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Encyclopedia > Godfrey of Bouillon
Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck.
Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck.

Godfrey of Bouillon (c. 1060, Boulogne-sur-Mer18 July 1100, Jerusalem) was a medieval knight who was a leader of the First Crusade from 1096 until his death. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the fall of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although he did not use the title "king." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... May — The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Duchy of Lower Lorraine encompassed part of modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands. ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ...


He was the second son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida of Lorraine (daughter of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine). Eustace II, (d. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer became the centre of the County of Boulogne in the 9th century. ... Ida of Lorraine (also referred to as Blessed Ida of Boulogne)[1] (b. ... Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine (died 1069), called Godfrey the Bearded, was a son of Gothelo I, Duke of Lower Lorraine. ...

Contents

Early life

Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 in either Boulogne-sur-Mer in France or Baisy, a city in the region of Brabant (part of present-day Belgium). During Godfrey's lifetime this region was part of the Holy Roman Empire, a loose collection of principalities, or small royal states. Godfrey was the second son of Count Eustace II of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine. As second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However, his uncle on his mother's side, Godfrey the Hunchback, Duke of Lower of Lorraine, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and next in line to his duchy of Lower Lorraine. This duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands. May — The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Historically, Brabant has been the name of several administrative entities in the Low Countries with quite different geographical extent: as Carolingian shire (pagus Bracbatensis), located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle (between 9th-11th century); as landgraviat: the part of the shire between the rivers Dender and Dijle (from 1085... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Eustace II, (d. ... Ida of Lorraine (also referred to as Blessed Ida of Boulogne)[1] (b. ... Godfrey IV, Duke of Lower Lorraine, called Godfrey the Hunchback (died 26 February 1076), was a son of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The Duchy of Lower Lorraine or Lower Lotharingia encompassed part of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany west of the Rhine, and a part of northern France (east of the Schelde). ...


In fact, Lower Lorraine was so important to the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire that Henry IV, the German king and future emperor (ruled 1084-1105), decided in 1076 that he would place it in the hands of his own son and give Godfrey only Bouillon and the Mark of Antwerp, as a test of Godfrey's abilities and loyalty. Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought with Henry and his forces against the rival forces of Rudolf of Swabia and also took part in battles in Italy when Henry IV actually took Rome away from the pope. Henry IV (November 11, 1050–August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Relief map displayed in the city. ... Antwerp is the northernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Rudolf of Rheinfelden (also Rudolf of Swabia), died October 15, 1080, was Duke of Swabia (1057–1077) and German Antiking (1077–1080). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


At the same time, Godfrey was struggling to maintain control over the lands that Henry IV had not taken away from him. Matilda of Tuscany, the widow of his uncle, said that these lands should have come to her. Another enemy outside the family also tried to take away other bits of his land, and Godfrey's brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, both came to his aid. Following long struggles, and after proving that he was a loyal subject to Henry IV, Godfrey finally won back his duchy of Lower Lorraine in 1087. Still, Godfrey would never have had much power in the German kingdom or in Europe if it had not been for the coming of the Crusades. Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), called La Gran Contessa, was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ...


Family in England

Marjorie Chibnall[1] has pointed out the oft-ignored fact that the young Godfrey married Beatrice, daughter of Geoffrey de Mandeville and aunt of the first Earl of Essex, and that he left behind in England a son, William de Boulogne (adult by 1106, d. ca. 1169). William would have a son, Faramus de Boulogne, Lord of Tingry, whose daughter Sibylle would marry Enguerrand I de Fiennes. Their descendants would marry into the Arden family of Warwickshire, making Godfrey de Bouillon 15th great-grandfather of William Shakespeare. Chibnall is quoted at length in the 8th ed. of "Ancestral Roots".[2] Geoffrey de Mandeville is the name of several important medieval English barons. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


