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Encyclopedia > Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Goguryeo tomb mural.
Goguryeo tomb mural.
Korean name
Hangul 고구려
Hanja 高句麗
Revised Romanization Goguryeo
McCune-Reischauer Koguryŏ
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 高句麗
Simplified Chinese 高句丽
Hanyu Pinyin Gāogōulì
Russian name
Cyrillic Когурё (IPA: kogurʲo)

Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. Image File history File links Goguryeo_tomb_mural. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ...


Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula as well as associated with the foreign affairs of peer polities in China and Japan. Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until...


The Samguk Sagi, a 12th century CE Goryeo text, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, although there is archaeological and textual evidence that suggests Goguryeo culture was in existence since the 2nd century BCE around the fall of Gojoseon, an earlier kingdom that also occupied southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It was a major regional power of East Asia until it was defeated by a Silla-Tang alliance in 668 CE. After its defeat, its territory was divided between the Tang Dynasty, Unified Silla and Balhae; some of the territory might have also been taken by the Khitan, still in tribal form at this point. We dont have an article called Samguk sagi Start this article Search for Samguk sagi in. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo (r. ... Buyeo can mean: An ancient kingdom in Manchuria, also called Puyŏ or Fuyu. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ...

Contents

History

Founding

History of Korea

Prehistory
 Jeulmun period
 Mumun period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
  Sui wars
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
North-South States:
 Unified Silla
 Balhae
Later Three Kingdoms:
 Taebong, Hubaekje
Goryeo
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Japanese invasions
 Manchu invasions
Korean Empire
Japanese rule
 Provisional Gov't
Division of Korea
North, South Korea
 Korean War Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the prehistory of the Korean Peninsula, from circa 500,000 BCE through 300 BCE. See History of Korea, History of North Korea and History of South Korea for more contemporary accounts of the Korean past. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Jinhan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... North South States Period(남북국시대, 南北國時代) refers to the period from the 7th century to the 10th century when Unified Silla and Balhae coexited at the south and the north[1], [2]. Hitherto, this period had been called the period of Unified Silla. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... Hubaekje, or Later Baekje, was one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Hugoguryeo and Silla. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...

Korea Portal
History of Manchuria
(Northeast China)
and Russian Far East
Not based on timeline
Early tribes
Gojoseon
Yan (state) | Gija Joseon
Han Dynasty | Xiongnu
Donghu | Wiman Joseon
Wuhuan | Sushen | Buyeo
Xianbei | Goguryeo
Cao Wei
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Yuwen
Former Yan
Former Qin
Later Yan
Northern Yan
Mohe | Shiwei
Khitan | Kumo Xi
Northern Wei
Tang Dynasty
Balhae
Liao Dynasty
Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)
Yuan Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Far Eastern Republic (USSR)
Republic of China
Manchukuo
Northeast China (PRC)
Russian Far East (RUS)
Monarchs of Goguryeo
  1. Dongmyeongseong 37-19 BCE
  2. Yurimyeong 19 BCE-18 CE
  3. Daemusin 18-44
  4. Minjung 44-48
  5. Mobon 48-53
  6. Taejo 53-146
  7. Chadae 146-165
  8. Sindae 165-179
  9. Gogukcheon 179-197
  10. Sansang 197-227
  11. Dongcheon 227-248
  12. Jungcheon 248-270
  13. Seocheon 270-292
  14. Bongsang 292-300
  15. Micheon 300-331
  16. Gogugwon 331-371
  17. Sosurim 371-384
  18. Gogugyang 384-391
  19. Gwanggaeto the Great 391-413
  20. Jangsu 413-490
  21. Munjamyeong 491-519
  22. Anjang 519-531
  23. Anwon 531-545
  24. Yangwon 545-559
  25. Pyeongwon 559-590
  26. Yeongyang 590-618
  27. Yeongnyu 618-642
  28. Bojang 642-668

