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Encyclopedia > Goitre
Goitre
Classification & external resources
a woman with a goitre
ICD-10 E01.0-E01.2
ICD-9 240.9
DiseasesDB 5332
MedlinePlus 001178
MeSH Goiter

A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adam's apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. Image File history File linksMetadata Kone_med_stor_struma. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany in France. ... AME is an abbreviation that can refer to: The African Methodist Episcopal Church Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (in Canada) Alternate Mission Equipment Aviation Medical Examiner (in the United States) AmE usually stands for American English This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... For other uses, see Thyroid cartilage. ...

Contents

Classification

They are classified in different ways:

  • A "diffuse goitre" is a goitre that has spread through all of the thyroid (and can be a "simple goitre", or a "multinodular goitre").
  • "Toxic goitre" refers to goitre with hyperthyroidism. These most commonly due to Graves disease, but can be caused by inflammation or a multinodular goitre.
  • "Nontoxic goitre" (associated with normal or low thyroid levels) refers to all other types (such as that caused by lithium or certain other autoimmune diseases).

Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...

Causes

Other causes are:

Hashimotos thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease where the bodys own antibodies attack the cells of the thyroid. ... Graves-Basedow disease or known simply as Graves disease is a medical disorder that may manifest several different conditions including goitre and hyperthyroidism (over-activity of thyroid hormone production), infiltrative exophthalmos (protruberance of one or both eyes and associated problems) and infiltrative dermopathy (a skin condition usually of the lower... Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... Thyroid cancer is malignant growth of the thyroid gland. ...

Occurrence

Iodine is necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3 and T4). In conditions producing endemic goitre, when iodine is not available, these hormones cannot be made. In response to low thyroid hormones, the pituitary gland releases thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid stimulating hormone acts to increase synthesis of T3 and T4, but it also causes the thyroid gland to grow in size by increasing cell division. Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ...


Goitre is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, and not only those caused by simple lack of iodine.


Treatment

Treatment for goitre may not be necessary if the goitre is small. Hypothyroidism should be treated, and this treatment often leads to a substantial reduction in the size of the goitre. Removal of the goitre may be necessary if it causes difficulty with breathing or swallowing. There is now an alternative to surgery in large goitres. Radioiodine therapy with or without the pre-injection of a synthetic thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, can relieve obstruction and reduce the size of the goitre by 30-65%. But removal of a goitre requires removing the thyroid. The complete removal of the thyroid gland removes the body's ability to produce thyroid hormone. In this case, supplements of oral thyroxine are necessary to avoid harm from hypothyroidism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


History and future

Goitre was previously common in many areas that were deficient in iodine in the soil. For example, in the English Midlands, the condition was known as Derbyshire Neck. In the United States, goitre was found in the Great Lakes, Midwest, and Intermountain regions. The condition now is practically absent in affluent nations, where table salt is supplemented with iodine. However, it is still prevalent in India,[1] Central Asia and Central Africa. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... The midlands of a territory are its central regions. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Some health workers fear that a resurgence of goitre might occur because of the trend to use rock salt and/or sea salt, which has not been fortified with iodine. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ...


New research indicates that there may in fact be a tendency to inherit an increased vulnerability to goitre.


Famous goitre sufferers

President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... White House Portrait Barbara Pierce Bush (born June 8, 1925) is the wife of the 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush, and was First Lady of the United States from 1989 to 1993. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is a group of conditions in which the muscle contraction of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Andrea True Andrea True, (born July 26, 1943 in Nashville, Tennessee), is a former porn film star who was also a disco era singer. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was a North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ...

See also

A teratoma is a type of tumor that derives from pluripotent germ cells. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ "In Raising the World’s I.Q., the Secret’s in the Salt", article by Donald G. McNeil, Jr., December 16, 2006, New York Times
  2. ^ The Health and Medical History of President George Bush DoctorZebra.com. 8 August 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2006.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Goitre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (402 words)
A "diffuse goitre" is a goitre that has spread through all of the thyroid (and is contrasted with a "simple goitre", "single thyroid nodule" and "multinodular goitre".
The most common cause for goitre in the world is iodine deficiency (E01).
Goitre was previously common in many areas that were deficient in iodine in the soil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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