First Crusade

Godfrey of Bouillon, from a fresco depicting the Nine Worthies, painted by Giacomo Jaquerio c. 1420
Godfrey of Bouillon, from a fresco depicting the Nine Worthies, painted by Giacomo Jaquerio c. 1420

In 1095 Urban II, the new Pope, called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces and also to aid the Byzantine Empire. Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun. With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land. In this he was joined by his older brother, Eustace, and his younger brother, Baldwin, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army. Raymond of Saint-Gilles, also known as Raymond of Toulouse, created the largest army. At age fifty-five Raymond was also the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles. Because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the papal legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him. There was also the fiery Bohemond, a Norman knight who had formed a small kingdom in southern Italy, and a fourth group under Robert of Flanders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x735, 66 KB) Summary Godfrey of Bullioun Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x735, 66 KB) Summary Godfrey of Bullioun Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Bishopric of Liège or Prince-Bishopric of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Belgium. ... The Diocese of Verdun is a territorial subdivision of the Roman Catholic Church in France. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... A mitred Adhemar carrying the Holy Lance in battle. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The French Catholic diocese of Le Puy-en-Velay (ancient Aniciensis) comprises the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of the diocese of Bourges. ... Bohemond looks on as a fellow Frank climbs the ladder, in an engraving by Gustave Doré. Bohemond I (also spelled Bohemund or Boamund; c. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Robert II of Flanders (c. ...


Each of these armies traveled separately, some going southeast across Europe through Hungary and others sailing by water across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Godfrey, along with his two brothers, started in August 1096 at the head of an army from Lorraine (some say 40,000 strong) along "Charlemagne's road," as Urban II seems to have called it (according to the chronicler Robert the Monk)—the road to Jerusalem. After some difficulties in Hungary, where he was unable to stop his men from pillaging fellow Christians, he arrived in Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, in November. The Pope had, in fact, called the Crusade in order the help the Byzantine emperor Alexius I fight the Islamic Turks who were invading his lands from Central Asia and Persia. A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Robert was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ...


Godfrey and his troops were the second to arrive (after Hugh of Vermandois) in Constantinople. During the next several months the other Crusader armies arrived. Suddenly the Byzantine emperor had an army of about 4000 mounted knights and 25,000 infantry camped on his doorstep. But Godfrey and Alexius I had different goals. The Byzantine emperor wanted the help of the Crusader soldiers to recapture lands that the Seljuk Turks had taken. The Crusaders however had the main aim of taking the Holy Land in Palestine from the Muslims and reinstating Christian rule there. For them, Alexius I and his Turks were only a sideshow. Worse, the Byzantine emperor expected the Crusaders to take an oath of loyalty to him. Godfrey and the other knights agreed to a modified version of this oath, promising to help return some lands to Alexius I. By the spring of 1097 the Crusaders were ready to march into battle. Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...


Their first major victory, with Byzantine soldiers at their side, was at the city of Nicaea, close to Constantinople, which the Seljuk Turks had taken some years earlier. Godfrey and his knights of Lorraine played a minor role in the siege of Nicaea, with Bohemond successfully commanding much of the action. Just as the Crusaders were about to storm the city, they suddenly noticed the Byzantine flag flying from atop the city walls. Alexius I had made a separate peace with the Turks and now claimed the city for the Byzantine Empire. These secret dealings were a sign of things to come in terms of relations between Crusaders and Byzantines. Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... Combatants Crusaders, Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rum Commanders Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Manuel Boutoumites Kilij Arslan I Strength Crusaders: ~ 30,000 infantry ~ 4,200-4,500 cavalry [1] Byzantines: 2,000 peltasts [2] ~ 10,000 [3] + Nicaean garrison Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses...