According to the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa,a prince from the kingdom of Buyeo, named Jumong, fled after a power struggle with other princes of the Buyeo court [1] and founded the Goguryeo state in 37 BCE in a region called Jolbon Buyeo, usually thought to be located in the middle Yalu and T'ung-chia river basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. Some scholars believe that Goguryeo may have been founded in the 2nd century BCE. [2] In the geographic monographs of the Han Shu, the word Goguryeo or "高句麗" was first mentioned in 113 BCE as a region under the jurisdiction of the Xuantu commandery. [3] In the Old Book of Tang, it is recorded that Emperor Taizong of Tang refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old. In 75 BCE, a group of Yemaek tribes (a proto-Goguryeo type people), which may have included Goguryeo, made an incursion into China's Xuantu commandery west from the Amnok River valley. [4] Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Gija Joseon (around 1126 BC - 194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in northern Korean peninsula. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Donghu(Chinese 东胡;pinyin dong hu), was an ancient nomad tribe or tribe union in Northeast China. ... Wiman Joseon (194 BC - 108 BC) was the continuation of Go-Joseon, founded by Wiman. ... The Wuhuan (traditional Chinese: 烏桓; simplified Chinese: 乌桓; pinyin: WÅ«huán) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... Sushen (Chinese: 肅愼 su4 shen4) was an ancient ethnic group or something outside China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Xianbei belt buckles, 3-4th century CE. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Yuwen (Simplified Chinese character: 宇文, Traditional Chinese character: 宇文, pinyin Yǔwén) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei and Hun ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 前燕, Traditional Chinese character: 前燕, pinyin Qiányàn) (337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Qin (Chinese character: 前秦, Hanyu pinyin Qiánqín) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Later Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 后燕, Traditional Chinese character: 後燕, pinyin Hòuyàn) (384-407 or 409) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 北燕, Traditional Chinese character: 北燕, pinyin Bĕiyàn) (407 or 409-436) was a state of Han Chinese during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... Shiwei may refer to: The Shiwei ethnic people, who now reside largely in Inner Mongolia Wang Shiwei, a notable Chinese journalist. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo (58 - 19 BCE, r. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Great King Daemusin of Goguryeo (4-44, r. ... Emperor Minjung of Goguryeo (? - 48, r. ... Mobon (r. ... Taejo (r. ... King Chadae of Goguryeo (71–165, ruled 146–165) was the seventh ruler of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... King Sindae of Goguryeo (89-179, r. ... Gogukcheon was the ruler of the Korean Goguryeo state from 179 to 196 CE. He was the son of King Sindae (신대왕, 新大王). Gogukcheon oversaw the official change of Goguryeo royal succession from fraternal succession to father-son succession by primogeniture (Yang, 1999, p. ... King Sansang of Goguryeo (? - 227, r. ... Dongcheon was King of Goguryeo (227-248). ... Jungcheon of Goguryeo was ruler of the Korean Goguryeo (227-248). ... King Seocheon of Goguryeo (?-292, r. ... King Bongsang of Goguryeo (?-300, r. ... King Micheon of Goguryeo (r. ... King Gogugwon of Goguryeo (?-371, r. ... King Sosurim of Goguryeo (?-384, r. ... King Gogugyang of Goguryeo (?-391, r. ... King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ... King Jangsu of Goguryeo (Personal names: Koryŏn 巨連 Jùlián, Kŏryŏn 高璉 Gāolián, 394~491), a king of Goguryeo (Chinese, Gaogouli) who ruled from 413 to 491. ... King Munjamyeong (r. ... Anjang (r. ... King Anwon of Goguryeo (?-545, r. ... King Yangwon of Goguryeo (?-559, r. ... Pyeongwon was King of Goguryeo (559-590). ... Yeong-yang (r. ... Yeongnyu of Goguryeo King Yeongnyu (r. ... King Bojang (?-682, r. ... We dont have an article called Samguk sagi Start this article Search for Samguk sagi in. ... Samguk Yusa, or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, is a collection of legends, folktales, and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during, and after the Three Kingdoms period. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jolbon or Jolbon Buyeo (졸본부여; 86 BCE - 37 BCE) was a continuation of Bukbuyeo under a changed state name after 86 BCE, when Hae Buru Dangun fled to the east to avoid conflict with King Dongmyeong, who became Go Dumak Dangun. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... The Book of Han (Ch: 漢書, Hanshu) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE-9 CE). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Book of Tang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tangshu) or the Old Book of Tang (旧唐書/舊唐书) is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born LÄ­ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Yalu (Amnok) River is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ...


However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old and New Histories of Tang, the Samguk Sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BCE or "middle" 1st century BCE foundation date for Goguryeo. Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BCE, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo. The first mention of Goguryeo as a group type associated with Yemaek tribes would be a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryo revolt in 12 CE, where they break away from Xuantu influence [5]. It was also during this time that the Goguryeo ruler, given the title of "marquis" (侯) by the Xuantu administrators, began calling himself the Chinese title of "wang", (王) or King. The Book of Tang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tangshu) or the Old Book of Tang (旧唐書/舊唐书) is the first classic work about the Tang Dynasty. ... The New Book of Tang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin Tangshu), is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi (宋祁) and other official scholars of the Song dynasty. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ...


At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of Buyeo and Yemaek people, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms [6]. The San Guo Zhi, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", states that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke the same language [7]. The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420...


Jumong and the foundation myth

The earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th century C.E. Stele of Great King Gwanggaeto. Jumong is the Korean transcription of the hanja 朱蒙 (Jumong, 주몽), 鄒牟(Chumo, 추모), or 仲牟 (Jungmo, 중모). The stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo was erected in 414 by King Jangsu as a memorial to his deceased father. ... King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ... King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo (r. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


The Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and he was the son of the king of Buyeo and a daughter of the river deity Habaek [8]. The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa paints additional detail and names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Hae Mosu who is described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." [9]. The Samguk Sagi states that Hae Mosu was a sky deity, who had seduced Yuhwa. After the murder attempts of Daeso, the crown prince of Buyeo, Jumong fled Buyeo [10]. The Stele and later Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from North Buyeo and the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa say he came from East Buyeo. Jumong eventually made it to the Jolbon Buyeo confederacy, where he married the daughter of its ruler. He subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country. Hae Mosu (hangul:해모수, hanja:解慕漱) was the legendary founder of Buyeo. ... King Daeso (대소왕) (7 BCE - 22 CE) was the third and final ruler of Dongbuyeo. ... Bukbuyeo (북부여) (239 BCE - 58 BCE) was an ancient Korean kingdom that was located and ruled in Manchuria. ... We dont have an article called Samguk sagi Start this article Search for Samguk sagi in. ... Samguk Yusa, or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, is a collection of legends, folktales, and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during, and after the Three Kingdoms period. ... Dongbuyeo (86 BCE - 22 CE) was an ancient Korean kingdom that developed from Buyeo, until conquered by the early Goguryeo, which then grew into one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Jolbon or Jolbon Buyeo (졸본부여; 86 BCE - 37 BCE) was a continuation of Bukbuyeo under a changed state name after 86 BCE, when Hae Buru Dangun fled to the east to avoid conflict with King Dongmyeong, who became Go Dumak Dangun. ...


Jumong's given surname was Hae (解), the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samguk Yusa, Jumong changed his surname to Ko (高), in conscious reflection of his divine parentage [11]. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu (비류국, 沸流國) in 36 BCE, Haeng-in (행인국, 荇人國) in 33 BCE, and North Okjeo in 28 BCE. [12] Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ...


Expansion and centralization of tribal leagues

Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and rapidly expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Han river drainage. The Goguryeo homeland was said to be mountainous and lacked arable land and could barely feed its own population. Goguryeo was known for being fond of raiding their neighbors so they could expand their resource base. In the time of King Taejo of Goguryeo in 53 CE, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts of the kingdom. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Aggressive military activities may have allowed Goguryeo to exact tribute from their tribal neighbors and to even dominate them politically and economically [13]. Han River is the name of four unrelated rivers: Han River, or Han Gang, is a river in Korea, passing through Seoul and entering the Yellow Sea Han River, or Han Shui, is a tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central China Han River, or Han Jiang, is... Taejo (r. ...


