an attack on the Jordanian village of Samu in November 1966,[31] and in April 1967, after Syria heavily shelled Israeli villages from the Golan Heights, Israel shot down six of Syria’s MiG fighter planes, provided by the Soviet Union. Israel warned Syria against future attacks.[30][32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1909x1273, 456 KB) Опис файлу View of Israel from theSyrian bunker in Golan Heights. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1909x1273, 456 KB) Опис файлу View of Israel from theSyrian bunker in Golan Heights. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Mig may refer to: Mikoyan or MiG, formerly Mikoyan-Gurevich, a Russian military aircraft manufacturer Gas metal arc welding, also called MIG welding Mig Greengard, an online chess columnist (Mig on Chess) Main Industrial Groupings classification in trade statistics Mig Ayesa, an Australian singer-songwriter. ...

The Golan Hospital in Quneitra as it appears today
The Golan Hospital in Quneitra as it appears today

Before the Six-Day War, the strategic heights of the Golan, which are approximately 3,000 feet (1,000 m) above the bordering Huleh Valley in Israel, were used to frequently bombard civilian Israeli farming communities far below them, although Moshe Dayan (Israeli Defense Minister during the 1967 war) would later state that it was often the result of Israeli provocations in the demilitarized zone.[33] According to the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, former Israeli General Mattityahu Peled claimed that more than half of the border clashes before the 1967 war "were a result of our security policy of maximum settlement in the demilitarized area".[34] Syrian attacks killed 140 Israelis and injured many more from 1949 to 1967. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 602 KB) Summary The Golan Hospital in Al-Qunaytirah, UN buffer zone, Syria, as it appears today. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 602 KB) Summary The Golan Hospital in Al-Qunaytirah, UN buffer zone, Syria, as it appears today. ... The town of Al-Qunaytirah in September 2001 Quneitra or Al Qunaytirah (Arabic القنيطرة) is a city of southwestern Syria that is now largely abandoned. ... Moshe Dayan (Hebrew: משה דיין; May 20, 1915–October 16, 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs is a magazine published in Washington, D.C. that focuses on news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region[1]. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs is a 100-page magazine published 9 times... Mattityahu (Matti) Peled (1923-1995) was a well-known Israeli public figure who was at various periods of his life a professional military man who reached the rank of Major General in the IDF and was a member of the General Staff during the Six Day War of 1967; a...


In May 1967 before the Six-Day War of 1967, Hafez Assad, then Syria's Defense Minister declared: "Our forces are now entirely ready...to initiate the act of liberation itself, and to explode the Zionist presence in the Arab homeland....The time has come to enter into a battle of annihilation."[35] Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


During the Six-Day War of 1967 Syria's shelling greatly intensified and the Israeli army captured the Golan Heights on 9-10 June. The area which came under Israeli control as a result of the war is two geologically distinct areas: the Golan Heights proper (413 sq mi; 1,070 km²) and the slopes of the Mt. Hermon range (39 sq mi; 100 km²). The new border between the two forces was called the Purple Line Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Syria gained independence from France in 1946 and on May 14, 1948 the British withdrew from Palestine as Israel declared its independence. ...


History since the Six-Day War

Panorama showing The upper Golan Heights and Mt. Hermon with the Hula Valley to the left
Panorama showing The upper Golan Heights and Mt. Hermon with the Hula Valley to the left
Panoarama looking west from the former Syrian post of Tel Faher
Panoarama looking west from the former Syrian post of Tel Faher

Between 80,000 and 109,000 of the Golan's inhabitants, mainly Druze Arabs and Circassians, fled or were driven out during the Six-Day War.[36][37] For various political and security reasons, Israel has not allowed those who fled to return.[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 141 pixelsFull resolution (3460 × 610 pixel, file size: 772 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of the Road to Masaade, including the Hermon Mountains and the Hula valley to the Naftali heights Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 141 pixelsFull resolution (3460 × 610 pixel, file size: 772 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of the Road to Masaade, including the Hermon Mountains and the Hula valley to the Naftali heights Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 175 pixelsFull resolution (2892 × 631 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama from Tel Faher, Golan Heights, Israel Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 175 pixelsFull resolution (2892 × 631 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama from Tel Faher, Golan Heights, Israel Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


Israel began settling the Golan almost immediately following the war. Kibbutz Merom Golan was founded in July 1967. By 1970 there were 12 Jewish settlements on the Golan and in 2004 there were 34 settlements populated by around 18,000 people[38] Today the Golan is firmly under Israeli control. Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...

