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Encyclopedia > Goidelic languages
Goidelic
Gaelic
Geographic
distribution:
Ireland, Scotland, Isle of Man, Canada
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Goidelic
Subdivisions:

The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. They are one of two major divisions of modern-day Insular Celtic languages (the other being the Brythonic languages). Goidelic is generally divided into: Irish (Gaeilge), Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), and Manx (Gaelg). Shelta is sometimes mistakenly thought to be a Goidelic language when it is, in fact, a cant based on Irish and English, with a primarily English-based syntax. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Shelta (also known as Gammen, Sheldru, Pavee, or simply the Cant) is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people that is often used to conceal the meaning from those outside the group. ... Cant is an example of a cryptolect, a characteristic or secret language used only by members of a group, often used to conceal the meaning from those outside the group. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The Goidelic branch is also known as Q-Celtic, because Proto-Celtic *kw was originally retained in this branch (later losing its labialisation and becoming plain [k]), as opposed to Brythonic, where *kw became [p]. This sound change is found in Gaulish as well, so Brythonic and Gaulish are sometimes collectively known as "P-Celtic". (In Celtiberian, *kw is also retained, so the term "Q-Celtic" could be applied to it as well, although Celtiberian is not a Goidelic language.) The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Labialisation is secondary articulatory feature of sounds in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ...


A form of Early Modern Irish, known as Classical Gaelic, was used as a literary language in Ireland until the 17th century and in Scotland until the 18th century. Later orthographic divergence is the result of more recent orthographic reforms resulting in standardised pluricentric diasystems. Manx orthography is based on English and Welsh and was introduced in 1610 by John Phillips, the Welsh-born Bishop of Sodor and Mann. Early Modern Irish, (Irish: [1] also called Classical Irish (Irish: or Classical Gaelic, is the form of the Irish language used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland from the 13th to the 18th century. ... A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ... In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ...

Proto-Celtic Gaulish Welsh Breton Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx English gloss
*kwennos pennos pen penn ceann ceann kione "head"
*kwetwar- petuarios pedwar pevar ceathair ceithir kiare "four"
*kwenkwe pinpetos pump pemp cúig còig queig "five"
*kweis pis pwy piv cé (older cia) cò/cia quoi "who"

Another significant difference between Goidelic and Brythonic languages is the transformation of *an, am to a denasalised vowel with lengthening, é, before an originally voiceless stop or fricative, cf. Old Irish éc "death", écath "fish hook", dét "tooth", cét "hundred" vs. Welsh angau, angad, dant, and cant. Otherwise:

  • the nasal is retained before a vowel, jod, w, m, and a liquid:
    • Old Irish ban "woman" (< banom)
    • Old Irish gainethar "he/she is born" (< gan-je-tor)
    • Old Irish ainb "ignorant" (< anwiss)
  • the nasal passes to en before another n:
    • Old Irish benn "peak" (< banno) (vs. Welsh bann)
    • Middle Irish ro-geinn "finds a place" (< ganne) (vs. Welsh gannaf)
  • the nasal passes to in, im before a voiced stop
    • Old Irish imb "butter" (vs. Breton aman(en)n, Cornish amanyn)
    • Old Irish ingen "nail" (vs. Old Welsh eguin)
    • Old Irish tengae "tongue" (vs. Welsh tafod)
    • Old Irish ing "strait" (vs. Middle Welsh eh-ang "wide")

Contents

Nomenclature

Although Irish and Manx are often referred to as Irish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic (and they are Goidelic or Gaelic languages) the use of the word Gaelic is unnecessary because the words Irish and Manx only ever refer to these languages whereas Scots by itself refers to a Germanic language and Scottish can refer to things not at all Gaelic. The word Gaelic by itself is somewhat ambiguous, but in Britain, most often refers to Scottish Gaelic[citation needed] and it is the word that Scottish Gaelic speakers themselves use when speaking English.[citation needed] In the USA however, the word is often used by members of the Irish diaspora to refer to the Irish language.[citation needed] Within Ireland, native speakers in Donegal are more likely to refer to the language in English as Gaelic rather than Irish.[citation needed] Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Scottish language may refer to: Scots - A series of Germanic dialects used in lowland Scotland. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Percentage of Irish speakers by county; Northern Ireland is also included. ...