King Taejo conquered the Okjeo tribes of Northeast Korea as well as the Eastern Ye and other tribes in Southeastern Manchuria and Northern Korea. From the increase of resources and manpower that these subjugated tribes gave him, Goguryo attacked Han China's commanderies of Lelang, Xuantu, and Liaodong in the Korean and Liaodong peninsulas, becoming fully independent from the Han commanderies [14]. Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in the western Korean peninsula or Liaodong set up by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon. ... Lelang (樂浪郡 le4 lang4 jun4) was one of the Chinese commanderies which was kept in the Korean Peninsula over 400 years. ...


Generally, Taejo allowed the conquered tribes to retain their chieftains, but report to governors who were related to Goguryeo's royal line and were expected to provide heavy tribute. Taejo and his successors channeled these increased resources to continuing its expansion to the northwest. New laws regulated peasants and the aristocracy, as tribal leaders continued to be absorbed into the central aristocracy. Royal succession changed from fraternal to patrilineal, strengthening the royal court [15].


The expanding Goguryeo kingdom entered into direct military contact with the Liaodong commandery. Pressure from Liadong forced Goguryeo to move their capital in the Hun River valley to the Yalu River valley near Mt. Wandu.[16]


Goguryeo-Wei War

The chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created Wei Dynasty of China and sent tribute in 220 CE. In 238 CE, Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with the Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery. When Liaodong was finally conquered by Wei, cooperation between Wei and Goguryeo fell apart and Goguryeo attacked the western edges of Liaodong, which incited a Wei counterattack in 244. On this occasion, Wei reached and destroyed the Goguryeo capital at Mt. Wandu. It is said that the Goguryeo king, with his army destroyed, fled alone and sought refuge with the Okjeo tribes in the east [17] The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Wandu Mountain City (Chinese: 丸都山城) (Korean transliteration Hwando Mountain City), along with Guonei City, served as the second capital of Goguryeo (Chinese: 高句麗, Pinyin: Gaogouli, Hangul: 고구려). The remains of this city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in 2. ...


Revival and further expansion

The Wei armies chose not to occupy Goguryeo and left after they believed that the kingdom was destroyed. After only 70 years, Goguryeo rebuilt their capital at Mt. Wandu and again began to raid Liaodong, Lelang and Xuantu commandaries. As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong peninsula, the last Chinese commandery at Lelang was conquered and absorbed by Micheon of Goguryeo in 313, bringing the northern part of the Korean peninsula into the fold [18]. From that point on, until the 7th century C.E., territorial control of the peninsula would be contested primarily by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... King Micheon of Goguryeo (r. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until...


The expansion met temporary setbacks when in 342, Former Yan, a Chinese Sixteen Kingdoms state of Xianbei ethnicity, (some Goguryeo royal family members were seized by Former Yan, and one of them, Gao Yun, briefly ruled Former Yan's successor state Northern Yan from 407 to 409) attacked Goguryeo’s capital, then at Mt. Wandu, and in 371, King Geunchogo of Baekje sacked Goguryeo’s largest city, Pyongyang, and killed King Gogukwon of Goguryeo in battle.[19] The Former Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 前燕, Traditional Chinese character: 前燕, pinyin Qiányàn) (337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... Xianbei belt buckles, 3-4th century CE. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ... Gao Yun (高雲) (d. ... The Northern Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 北燕, Traditional Chinese character: 北燕, pinyin Bĕiyàn) (407 or 409-436) was a state of Han Chinese during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Geunchogo of Baekje (reigned 346–375) was the thirteenth king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... King Gogugwon of Goguryeo (?-371, r. ...


Turning to domestic stability and the unification of various conquered tribes, Sosurim of Goguryeo proclaimed new laws, embraced Buddhism as the national religion in 372, and established a national educational institute called the Taehak (태학, 太學). [20]. Due to the defeats that Goguryeo had suffered under Former Yan and Baekje, Sosurim had also instituted military reforms. [21]. King Sosurim of Goguryeo (?-384, r. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...

Goguryeo territory at its height.
Goguryeo territory at its height.

Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ... Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ...

King Gwanggaeto

King Gwanggaeto the Great (reigned from 391 to 412 CE) was a highly energetic monarch that is remembered for his rapid military expansion of the kingdom. [22] King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ...


Gwanggaeto's exploits have been recorded on a huge memorial stele located near present day Jilin in southern Manchuria, that was erected by his son, King Jangsu. Gwanggaetto is said to have conquered 64 walled cities and 1,400 villages from one campaign against Buyeo alone, destroyed Later Yan and annexed Buyeo and Mohe tribes to the north, subjugated Baekje, contributed to the dissolution of the Gaya confederacy, and turned Silla into a protectorate in wars against Gaya, Baekje and Wa (Japan). In doing so, he brought about a loose unification of Korea that lasted about 50 years. By the end of his reign, Goguryeo had achieved undisputed control of southern Manchuria, and the northern and central regions of the Korean Peninsula. [23] The stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo was erected in 414 by King Jangsu as a memorial to his deceased father. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... King Jangsu of Goguryeo (Personal names: Koryŏn 巨連 Jùlián, Kŏryŏn 高璉 Gāolián, 394~491), a king of Goguryeo (Chinese, Gaogouli) who ruled from 413 to 491. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... Chinese character for Wō or Wa, formed by the person radical 亻and a wÄ›i or wa 委 phonetic element Japanese Wa Japan, Japanese, from Chinese Wō 倭), is the oldest recorded name of Japan. ...


During this period, Goguryeo territory included three fourths of the Korean peninsula, including today's Seoul, and much of southern Manchuria and the southeastern end of Russian maritime province. Gwanggaeto instituted the reign name of "Yeongnak", thus signifying an equality with the major Chinese dynasties. [24] The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...


King Jangsu, ascending to the throne in 413, moved the capital to Pyongyang in 427, which is evidence to the intensifying rivalries between it and the other two peninsular kingdoms of Baekje and Silla to its south. Jangsu, like his father, continued Goguryeo's territorial expansion into Manchuria and reached the Eastern Songhua River, which marked Goguryeo's farthest reach to the north. Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ...