Godfrey continued to play a minor but important role in the battles against the Muslims until the Crusaders finally reached Jerusalem in 1099. Before that time, he helped to relieve the vanguard at the Battle of Dorylaeum after it had been pinned down by the Seljuk Turks under Kilij Arslan I, with the help of the other crusader princes in the main force and went on to sack the Seljuk camp. In 1098 Godfrey took part in the capture of Antioch, which fell in June of that year after long and bitter fighting. During the siege some of the Crusaders felt that the battle was hopeless and left the Crusade to return to Europe. Alexius I, hearing of the desperate situation, thought that all was lost at Antioch and did not come to help the Crusaders as promised. When the Crusaders finally took the city, they decided that their oaths to Alexius I were no longer in effect. Bohemond, the first to enter the city gates, claimed the prize for himself. A Muslim force under Kerbogha, from the city of Mosul, arrived and battled the Crusaders, but the Christians finally defeated these Turkish Islamic troops. The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


After this victory the Crusaders were divided over their next course of action. The bishop of Le Puy had died at Antioch. Bohemond decided to remain behind in order to secure his new kingdom and Godfrey’s younger brother, Baldwin, also decided to stay in the north at the Crusader state he had established at Edessa. Most of the foot soldiers wanted to continue south to Jerusalem, but Raymond IV of Toulouse, by this time the most powerful of the princes, having taken others into his employ, such as Tancred, hesitated to continue the march. After months of waiting, the common people on the crusade forced Raymond to march on to Jerusalem, and Godfrey quickly joined him. As they traveled south into Palestine, the Crusaders faced a new enemy. No longer were the Seljuk Turks the rulers of these lands. Now the Christian army had to deal with armies of North African Muslims called Fatimids, who had adopted the name of the ruling family in Cairo, Egypt. The Fatimids had taken Jerusalem in August 1098. The Crusaders would be battling them for the final prize of the First Crusade in the siege of Jerusalem. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ...


It was in Jerusalem that the legend of Godfrey of Bouillon was born. The army reached the city in June 1099 and built wooden ladders to climb over the walls. The major attack took place on July 14 and 15, 1099. Godfrey and some of his knights were the first to get over the walls and enter the city. Once inside, the Crusaders went wild against the besieged, ultimately killing many in the city. Jews were also killed. It was an end to three years of fighting by the Crusaders, but they had finally done what they had set out to do in 1096—namely, to recapture the Holy Land and, in particular, the city of Jerusalem and its holy sites, such as the Holy Sepulchre, the tomb of Jesus Christ. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Once the city was captured, some form of government had to be set up. On July 22, a council was held in the Church of the Holy Seplechre. Raymond of Toulouse at first refused to become king, perhaps attempting to show his piety but probably hoping that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway. Godfrey, who had become the more popular of the two after Raymond's actions at the siege of Antioch, did no damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader, but with an unknown or ill-defined title. Raymond was incensed at this development and took his army out into the countryside. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kingdom of Jerusalem

Coat of arms of the kingdom of Jerusalem
Coat of arms of the kingdom of Jerusalem

However, perhaps considering the controversy which had surrounded Tancred's seizure of Bethlehem, Godfrey refused to be crowned king in the city where Christ had died. The exact nature and meaning of his title is thus somewhat of a controversy. Although it is widely claimed that he took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("advocate" or "defender" of the Holy Sepulchre), this title is only used in a letter which was not written by the Godfrey. Instead, Godfrey himself seems to have used the more ambiguous term Princeps, or simply retained his title of dux from back home in Lower Lorraine. Robert the Monk is the only chronicler of the crusade to report that Godfrey took the title "king".[3] During his short reign, Godfrey had to defend the new Kingdom of Jerusalem against Fatimids of Egypt, who were defeated at the Battle of Ascalon in August. He also faced opposition from Dagobert of Pisa, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who was allied with Tancred. Although the Latins came close to capturing Ascalon, Godfrey's attempts to prevent Raymond of St. Gilles from securing the city for himself meant that the town remained in Muslim hands, destined to be a thorn in the new kingdom's side for years to come. This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Robert was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimids Commanders Godfrey of Bouillon al-Afdal Shahanshah Strength Possibly 10 000 Possibly 50 000 Casualties Unknown Possibly 10-12 000 For the siege and capture of Ascalon in 1153, see Battle of Ascalon (1153) The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and... Dagobert (also Daimbert), Archbishop of Pisa, was the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after it was captured in the First Crusade. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ...