Furthermore, due to the politics of language and national identity, some Irish speakers are offended by the use of the word Gaelic by itself to refer to Irish. Others may feel use of the term strengthens feelings of solidarity among speakers of the sister languages.[citation needed]


Similarly, some Scottish Gaelic speakers also find offensive the use of the obsolete word Erse (from Erisch, "Irish") to refer to their language. This term was used in Scotland since at least the late 15th century to refer to Gaelic, which had previously been called Scottis. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


The names used in languages themselves (Gaeilge in Irish, Gaelg in Manx, and Gàidhlig in Scottish Gaelic) are derived from Old Irish Goídeleg, which in itself is from the originally more-or-less derogative term Goídel meaning "pirate, raider" in Old Welsh. The Goidels called themselves various names according to their tribal/clan affiliations, but the most general seems to have been the name rendered in Latin as Scoti. Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ...


Classification

The family tree of the Goidelic languages is as follows:

Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the Ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 6th century. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...

History and range

Goidelic languages were once restricted to Ireland, but sometime between the 3rd century and the 6th century a group of the Irish Celts known to the Romans as Scoti began migrating from Ireland to what is now Scotland[citation needed] and eventually assimilated the Picts (a group of peoples who may have originally spoken a Brythonic language) who lived there. Manx, the former common language of the Isle of Man, is closely akin to the Gaelic spoken in north east Ireland and the now extinct Gaelic of Galloway (in southwest Scotland), with heavy influence from Old Norse because of the Viking invasions. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ...


The oldest written Goidelic language is Primitive Irish, which is attested in ogham inscriptions up to about the 4th century AD. Old Irish is found in the margins of Latin religious manuscripts from the 6th century to the 10th century. Middle Irish, the ancestor of the modern Goidelic languages, is the name for the language as used from the 10th to the 12th century: a great deal of literature survives in it, including the early Irish law texts. Early Modern Irish covers the period from the 13th to the 17th century: a form of it was used as a literary language in Ireland and Scotland, consistently until the 17th century and in some cases well into the 18th century. This is often called Classical Irish while the Ethnologue gives the name "Hiberno-Scottish Gaelic" to this purely written language. As long as this written language was the norm, Ireland was considered the Gaelic homeland to the Scottish literati. Primitive Irish is the oldest known form of the Irish language, known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the Ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 6th century. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Early Modern Irish, (Irish: [1] also called Classical Irish (Irish: or Classical Gaelic, is the form of the Irish language used as a literary language in Ireland from the 13th to the 17th century and in Scotland from the 13th to the 18th century. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Irish

Main article: Irish language

Irish is one of Ireland's two official languages (along with English) and is still fairly widely spoken in the south, west, and northwest of Ireland. The legally defined Irish-speaking areas are called the Gaeltacht; all government institutions of the Republic of Ireland (in particular, the ( oireachtas )Parliament, its ( seanad )upper and ( dail )lower houses, and the ( taoiseach )Prime Minister) are officially named in this language, even in English. At present, Irish is primarily spoken in Counties Cork, Donegal, Mayo, Galway, Kerry, and, to a lesser extent, in Waterford and Meath. Irish is also undergoing a revival in Northern Ireland and has been accorded some legal status there under the 1998 Belfast Agreement. Approximately 260,000 people in the Republic of Ireland can speak the Irish language fluently, as well as many in the North, while close to 80,000 (mainly in the Gaeltacht) speak Irish as their primary everyday language. Over a million citizens of the Republic of Ireland have some understanding in Irish (ranging from minimum to almost fluent). Before the Irish potato famine of the 1840s, the language was spoken by the vast majority of the population, but the famine and emigration, as well as an implication by the English ruling classes that Irish was for the ignorant, led to a decline which has begun to reverse only very recently. The census figures do not take into account those Irish who have emigrated, and it has been estimated (rightly or wrongly) that there are more native speakers of Irish in Great Britain, the US, Australia, and other parts of the world than there are in Ireland itself. Percentage of Irish speakers by county; Northern Ireland is also included. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Seanad Chamber The Seanad meets in the former picture gallery in Leinster House. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: or ) — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach[1], is the head of government of Ireland or prime minister. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... Meath (An Mhí in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, the county is often informally called The Royal County. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February...


The Irish language has been officially recognised as a working language by the European Union. Ireland's national language is the 21st to be given such recognition by the EU and previously had the status of a treaty language.


Scottish Gaelic

Some people in the north and west of Scotland and the Hebrides still speak Scottish Gaelic, but the language has been in decline. There are now believed to be approximately 1,000 native speakers of Scottish Gaelic in Nova Scotia and 60,000 in Scotland. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


Its historical range was much larger. For example, it was the everyday language of most of the rest of the Highlands until little more than a century ago. Galloway had also been a Goidelic-speaking region, but the Galwegian language has been extinct there for approximately three centuries. It is believed to have been home to dialects that were transitional between Scottish Gaelic and the two other Goidelic languages. Most other areas of the Lowlands also spoke forms of Gaelic, the only exceptions being the area which lies on the south-eastern part of the modern border with England - the area called Lothian in the Middle Ages - and the far north-east (parts of Caithness), Orkney and Shetland. Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect, spoken by the Lords of Galloway in their time, and by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. ... The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ...