In the late 5th century, it absorbed Bukbuyeo and several Mohe and Khitan tribes, competed with Northern Wei in the north, and continued its strong influence over Silla. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ...


Internal strife

Goguryeo reached its zenith in the 6th century. After this, it began a steady decline. King Anjang was assassinated, and succeeded by his brother King Anwon, during whose reign aristocratic factionalism increased. A political schism deepened as two factions advocated different princes for succession, until the eight-year-old Yang-won was finally crowned. But the power struggle was never resolved definitively, as renegade magistrates with private armies appointed de facto rulers of their areas of control. Anjang (r. ... King Anwon of Goguryeo (?-545, r. ...


Taking advantage of Goguryeo's internal struggle, a nomadic group called the Tuchueh attacked Goguryeo's northern castles in the 550s and conquered some of Goguryeo's northern lands. Weakening Goguryeo even more, as civil war continued among feudal lords over royal succession, Baekje and Silla allied to attack Goguryeo from the south in 551.


Conflicts of the late 6th and 7th centuries CE

In the late 6th and early 7th centuries, Goguryeo was often in conflict with the Sui and Tang Dynasties of China. Its relations with Baekje and Silla were complex and alternated between alliances and enmity. A neighbor in the northeast were the Eastern Göktürk, a khanate in northwestern China and near Mongolia, was an ally with Goguryeo and trading was done between the two states.[citation needed] The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ...


Goguryeo's loss of the Han River Valley

In 551 CE, Baekje and Silla entered into an alliance to attack Goguryeo and conquer the Han River valley, an important strategic area close to the center of the peninsula and a very rich agricultural region. After exhausting themselves with a series of costly assaults on Goguryeo fortifications, Silla troops, arriving on the pretense of offering assistance, attacked and took possession of the entire Han River valley in 553. Incensed by this betrayal, Baekje's King Seong in the following year launches a retaliatory strike against Silla's western border, but is captured and killed. Seong (d. ...


The war, along the middle of the Korean peninsula, had very important consequences. It effectively made Baekje the weakest player on the Korean peninsula and gave Silla an important, resource and population rich area as a base for expansion. Conversely, it denied Goguryeo the use of the area, which weakened the kingdom. It also gave Silla direct access to the Yellow Sea, opening up trade and diplomatic access to the Chinese dynasties and accelerating Silla's process of sinification. Thus, Silla could rely less on Goguryeo for elements of civilization and could get culture and technology directly from China. This increasing tilt of Silla to China would result in an alliance that would prove disastrous for Goguryeo in the late 7th century.


Goguryeo-Sui Wars

Main article: Goguryeo-Sui Wars

The Sui Dynasty was founded in 581 CE. It grew in power and emerged as a powerful dynasty in China. Goguryeo's expansion conflicted with the Sui Dynasty and increased tensions. In 598 the Sui, provoked by Goguryeo military offensives in the Liaosuh region, attacked Goguryeo in the first of the Goguryeo-Sui Wars. In this campaign, as with those that followed in 612, 613, and 614, Sui was unsuccessful in overruning Goguryeo, but did gain minor concessions and promises of submission that were never fulfilled. The 613 and 614 campaigns were aborted after launch -- the 613 campaign was terminated when the Sui general Yang Xuangan rebelled against Emperor Yang of Sui, while the 614 campaign was terminated after Goguryeo offered surrender and returned Husi Zheng (斛斯政), a defecting Sui general who had fled to Goguryeo, Emperor Yang later had Husi executed. Emperor Yang planned another attack on Goguryeo in 615, but due to Sui's deteroriating internal state he was never able to launch it. Sui was weakened due to rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule. They could not attack further because the soldiers in the Sui heartland would not send logistical support. Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Yang Xuangan (楊玄感) (d. ... Emperor Yang of Sui China (569 - March 11, 618), or Yangdi was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ...


One of Sui's most disastrous campaigns was in 612, in which Sui, according to the History of the Sui Dynasty, mobilized 30 field armies, about 1,100,000 combat troops. Pinned along Goguryeo's line of fortifications on the Liao river, a detachment of 9 armies, about 300,000 troops, bypassed the main defensive lines and headed towards the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang to link up with Sui naval forces which contained reinforcements and supplies. However, Goguryeo was able to defeat the Sui navy, thus when the Sui's 9 armies finally reached Pyongyang, they didn't have the supplies for a lengthy siege. Sui troops retreated but General Eulji Mundeok led the Goguryeo troops to victory by luring them into an ambush outside of Pyongyang. At the Battle of Salsu River, Goguryeo soldiers released water from a dam, which split the Sui army and cut off their escape route. Of the original 300,000 soldiers, only 2,700 escaped to Sui China. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Sui Chinese Goguryeo Commanders Yu Zhongwen Yuwen Shu Eulji Mundeok Strength 301,000+ ~200,000 Casualties 300,400+ Menial The Battle of Salsu was the huge battle that occurred in the year 612, during second Goguryeo-Sui War, between Korean kingdom Goguryeo and the Chinese Sui Dynasty. ...


The wars depleted the national treasury of the Sui Dynasty and after revolts and political strife, the Sui Dynasty disintegrated in 618. However the wars also exhausted Goguryeo's strength and its power declined.


Goguryeo-Tang War and Tang-Silla alliance

Main article: Goguryeo-Tang Wars

After Goguryeo repelled attacks from the Sui Dynasty, the new dynasty that took its place, the Tang, attacked Goguryeo as well. Under Li Shimin (Tang Taizong), the Tang Dynasty attacked Goguryeo. The campaign was unsuccessful for the Chinese, failing to capture strategic points in numerous attacks. [25] Although Goguryeo had repulsed the Sui Dynasty, attacks by the Tang Dynasty from the west proved too formidable. ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) A transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,邓,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Lĭ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ...


The Tang forged an alliance with Goguryeo's rival Silla after defeating Goguryeo's western ally, the Göktürks. This, combined with Goguryeo's increasing political instability following the 642 murder of King Yeongnyu at the hands of the military general Yeon Gaesomun, increased tensions between Tang and Goguryeo, as Yeon took an increasingly provocative stance against Tang. The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... For the historical drama, see Yeon Gaesomun (TV series). ...