Abandoned Centurion tank in the Golan Heights
Abandoned Centurion tank in the Golan Heights

During the Yom Kippur War in 1973, Syrian forces overran much of the southern Golan, before being pushed back by an Israeli counterattack. Israel and Syria signed a ceasefire agreement in 1974 that left almost all the Heights in Israeli hands, while returning a narrow demilitarized zone to Syrian control. Image File history File links GolanHeights-tank. ... Image File history File links GolanHeights-tank. ... The Centurion was the primary British Main Battle Tank of the immediate post-war era, and considered by many to be one of the best British tank designs of all time. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul...


The Syrian citizens who remained in the area after it was captured by Israel in 1967 were required to carry Israeli military identity papers. In the late 1970s, the Likud government of Israel began pressuring them to request Israeli citizenship by tying it to privileges such as the right to obtain a driver's license or to travel in Israel. In March 1981, the community leaders imposed a socio-religious ban on Israeli citizenship. Protests came to a head after the November 1981 effective annexation of the Golan Heights by Israel. They included a general strike that lasted for five months and demonstrations that sometimes became violent. The Israeli authorities responded by suspending habeas corpus, imprisoning the protest leaders and imposing curfews and other restrictions. On April 1, 1982, a 24-hour curfew was imposed and soldiers went from door to door confiscating the old ID cards and replacing them with cards signifying Israeli citizenship. This action caused an international outcry including two condemnatory UN resolutions.[39][40] Israel eventually relented and permitted retention of Syrian citizenship, as well as agreeing not to enforce the mandatory draft. Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... In common law, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/) (Latin: [We command that] you have the body) is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment. ...


Syria has always demanded a full Israeli withdrawal to the June 4, 1967 borders, including a strip of land on the east shore of the Sea of Galilee that Syria captured during the 1948-49 Arab-Israeli War and occupied from 1949–67. Successive Israeli governments have considered an Israeli withdrawal from the Golan (of an unspecified extent) in return for normalization of relations with Syria, provided certain security concerns are met. Prior to 2000, Syrian president Hafez al-Assad rejected normalization with Israel. The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930–June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ...

Warning of minefield in the Golan originally deployed by Syrian army but still active
Warning of minefield in the Golan originally deployed by Syrian army but still active

During United States-brokered negotiations in 1999–2000, Israel and Syria discussed a peace deal that would include an Israeli withdrawal in return for peace, recognition and full normalization of relations. Israel insisted on the pre-1948 border (the 1923 Paulet-Newcombe line), while Syria insisted on the 1967 frontier. The former line has never been recognized by Syria, claiming it was imposed by the colonial powers, while the latter has been rejected by Israel as a result of Syrian aggression during 1948–67. The difference between the lines is less than 100 m for the most part, but the 1967 line would give Syria access to the Sea of Galilee, Israel's only freshwater lake and a major water resource. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x607, 133 KB) Summary Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still walid more than 40 years after creation of field by Syrian army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x607, 133 KB) Summary Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still walid more than 40 years after creation of field by Syrian army. ...


In late 2003, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said he was ready to revive peace talks with Israel. Israel demanded Syria first disarm Hezbollah, who launched many attacks on northern Israeli towns and army posts from Lebanese territory and cease to host militant Palestinian groups and their headquarters. Peace talks were not initiated. Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born September 11, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


After the 2006 war between Israel and Syrian-Iranian-backed Hezbollah guerrillas, the issue of the Golan Heights arose again. Israel heightened its alert over a possible war with Syria after Israeli intelligence assessed that Syria was "seriously examining" military action. Syria reinforced its forces on the Golan while remaining in a defensive position.[citation needed] President Assad stated that Syria was prepared to hold peace talks with Israel but said that if hopes for peace dissolve then "war may really be the only solution". Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert dismissed calls within his coalition to consider peace talks and proclaimed that "the Golan Heights will remain in our hands forever".[41][42][43] Others, including cabinet minister Shimon Peres and Ehud Olmert's spokesman Assaf Shariv doubted Assad's sincerity and suggested that Assad's statements were a bid at deflecting international criticism of his regime and specifically explaining that the alleged approach by Assad "is coming in the weeks before the decision on Rafik Hariri", referring to the international inquiry on the murder of the former Lebanese prime minister, a harsh critic of the Syrian presence in Lebanon.[44][45] Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Rafik Baha ad-Din Hariri — (November 1, 1944 – February 14, 2005), (Arabic: ) a self-made billionaire and business tycoon, Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. ...