The very word Scotland in fact takes its name from the Latin word for a Gael, Scotus. So Scotland originally meant Land of the Scots, or Land of the Gaels. Moreover, until late in the 15th century, it was solely the Gaelic language used in Scotland which in English was called Scottish or - more authentically - Scottis. Scottis continued to be the English name for the language, although it was gradually superseded by the word Erse, an act of cultural disassociation which contributed to the language's declining status. In the early 16th century the dialects of northern Middle English, also known as Early Scots, which had developed in Lothian and had come to be spoken elsewhere in the Kingdom of Scotland themselves later appropriated the name Scots. By the seventeenth century Gaelic speakers were restricted largely to the Highlands and the Hebrides. Furthermore, the culturally repressive measures taken against the rebellious highland communities by the British crown following the 2nd Jacobite Rebellion of 1746 caused still further decline in the language's use - to a large extent by enforced emigration. Even more decline followed in the 19th and early 20th centuries (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


The Scottish Parliament has afforded the language a secure statutory status and equal respect (but not full equality in legal status within Scots Law [1]) with English, sparking hopes that Scottish Gaelic can be saved from extinction and perhaps even revived. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Manx

Main article: Manx language

Manx, or Manx Gaelic, is the native language of the Isle of Man. Like Scottish Gaelic, its origins lie in Old Irish but it has developed its own unique peculiarities which make it different but still closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Manx (Gaelg or Gailck), also known as Manx Gaelic, is a Goidelic language spoken on the Isle of Man. ...


Up until the 1800s English was a foreign language to most Manx people, although it would be used for trade and administration purposes. However, due to economic, social and political pressures, the language suffered an enormous decline to such an extent that by 1961 only 165 people claimed to speak the language. However, by the time the last native speaker of Manx, Ned Maddrell, died in 1974, a revival in interest had begun. This interest has recently gathered pace to the extent in the 2001 census 2.2% of people in the Island could speak Manx, of whom 47% were under the age of 20. Moreover, in the Mori opinion poll carried out in the Island in 2002, 19% of people expressed an interest in learning the language and a further 5% were extremely keen on learning it.


Today Manx is used as the sole medium for teaching at five of the Island's pre-schools by a company named Mooinjer Veggey, which also operates the sole Manx primary school - the Bunscoill Ghaelgagh. Manx is taught as a second language at all of the Island's primary and secondary schools and also at the Isle of Man College and Centre of Manx Studies.


Other Celtic languages

All the other living Celtic languages belong to the Brythonic branch of Celtic, which includes Welsh (Cymraeg), Breton (Brezhoneg), and Cornish (Kernowek). Pictish was the ancient language of much of modern day Scotland, but its exact relation to the other Celtic languages is not certain. These are sometimes incorrectly referred to as "Gaelic". For extinct Celtic languages of the European mainland, see Continental Celtic languages. Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Pictish language is the extinct language of the Picts, in what is now Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ...


There are also two mixed languages that are not specifically Goidelic languages as such, but have a strong input from them: A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ...

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Shelta is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people. ...

See also

Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... Gaelicization or Gaelicisation is the act or process of making something Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the Gaels. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect formerly spoken in South West Scotland. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ...

External links

Celtic languages
Continental Celtic Gaulish †| Lepontic † | Galatian † | Celtiberian † | Noric †
Goidelic Irish | Galwegian † | Manx | Scottish Gaelic (ScotlandCanada)
Brythonic Breton | Cornish | British † | Cumbric † | Ivernic † | Pictish † | Welsh
Mixed languages Shelta | Bungee †
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Goidelic (155 words)
Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic).
Goidelic languages were once restricted to Ireland, but in the 6th century Irish colonists and invaders began migrating to Scotland and slowly pushed out the Brythonic language found there.
Goidelic languages were once common on the western edge of Celtic Europe; there is also evidence that they were spoken in the region of Galicia in Spain.
Goidelic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1665 words)
Manx, the former common language of the Isle of Man, is closely akin to the Gaelic spoken in north east Ireland and the now extinct Gaelic of Galloway (in southwest Scotland), with heavy influence from Old Norse because of the Viking invasions.
Goidelic languages may once have been common on the Atlantic coast of Europe and there is evidence that they were spoken in the region of Galicia in modern Spain and Portugal, around Marseille, at the head waters of the Seine, in the Celtic heartlands of Switzerland, Austria and so on, and in Galatia.
Middle Irish, the ancestor of the modern Goidelic languages, is the name for the language as used from the 10th to the 16th century.
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