In 645, Taizong launched another attack against Goguryeo. Goguryeo was able to repel the attack at Ansi Fortress. the central figure of a repulse was Yeon Gaesomun and Yang Manchun. In the end, Taizong was not able to capture Ansi, and the Tang army withdrew after suffering large losses during the siege of Ansi and running out of food supplies. After Taizong's death in 649, a Tang army was again sent to conquer Goguryeo in 661 and 662, but while Yeon Gaesomun was alive, the Tang was not able to conquer Goguryeo. Yang Manchun is the name given to the Goguryeo commander of Ansi Castle in the 640s. ...


Following the defection of Yeon Namsaeng, the son of Yeon Gaesomun and the surrender of numerous cities in northern Goguryeo, the Tang army bypassed the Liaoong region and captured Pyongyang, the capital of Goguryeo, while Yeon Jeongto,the Younger brother of Yeon Gaesomun, surrendered his forces to the Silla general Kim Yushin, who was advancing from the south. In November 668 Bojang, the last king of Goguryeo, Surrendered to Tang Gaozhong. Yeon Namsaeng 淵男生 연남생 (634-679) was the eldest son of the Goguryeo military leader and DaeMagniji Yeon Gaesomun (603?-665). ... Kim Yushin (595-673) was a general in 7th-century Silla. ...


Fall

Goguryo's ally in the southwest, Baekje, fell to the Silla-Tang alliance in 660; the victorious allies continued their assault on Goguryeo for the next eight years. Meanwhile, in 666 (though dates vary from 664-666), Yeon Gaesomun died and civil war ensued among his three sons.[26]


Silla-Tang eventually vanquished the weary kingdom, which had been suffering from a series of famines and internal strife. Goguryeo finally fell in 668.[27] Goguryeo's last king Bojang was captured and taken into exile by the Tang forces. King Bojang (?-682, r. ...


Silla thus unified most of the Korean peninsula in 668, but the kingdom's reliance on China's Tang Dynasty had its price. Tang set up the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, or Andong protectorate, governed by Xue Rengui, but faced increasing problems ruling the former inhabitants of Goguryeo, as well as Silla's resistance to Tang's remaining presence on the Korean Peninsula. Silla had to forcibly resist the imposition of Chinese rule over the entire peninsula, but their own strength did not extend beyond the Taedong River. The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a military government established at Pyongyang by Tang Dynasty China in 668. ... Xue Rengui (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüeh Jengui, 614-683), also known as Xue Li (薛礼), was one of the most famous Chinese general during the early Tang Dynasty. ... The Taedong River rises in the Nangnim Mountains of northern North Korea. ...


In 677, Tang crowned Bojang "King of Joseon" and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. However, King Bojang continued to ferment rebellions against Tang in an attempt to revive Goguryeo, organizing Goguryeo refugees and allying with the Mohe tribes. He was eventually exiled to Szechuan in 681, and died the following year. Joseon or Chosun (Korean: ì¡°ì„ ; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: CháoxiÇŽn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: Sìchuān; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; non-standard transliteration: Szechwan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


Revival movements

Main article: Goguryeo Revival Movements

After the fall of Goguryeo in 668, many Goguryeo people rebelled against the Tang and Silla by starting Goguryeo revival movements. Among these were Geom Mojam, Dae Jung-sang, and several others. The Tang Dynasty tried but failed to establish several commanderies to rule over the area. Geom Mojam (?-672) was the military leader of a short-lived movement to restore Goguryeo after its fall to Silla in the later 7th century CE. After the kingdom fell to Tang and Silla in 668, he kindled an opposition movement in the Taedong River valley and in 670 established... Dae Jung-Sang(대중상, 大仲象) or Geol Geol Jung-Sang(걸걸중상, 乞乞仲象) was the father of Dae Joyeong, the founder of the ancient Korean kingdom of Balhae. ...


In the former Yodong region of Goguryeo, former Goguryeo General Go Yeon-Mu and Silla general Sul Oh-Yoo established their base of operations at Ohgol Fortress, and managed to unite the surviving fortresses that formed the Cheolli Jangseong. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... There were two separate structures called Cheolli Jangseong (lit. ...


The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was installed by the Tang government to rule and keep control over the former territories of the fallen Goguryeo. It was first put under the control of Tang General Xue Rengui, but was later replaced by King Bojang due the negative responses of the Goguryeo people. Bojang was sent into exile for assisting Goguryeo revival movements, but was succeeded by his descendants. Go Jang's descendants declared independence from the Tang during the time at which An Shi Rebellion and Yi Jeonggi's establishing of the Je State occurred. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was renamed "Lesser Goguryeo" until its eventual absorption into Balhae under the reign of Emperor Seonjong. The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a military government established at Pyongyang by Tang Dynasty China in 668. ... Xue Rengui (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüeh Jengui, 614-683), also known as Xue Li (薛礼), was one of the most famous Chinese general during the early Tang Dynasty. ... King Bojang (?-682, r. ... King Bojang (?-682, r. ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) A transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,邓,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ... The An Shi Rebellion (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763. ... Yi Jeonggi (732 - 781) was the founder and first emperor of the State of Je, which was a successor-state of Goguryeo, which was the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Je State (765CE - 819CE) was a Korean kingdom established by the remaining people of Goguryeo against Tang dynasty. ... Lesser Goguryeo or So-Goguryeo (699-820) (소고구려) was a kingdom that was created as a result of former Prince Go Deokmus rise to King of Joseon and Governor of the liaodong Commandery of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. ... Dae Insu or Tae Insu (r. ...


Geom Mojam and Anseung rose briefly at Hanseong, but failed, when Anseung surrendered to Silla. Go Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam, and defected to Silla, where he was given a small amount of land to rule over. There, Anseung established the Kingdom of Bodeok. Bodeok was eventually demolished by King Sinmun, and Anseung was given the Silla Royal surname "Kim." Geom Mojam (?-672) was the military leader of a short-lived movement to restore Goguryeo after its fall to Silla in the later 7th century CE. After the kingdom fell to Tang and Silla in 668, he kindled an opposition movement in the Taedong River valley and in 670 established... Anseung 安勝 (fl. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Sinmun of Silla (r. ...