In 1100 Godfrey was unable to directly expand his new territories through conquest. However, his impressive victory in 1099 and his subsequent campaigning in 1100 meant that he was able to force Acre, Ascalon, Arsuf, Jaffa, and Caesarea to become tributaries. Meanwhile, the struggle with Dagobert continued; although the terms of the conflict are difficult to trace. Dagobert may well have visualised turning Jerusalem into a fiefdom of the pope, however his full intentions are not clear. Much of the evidence for this comes from William of Tyre, whose account of these events is troublesome - It is only William who tells us that Dagobert forced Godfrey to concede Jerusalem and Jaffa, while other writers such as Albert of Aachen and Ralph of Caen suggest that both Dagobert and his ally Tancred had sworn an oath to Godfrey to accept only one of his brothers or blood relations as his successor. Whatever Dagobert's schemes, they were destined to come to nought. Being at Haifa at the time of Godfrey's death, he could do nothing to stop Godfrey's supporters from seizing Jerusalem and demanded that Godefrey's brother Baldwin should succeed to the rule. Dagobert was subsequently forced to crown Baldwin as the first Latin king of Jerusalem on December 25, 1100. The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Arsuf (also known as Arsur or Apollonia) was a Crusader city and fortress located in what is now Israel, about 15 kilometres north of Tel Aviv. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima, also called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 A.D. onwards (originally called only Caesarea : kai Stratônos purgon, hê ktisantos autên Hêrôdou megaloprepôs kai limesin te kai naois kosmêsantos, Kaisareia metônomasthê [1]), was a city built by Herod the Great about... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... William of Tyre (c. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ...


Death

"While he was besieging the city of Acre, Godfrey, the ruler of Jerusalem, was struck by an arrow, which killed him," reports the Arab chronicler Ibn al-Qalanisi. Christian chronicles make no mention of this; instead, Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura report that Godfrey contracted an illness in Caesarea in June, 1100. It was later believed that the emir of Caesarea had poisoned him, but there seems to be no basis for this rumour; William of Tyre does not mention it. It is also said that he died after eating a poisoned apple. He died in Jerusalem after suffering from a prolonged illness. Hamza ibn Asad abu Yala ibn al-Qalanisi (c. ... Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aachen. ... Ekkehard of Aura (died 1126) was the Abbot of Aura (a monastery founded by Otto, Bishop of Bamberg, on the Franconian Saale river, near Bad Kissingen, Bavaria) from 1108. ... William of Tyre (c. ...


Godfrey in history and legend

According to William of Tyre, the later 12th-century chronicler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Godfrey was "tall of stature, not extremely so, but still taller than the average man. He was strong beyond compare, with solidly-built limbs and a stalwart chest. His features were pleasing, his beard and hair of medium blond."


Because he had been the first ruler in Jerusalem Godfrey of Bouillon was idealized in later accounts. He was depicted as the leader of the crusades, the king of Jerusalem, and the legislator who laid down the assizes of Jerusalem, and he was included among the ideal knights known as the Nine Worthies. In reality he was only one of several leaders of the crusade, which also included Raymond IV of Toulouse, Bohemund of Taranto, Robert of Flanders, Stephen of Blois and Baldwin of Boulogne to name a few, along with papal legate Adhémar of Montiel, Bishop of Le Puy. Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Godfrey's younger brother, became the first titled king when he succeeded Godfrey in 1100. The assizes were the result of a gradual development. The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... As Peter Edbury says, one group of sources from the Latin East that have long excited the attention of scholars are the legal treaties often known collectively, if somewhat misleadingly, as the Assises of Jerusalem. ... Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... Robert II of Flanders (c. ... Stephen II Henry (c. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ...