In June 2007, approximately 40 years following the Six Day War in which Israel took over the Golan Heights, it was reported that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had sent a secret message to Syrian President, Bashar Assad saying that Israel would return the land in exchange for a comprehensive peace agreement and the severing of Syria's ties with Iran and terror groups in the region.[46] Meanwhile, on the same day, former Prime Minster, Benjamin Netanyahu announced that the former Syrian President, Hafez Assad had promised to give him Mount Hermon in any agreement.[47] The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. ... Bashar al_Assad Bashar al_Assad (بشار الاسد) (born September 11, 1965) is the current President of Syria and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... Hafez al-Assad (October 6, 1930 - June 10, 2000) was the President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. ... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl...


Towns and villages

See also: Golan Regional Council

The Golan Heights' administrative center, which is also its largest Israeli community, is the town of Katzrin, built in the 1970s. There are another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim. The Golan Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is the regional council consolidating virtually all the Jewish Israeli settlements located on the Golan Heights, made up of 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim, and other villages. ... Qatzrin (קצרין) the capital of the Golan, Israel. ... Moshav (Hebrew: מושב Translit. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...


There are also four Druze villages in the Northern part of the Golan Heights including Majdal Shams, and an Alawite village called Ghajar that stretches on both sides of the Lebanese-Israeli border. Religions Druzism Scriptures Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo... Majdal Shams, an Arab Druze village in the Golan Heights Majdal Shams (Arabic مجدل شمس) is a Druze village in the northern part of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms Alawī and Alevi, although they share... Ghajar (or al-Ghajar) is an Alawite village on the Lebanese-Israeli border. ...


Attractions

Katzrin

Main article: Katzrin

Katzrin is regarded as "the capital of the Golan Heights" and as such hosts a large number of attractions. The ancient Talmudic village of Kisrin is fully excavated and one can tour the different houses in the village as well as the remains of a large synagogue. There is also an interactive movie experience about the Talmudic time within the compound. The Museum of Golan Antiquities hosts archaeological finds uncovered in the Golan Heights from prehistoric times. A special focus concerns Gamla and excavations of synagogues and Byzantine churches. Throughout the Golan Heights 29 ancient synagogues were found dating back to the Roman and Byzantine periods. Katzrin is home to the Golan Heights Winery, a major winery of Israel and the mineral water plant of Mey Eden which derives its water from the spring of Salukiya in the Golan. One can tour these factories as well as factories of oil products and fruit products. It also has two open air strip malls one which holds the Kesem Hagolan or the "Golan Magic" a three-dimensional movie and model of the geography and history of the Golan Heights [2] [3] [4]. Qatzrin (קצרין) the capital of the Golan, Israel. ... The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... The Israeli wine industry is known for its vibrancy, with wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... The current logo of Mey Eden Mey Eden (Hebrew: ) is the brand name of the company Eden Springs Ltd. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ...


Gamla Nature Reserve

Main article: Gamla

The Gamla Nature Reserve is an open park which holds the archaeological remains of the ancient city of Gamla — including the tower, the wall and the synagogue. It's also the site of a large waterfall, an ancient Byzantine church, and a panoramic spot to observe the 100 eagles who dwell in the cliffs. Israeli scientists in the place observe the life of the eagles and tourists can watch them fly and nest.[48] The remains of the city of Gamala lies on the Golan Hights. ... Eagles are an American rock band that was formed in Los Angeles, California in the early 1970s. ...


Gilgal Refaim

Main article: Gilgal Refaim

A large impressive circular stone monument, similar to the famous Stonehenge. This monument can best be seen from the air due to its size. A 3D model of the site exists in the Museum of Golan Antiquities in Katzrin. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ...


Um el Kanatir

Um el Kanatir is another impressive Byzantine archeological site. The site includes a very large synagogue and two arcs next to a water source.[49] The arcs have been dubbed Rehavam Arcs after Rehavam Zeevi.[11][50] Rehavam Zeevi (רחבעם זאבי-גנדי) (June 20, 1926 - October 17, 2001) was an Israeli general, politician and historian who founded the right-wing nationalist Moledet party. ...