Dae Jung-sang and his son Dae Joyeong, both former Goguryeo generals, regained most of Goguryeo's northern land after its downfall in 668, established the kingdom "Later Goguryeo". Later Goguryeo was renamed Great Jin, and eventually Balhae after the death of Dae Jung-sang. To the south of Balhae, Silla controlled the Korean peninsula south of the Taedong River, and Manchuria(present-day northeastern China) was conquered by Balhae. Balhae claimed themselves the successor state to Goguryeo. Dae Jung-Sang(대중상, 大仲象) or Geol Geol Jung-Sang(걸걸중상, 乞乞仲象) was the father of Dae Joyeong, the founder of the ancient Korean kingdom of Balhae. ... Dae Joyeong, also known as Emperor Go, established the empire of Barhae, reigning from 699 to 719. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Dae Jung-Sang(대중상, 大仲象) or Geol Geol Jung-Sang(걸걸중상, 乞乞仲象) was the father of Dae Joyeong, the founder of the ancient Korean kingdom of Balhae. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Taedong River rises in the Nangnim Mountains of northern North Korea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...


In the early 10th century, Gung-ye, a rebel general, established Taebong (also called Hu-Goguryeo ("Later Goguryeo")), which briefly rose in rebellion against Silla. Taebong also claimed to be a successor of Goguryeo, as did Goryeo, the state that replaced Silla to rule the unified Korean peninsula. gung ho is derived from the sunny king of ancient Korea known as Gung Ye. ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...


Military

The military of Goguryeo has been known to be powerful, especially during the rule of King Gwanggaeto. However, we do not know much of it or its exact number as there are not many records left. A Tang treatise of 668 records a total of 675,000 displaced personnel and 176 military garrisons after the surrender of King Bojang.


Every man in Goguryeo was required to serve in the military, or could avoid conscription by paying extra grain tax.


Goguryeo had a significant amount of cavalry and mounted archers, and infantry were known to have horned helmets. They also had spikes attached to the bottom soles of their boots.


Culture

The culture of Goguryeo was shaped by its climate, religion, and the tense society that people dealt with due to the numerous wars Goguryeo waged. Not much is known about Goguryeo culture, as many records have been lost.


Lifestyle

The inhabitants of Goguryeo wore a predecessor of the modern hanbok, just as the other cultures of the three kingdoms. There are murals and artifacts that depict dancers wearing elaborate white dresses. Hanbok (한복) (South Korea) or chosŏn-ot (조선옷) (North Korea) is the traditional Korean dress. ...


Festivals and pastimes

A mural of a three-legged bird in a Goguryeo tomb.
A mural of a three-legged bird in a Goguryeo tomb.

Common pastimes among Goguryeo people were drinking, singing, or dancing. Games such as wrestling attracted curious spectators. Image File history File links Korean_three-legged_bird_mural. ... Image File history File links Korean_three-legged_bird_mural. ... Three-legged bird flanked by dragon and phoenix. ...


Every October, the Dongmaeng Festival was held. The Dongmaeng Festival was practiced to worship the gods. The ceremonies were followed by huge celebratory feasts, games, and other activities. Often, the king performed rites to his ancestors.


Hunting was a male activity and also served as an appropriate means to train young men for the military. Hunting parties rode on horses and hunted deer and other game with bows-and-arrows. Archery contests also occurred. Horse riding was popular and Goguryeo developed strong military skills, as the cavalry was strong.


Religion

A Goguryeo tomb mural.
A Goguryeo tomb mural.

Goguryeo people worshipped ancestors and considered them to be supernatural. (MyGoguryeo Unknown year, p. culture.htm) Jumong, the founder of Goguryeo, was worshipped and respected among the people. At the annual Dongmaeng Festival, a religious rite was performed for Jumong, ancestors, and gods. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 603 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Goguryeo Culture of Korea Religion in... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 603 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Goguryeo Culture of Korea Religion in... King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo (r. ...


Mythical beasts and animals were also considered to be sacred in Goguryeo. The phoenix and dragon were both worshipped upon, while the Samjogo, the three-legged bird, was considered the most powerful of the three. Paintings of mythical beasts exist in Goguryeo king tombs today. Three-legged bird flanked by dragon and phoenix. ...


Buddhism was first introduced to Goguryeo in 372 [28] The government recognized and encouraged the teachings of Buddhism and many monasteries and shrines were created during Goguryeo's rule, making Goguryeo the first kingdom in the region to adopt Buddhism. However, Buddhism was much more popular in Silla and Baekje, which Goguryeo passed Buddhism to.[29] A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ...


Cultural impact

Goguryeo art, preserved largely in tomb paintings, is noted for the vigour of its imagery. Finely detailed art can be seen in Goguryeo tombs and other murals. Many of the art pieces were influenced by designs found throughout Northern China and Northeast Asia. A depiction of the moon goddess from a Goguryeo tomb Goguryeo art is the art of Goguryeo, an ancient kingdom (37 BC – 668) which occupied large areas of present-day China and Korea. ...

Goguryeo roof-tile
Goguryeo roof-tile

Cultural legacies of Goguryeo may be found in modern Korean culture, for example, ondol, Goguryeo's floor heating system, and hanbok(Brown 2006, p. 18). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Ondol is a traditional Korean underfloor heating system, similar in principle to a Roman hypocaust. ... Hanbok (한복) (South Korea) or chosŏn-ot (조선옷) (North Korea) is the traditional Korean dress. ...


Legacy

Remains of walled towns, fortresses, palaces, tombs, and artifacts have been found in North Korea and Manchuria, including ancient paintings in a Goguryeo tomb complex in Pyongyang. Some ruins are also still visible in present-day China, for example at Wǔ Nǚ Shān, suspected to be the site of Jolbon fortress, near Huanren in Liaoning province on the present border with North Korea. Ji'an is also home to a large collection of Goguryeo era tombs, including what Chinese scholars consider to be the tombs of kings Gwanggaeto and his son Jangsu, as well as perhaps the best-known Goguryeo artifact, the Gwanggaeto Stele, which is one of the primary sources for pre-fifth century Goguryeo history. The Complex of Goguryeo Tombs lies in North Korea. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Wu Nu Shan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), which means the Mountain of Five Fairies, is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located in the north of the town of Huan Ren, in Liao Ning Province, China. ... Huanren Town (桓仁镇) is the capital of Huanren Manchu autonomous county, Liaoning province, China, It is located about 80km away to the southwest of Tonghua. ... The stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo was erected in 414 by King Jangsu as a memorial to his deceased father. ...


World Heritage Site

UNESCO added Complex of Goguryeo Tombs in present-day North Korea and Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom in present-day China to the World Heritage Sites in 2004. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Complex of Goguryeo Tombs lies in North Korea. ... Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom lie in Jian, Jilin and its approximities. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Name

The modern English name "Korea" derives from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), which itself took one of the various names which Goguryeo had used in diplomatic language with its neighbours. Goguryeo is also referred to as Goryeo after 520 AD in Chinese and Japanese historical and diplomatic sources.[citation needed] The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ...


Language

Detail of a rubbing of the Gwanggaeto Stele (414 AD), one of the few surviving records made by Goguryeo, written in Classical Chinese.
Detail of a rubbing of the Gwanggaeto Stele (414 AD), one of the few surviving records made by Goguryeo, written in Classical Chinese.

The American linguist Christopher Beckwith has also noted similarities in certain vocabulary with Old Japanese (Beckwith August 2003). Some linguists propose the so-called "Buyeo languages" family that includes the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Old Japanese. Chinese records suggest that the languages of Goguryeo, Buyeo, East Okjeo, and Gojoseon were similar, while Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe)[citation needed]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo was erected in 414 by King Jangsu as a memorial to his deceased father. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Buyeo (Puyŏ) languages are a hypothetical language family that would relate the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje and the Japonic languages, and possibly place them together as a family under the hypothetical Altaic family. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ...

Main article: Goguryeo language
See also: Korean language

Along with many other kingdoms in east Asia, Goguryeo used Chinese characters and wrote in Classical Chinese. The Goguryeo language is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggests that it was similar to the language of Silla and influenced by the Tungusic languages.[citation needed] Supporters of the Altaic language family often classify the Goguryeo language as a member of that language family. Most Korean linguists believe that the Goguryeo language was closest to the Altaic languages out of the Three Kingdoms that followed Gojoseon. The Goguryeo language was spoken in the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (37 BC – AD 668), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ...


Striking similarities between Baekje and Goguryeo can also be found, which is consistent with the legends that describe Baekje being founded by the sons of Goguryeo's founder. The Goguryeo names for government posts are mostly similar to those of Baekje and Silla. [citation needed] Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ...


The American linguist Christopher Beckwith has also noted similarities in certain vocabulary with Old Japanese (Beckwith August 2003). Some linguists propose the so-called "Buyeo languages" family that includes the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Old Japanese. Chinese records suggest that the languages of Goguryeo, Buyeo, East Okjeo, and Gojoseon were similar, while Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe)[citation needed]. Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Buyeo (Puyŏ) languages are a hypothetical language family that would relate the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje and the Japonic languages, and possibly place them together as a family under the hypothetical Altaic family. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ...



Some words of Goguryeo origin can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but most were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long.


Modern politics

See also: Northeast Project of the Chinese Academy of Social Science
Goguryeo at territorial prime and modern political boundaries
Goguryeo at territorial prime and modern political boundaries

Goguryeo has been conventionally viewed as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and is described as Korean by most non-Chinese sources. (Britannica Unknown Year, Encarta 2007, CIA World Factbook 2007, and Columbia Encyclopedia 2005) The Goguryeo controversies refers to the disputes between China and Korea on the history of Goguryeo, an ancient kingdom located mostly in the present day Northeast China and North Korea. ... The Northeast Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), which is short for the Northeast Borderland History and the Chain of Events Research Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), was a 20-billion-yuan (2. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 827 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) author=jiejunkong, source= and URL= and tags= I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 827 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) author=jiejunkong, source= and URL= and tags= I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until...


Chinese characterization of Goguryeo as a regional power of China in modern times has spawned heated disputes with both North Korea and South Korea, whose citizens view the ancient kingdom with fierce pride. At heart of the Goguryeo controversy is whether Goguryeo was a part of the greater Chinese nation, or an independent Korean kingdom.


China views Goguryeo as a part of the regional history of China rather than of being solely or uniquely Korean.[citation needed] Chinese historian Sun Jinji in 1986 suggested that Goguryeo is separate from the history of the Three Kingdoms in the Korean Peninsula. He argued that “the people of Buyeo and Goguryeo had the same lineage as the Chinese in the Northeast region, while the Korean people were a part of the Silla lineage.”(Sun 1986, Yonson 2006) This view has since been supported by many other prominent Chinese historians.[citation needed] However, Chinese scholars are not all of one voice on this issue. There are also many Chinese historians who acknowledge Goguryeo history as being shared by both Korea and China within “a framework of the dual elements of a single history” (一史两用论, yishi liangyong lun).(Sun 2004a). More recently, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) generated new controversy through its Northeast Project study of China's three Northeast provinces. The Chinese argument for Goguryeo’s historical heritage in the Northeast Project is based on two main points: the first is that the Goguryeo state grew out of the Han Chinese commandary of Xuantu; and also the Chinese consider Goguryeo and Barhae to be founded by the Mohe (Malgal) peoples, a purported ancestor of modern day Manchus, who ruled China's Qing Dynasty. (Sun 2004b, Yonson 2006) The conclusions of the CASS study have created tensions in China-South Korea relations. Buyeo can mean: An ancient kingdom in Manchuria, also called Puyŏ or Fuyu. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Simplified Chinese: 中国社会科学院; Traditional Chinese: 中國社會科學院; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shèhuì KÄ“xuéyuàn) is the national academy of the Peoples Republic of China for the social sciences. ... The Northeast Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), which is short for the Northeast Borderland History and the Chain of Events Research Project (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ), was a 20-billion-yuan (2. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Mohe (靺鞨, Korean: Malgal, 말갈), were a Tungusic tribe in ancient Manchuria. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... China-South Korea relations refers to the international relations between the China and the South Korea. ...