Nimrod Fortress

Main article: Nimrod Fortress

An ancient fortress used by the Ayyubids, Crusaders, the Mongols and Mamluks in many fierce battles. This is now a nature reserve open for exploring. A section of the Nimrod Fortress Nimrod Fortress The Nimrod Fortress or Nimrods Fortress (Arabic: , Castle of the Large Cliff; Hebrew: , Mivtzar Nimrod) is an ancient fortress situated in the northern Golan Heights, territory that is part of Israel, on a ridge rising about 800 m (2600 feet) above... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Mount Hermon

Main article: Mount Hermon

The slopes of Mount Hermon in the Golan Heights house an Israeli ski resort including a wide range of ski trails at novice, intermediate, and expert levels. It also offers additional winter family activities such as sled-riding and Nordic skiing. Those who operate the Hermon Ski area live in the nearby moshav of Neve Ativ and the town of Majdal Shams. The ski resort has a ski school, ski patrol, and several restaurants located on both the bottom and the peak of the area. Near the mountain resides the crater lake of Birkat Ram. Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... St. ... Scene from winter nearly anywhere snow may fall on a handy hill—Children at play sledding. ... Nordic skiing is a winter sport that encompasses all types of skiing where the heel of the boot cannot be fixed to the ski. ... Neve Ativ (Hebrew: ) is a small Israeli moshav, founded in 1972, and located on the slopes of the Mount Hermon rigde about two kilometres west of Majdal Shams. ... Crater Lake is a caldera lake in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... Birkat Ram is a crater lake in The Northeastern Golan Heights. ...


Hamat Gader

Main article: Hamat Gader

A site of hot mineral springs with temperatures up to 50°C used for recreation and healing purposes. Hamat Gader was already widely known as a recreation site in Roman times. The site includes a Roman theatre, which was built in the 3rd century CE and contained 2,000 seats. A large synagogue was built in the 5th century CE. Hamat Gader (Hebrew: חמת גדר) is a site in the Yarmouk River valley, near the Sea of Galilee in Israel. ... Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Hippos

Main article: Hippos

An ancient Greco-Roman city now an Israeli archaeological site, the excavations include the city's forum, the small imperial cult temple, a large Hellenistic temple compound, the Roman city gates, and two Byzantine churches. For the Israeli car Susita, see Autocars Co. ...

See also

Golan (aka Gaulonitis; gō´lan; גּולן, gōlān; Γαυλανῖτις, Gaulanítis) was a city in the territory allotted to Manasseh in Bashan, the most northerly of the three cities of refuge... The Golan Regional Council (Hebrew: ) is the regional council consolidating virtually all the Jewish Israeli settlements located on the Golan Heights, made up of 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim, and other villages. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 452 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 465 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements and administration in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 471 was on the issue of the Israeli occupation and settlement activity in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to withdraw from Golan Heights. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915) is a public domain Biblical encyclopedia. ... Moshe Dayan (Hebrew: משה דיין; May 20, 1915–October 16, 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d "Golan Heights" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ [http://www.internal-displacement.org/idmc/website/countries.nsf/(httpEnvelopes)/052C5608BA2DEC58802570B8005AA937?OpenDocument Different accounts on whether Golan inhabitants were forcefully expelled or whether they fled (1997-2002) ]
  3. ^ "Golan Heights" World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Peter Caddick-Adams "Golan Heights, battles of" The Oxford Companion to Military History. Ed. Richard Holmes. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24-46
  6. ^ Golan Heights Law, MFA.
  7. ^ The Israeli High Court of Justice ruled in בגצ 82 / 205 סולימן קנג' אבו צאלח נ' שר הפנים לז (2) 718 that all residents of the Golan Heights are obligated to hold Israeli citizenship as the Golan Heights are part of Israel
  8. ^ CBS.
  9. ^ Ghajar says `don't fence me in'
  10. ^ a b Diaa Hadid. Golan's Druse Wary of Israel and Syria June 3, 2007
  11. ^ a b Ynet
  12. ^ Fear and tranquility on the Golan
  13. ^ The Independent
  14. ^ The Golan’s Druze wonder what is best
  15. ^ MEPC Journal vol. 5.
  16. ^ JAfI.
  17. ^ Golan Heights, Netanyahu.
  18. ^ Press Release, UNO 2006-06-18.
  19. ^ Country Profile, BBC News Middle East.
  20. ^ Near East Report, January 29, 1982.
  21. ^ Golan.
  22. ^ Golan, JVL.
  23. ^ Biger, 2005, p. 173.
  24. ^ Chaim Weizmann, subsequently reported to his colleagues in London: "There are still important details outstanding, such as the actual terms of the mandate and the question of the boundaries in Palestine. There is the delimitation of the boundary between French Syria and Palestine, which will constitute the northern frontier and the eastern line of demarcation, adjoining Arab Syria. The latter is not likely to be fixed until the Emir Faisal attends the Peace Conference, probably in Paris." See: 'Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine', The Times, Saturday, 8 May, 1920; p. 15.
  25. ^ a b Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, signed Dec. 23, 1920. Text available in American Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1922, 122-126.
  26. ^ Agreement between His Majesty's Government and the French Government respecting the Boundary Line between Syria and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hámmé, Treaty Series No. 13 (1923), Cmd. 1910. Also Louis, 1969, p. 90.
  27. ^ FSU Law.
  28. ^ "The Zionist cause depends on rational northern and eastern boundaries for a self-maintaining, economic development of the country. This means, on the north, Palestine must include the Litani River and the watersheds of the Hermon, and on the east it must include the plains of the Jaulon and the Hauran. Narrower than this is a mutilation… I need not remind you that neither in this country nor in Paris has there been any opposition to the Zionist program, and to its realization the boundaries I have named are indispensable". Abelson, Meir, Palestine: The Original Sin.
  29. ^ a b M. Shemesh, Prelude to the Six-Day War: The Arab-Israeli Struggle Over Water Resources, Israel Studies, vol 9, no. 3, 2004.
  30. ^ a b M. Shemesh, The Fida’iyyun Organization’s Contribution to the Descent to the Six-Day War, Israel Studies, vol 11, no. 1, 2006.
  31. ^ M. Shemesh, The IDF Raid On Samu: The Turning-Point In Jordan’s Relations With Israel and the West Bank Palestinians, Israel Studies, vol 7, no. 1, 2002.
  32. ^ "Six-Day War," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007
  33. ^ AP 11 May 1997 on Wikiquote.
  34. ^ a b Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 1991-11.
  35. ^ Louis Rene Beres, Professor Department of Political Science, Purdue University
  36. ^ Morris (2001) , p. 327: "Another eighty to ninety thousand civilians fled or were driven from the Golan Heights."
  37. ^ Report of the UN Secretary-General under GA res. 2252 (ES-V) and SC res. 237 (1967), p. 14: "The original population, assumed to have been some 115,000 according to Syrian sources, and some 90,000 according to Israel sources, included 17,000 Palestinian refugees registered with UNRWA. At the time of the Special Representative's visit, this entire population had left the area, except for some 6,000 Druses living in agricultural villages and for some 250 other civilians living mainly in the town of Kuneitra".
  38. ^ Golan Facts.
  39. ^ UN.
  40. ^ UN.
  41. ^ The Telegraph, London: 2006-09-30.
  42. ^ BBC News Middle-East.
  43. ^ Jerusalem Post.
  44. ^ Jerusalem Post.
  45. ^ Jerusalem Post.
  46. ^ Olmert to Assad: Israel willing to withdraw from Golan Heights. Ynet News (2007-06-08). Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  47. ^ Hafez Assad conceded Mt Hermon, says Netanyahu. Ynet News (2007-06-08). Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  48. ^ Antiquities.
  49. ^ Kanatir, TAU.
  50. ^ Focus.

Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Faisal I Faisal ibn Husayn (May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Biger, Gideon (2005). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0714656542
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28716-6
  • Leon Sheleff (1994). "Application of Israeli law to the Golan Heights is not annexation". Brooklyn journal of international law 20, afl. 2: 333–53. 
  • Louis, Wm. Roger (1969). The United Kingdom and the Beginning of the Mandates System, 1919-1922. International Organization, 23(1), pp. 73-96.
  • Asher Maoz (1994). "Application of Israeli law to the Golan Heights is annexation". Brooklyn journal of international law 20, afl. 2: 355–96. 
  • Tayseer Maar'i & Usama Halabi (1992). "Life under occupation in the Golan Heights". Journal of Palestine Studies 22: 78–93. 
  • Morris, Benny (2001) Righteous Victims New York, Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7.
  • Eyal Zisser (2002). "June 1967: Israel's capture of the Golan Heights". Israel Studies 7,1: 168-194. 
  • 1*
  • 2*

Coordinates: 32°58′54″N, 35°44′58″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Golan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (573 words)
It was in the territory of Manasseh in the area of Bashan, and it was the most northerly of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan River (Deuteronomy 4:43).
The boundaries of the province today are Mount Hermon to the north, Jordan and the Sea of Galilee to the west, Wādy Yarmūk to the south, and Nahr ‛Allān to the east.
Schumacher inclines to the belief that the ancient Golan may be represented by Sahm el-Jaulān (a large village 4 miles east of Nahr ‛Allān and 4 miles southeast of Tsīl).
Golan Heights - definition of Golan Heights in Encyclopedia (1507 words)
The Golan Heights, previously known as the Syrian Heights, is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.
Geographically, the Heights are bordered on the west by a rock escarpment that drops 1700 feet to the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River; on the south by the Yarmouk River; on the north by the international border with Lebanon, and on the east by a largely flat plain.
Geologically, the Golan Heights are a plateau, and part of a Holocene volcanic field that extends northeast almost to Damascus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m