In his email to Koreanstudies mailing list, Mark Byington, when completing a postdoctoral program at the Korea Institute, an autonomous non-departmental entity[30] located at Harvard University, has suggested China's official position to be "flimsy", historically speaking, though notes it "accords with current practice in the PRC" in describing "a very vaguely defined greater Chinese nation of the remote past", and that their position is "one that must exist in order to fall into line with current Chinese views of the Chinese past" (Byington 2004a)[dubious ]. A postdoctoral (colloquially, post-doc) appointment is a usually temporary academic job held by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, it's History and Legacy" 2003 PhD dissertation for the department of East Asian History, Harvard University, p. 234'
  2. ^ 'Daniel Kane, postdoctoral student, Korean History Department, University of Hawaii, personal web site http://www2.hawaii.edu/~dkane/Puyo.htm
  3. ^ 'Christopher I. Beckwith, "Koguryo, The Language Of Japan's Continental Relatives", 2004 Brill Academic Publishers, page 33'
  4. ^ 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, it's History and Legacy", p. 194'
  5. ^ 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, it's History and Legacy", p. 233'
  6. ^ Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. In Pacific Northeast Asia in Prehistory: Hunter-fisher-gatherers, Farmers, and Sociopolitical Elites, edited by C. Melvin Aikens and Song Nai Rhee, pp. 191-196. WSU Press, Pullman ISBN 0-87422-092-0.
  7. ^ De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 7-11
  8. ^ De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, Editors, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 24-25
  9. ^ Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", Yonsei University Press, p. 45
  10. ^ Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", p. 46
  11. ^ Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", p. 46-47
  12. ^ (MyGoguryeo Unknown year)
  13. ^ 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 22'
  14. ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 24'
  15. ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 36'
  16. ^ 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 22-23'
  17. ^ 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 23'
  18. ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 20
  19. ^ (MyGoguryeo Unknown year)
  20. ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 38
  21. ^ 'William E. Henthorn', "A History of Korea", 1971 Macmillan Publishing Co., page 34
  22. ^ 'William E. Henthorn', "A History of Korea", 1971 Macmillan Publishing Co., page 34
  23. ^ De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 25-26
  24. ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 36
  25. ^ (MyGoguryeo Unknown year)
  26. ^ (Byington 2004b)
  27. ^ (Byington 2004b)
  28. ^ (ScienceView Unknown year).
  29. ^ (ScienceView Unknown year)
  30. ^ About the Korea Institute. Korea Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Byeon, Tae-seop (1999), 韓國史通論(Outline of Korean history), 4th ed., Unknown Publisher, ISBN 89-445-9101-6
  • Metropolitan Museum, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), Korea, 1-500 A.D) Korea, 1-500AD, Unknown Publisher, <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/05/eak/ht05eak.htm Korea, 1-500 A.D)>
  • Lee, Wha (Unknown Year), Forgotten Glory of Koguryo, Kimsoft.com, <http://www.kimsoft.com/KOREA/kogu.htm>
  • Brown, John (2006), China, Japan, Korea. Culture and Custom, BookSurge Publishing, ISBN 1419648934, <http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1419648934&id=3r-3YH3t45cC&pg=RA1-PA81&lpg=RA1-PA81&ots=HkePGwTvGa&dq=goguryeo+hanbok&sig=ON0Cf8QIGlCaAdfa179I-WYK1j4#PPP1,M1>
  • Britannica, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), Koguryo, Britannica Encyclopedia, <http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9369333>
  • Columbia Encyclopedia, Unknown Author (2005), Korea, Bartleby.com, <http://www.bartleby.com/65/ko/Korea.html>. Retrieved on 2007-03-12
  • Sun, Jinji (2004a), Dongbei minzu yuanliu (The Ethnic Origin of the Northeast), Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
  • Sun, Jinji (1986), Zhongguo Gaogoulishi yanjiu kaifang fanrong de liunian (Six Years of Opening and Prosperity of Koguryo History Research), Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
  • Sun, Jinji (2004b), Renmin jiaoyu chubanshe lishixi (History Department of People’s Education Press), Zhongguo lishi (Chinese History) II, Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
  • MyGoguryeo, Unknown (Unknown Year), The Pride History of Korea, MyGoguryeo.net (WWW), <http://www.mygoguryeo.net/history01.htm>
  • Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. In Pacific Northeast Asia in Prehistory: Hunter-fisher-gatherers, Farmers, and Sociopolitical Elites, edited by C. Melvin Aikens and Song Nai Rhee, pp. 191-196. WSU Press, Pullman ISBN 0-87422-092-0.

See also

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... There were two separate structures called Cheolli Jangseong (lit. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1587 words)
Goguryeo's King Sosurim, who succeeded Gogukwon upon the latter's death in 371, kept his foreign policy as isolationist as possible so as to rebuild a state gravely weakened by the Baekje invasion of 371.
Thus Goguryeo, surrounded by a powerful Baekje's forces to its south and west, was inclined to avoid conflict with its peninsular neighbor while cultivating constructive relations with the Xienpei and Yuyeon, in order to defend itself from future invasions, and even the possible destruction of its state.
Goguryeo control over the Liaoning region remained strong until the Sui Dynasty seized the area as a part of its war against Goguryeo in the late 6th century.
Goguryeo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2400 words)
As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong peninsula, the last Chinese commandery, at Lelang, was destroyed by Micheon of Goguryeo in 313, and the Three Kingdoms dominated the peninsula.
Goguryeo art, preserved largely in tomb paintings, is noted for the vigor of its imagery.
The Goguryeo language is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggests that it was similar to the language of Silla and influenced by the Tungusic languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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