Godfrey's role in the crusade was described by Albert of Aix, the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum, and Raymond of Aguilers amongst others. In fictional literature, Godfrey was the hero of numerous French chansons de geste dealing with the crusade, the "Crusade cycle". This cycle connected his ancestors to the legend of the Knight of the Swan,[4] most famous today as the storyline of Wagner's opera Lohengrin. Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aachen. ... The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... Raymond of Aguilers (Raimundus de Aguilers or de Agiles) was a chronicler of the First Crusade (1096-1099). ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ... The story of the Knight of the Swan, or Swan Knight, is a medieval myth about a mysterious rescuer who comes in a swan-drawn boat to defend a damsel, his only condition being that he must never be asked his name. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig – February 13, 1883 in Venice) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his groundbreaking symphonic-operas (or music dramas). His compositions are notable for their continuous contrapuntal texture, rich harmonies and orchestration, and elaborate... In some German Arthurian literature, Lohengrin is the son of Parzival (Percival). ...


By William of Tyre's time later in the twelfth century, Godfrey was already a legend among the descendants of the original crusaders. Godfrey was believed to have possessed immense physical strength; it was said that in Cilicia he wrestled a bear and won, and that he once beheaded a camel with one blow of his sword. The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ...


Torquato Tasso made Godfrey the hero of his epic poem Gerusalemme Liberata. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) 1580) is a baroque epic poem by Torquato Tasso which tells the (largely fictionalized) story of the First Crusade in which Christians knights, lead by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to raise the siege of Jerusalem. ...


In The Divine Comedy Dante sees the spirit of Godfrey in the Heaven of Mars with the other "warriors of the faith." For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino...


Godfrey is depicted in Handel's first opera "Rinaldo" (1711) as Goffredo.


Since the mid-19th century, an equestrian statue of Godfrey of Bouillon has stood in the center of the Royal Square in Brussels, Belgium. The statue was made by Eugène Simonis, and inaugurated on August 24, 1848. The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Godfrey plays a key figure in the pseudohistorical theories put forth in the books The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail and The Da Vinci Code. Pseudohistory is a pejorative term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. ... Book cover of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail 2005 illustrated hardcover edition. ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ...


In 2005 he came in 17th place in the Walloon version of De Grootste Belg (the Greatest Belgian). Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... De Grootste Belg (The Greatest Belgian) is a currently ongoing vote conducted by Belgian TV broadcast Canvas, to determine who is the Greatest Belgian of all time. ...


Godfrey also plays a key role in the book The Iron Lance by Stephen R. Lawhead, and in an historical novel Godfrey de Bouillon, Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, by Tom Tozer. Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ...


References

  1. ^ Chibnall, Marjorie (1951). Select Documents of the English Lands of the Abbey of Bec. Camden (3rd Ser.) 73, pp. 25-26. 
  2. ^ Weis, Frederick Lewis, et al (2006). Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: Lineages from Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and other Historical Individuals. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., line 158a, no. 23 (pp. 152-154). ISBN 0-8063-1752-3. 
  3. ^ Jonathan Riley-Smith, "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 52 (1979), 83-86, and Alan V. Murray, "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem", Collegium Medievale 3 (1990), 163-78.
  4. ^ Holböck, Ferdinand; Michael J. Miller, translator (2002). Married Saints and Blesseds. Ignatius Press, p. 147. ISBN 0898708435. 

Sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Godefroy de Bouillon
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • William of Tyre
  • Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes, 1984.
  • Andressohn, John C. The Ancestry and Life of Godfrey of Bouillon, 1947.
  • Godfrey of Bouillon. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia article. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  • Godfrey of Bouillon. Internet Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusaders at Constantinople: Collected Accounts. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  • Holböck, Ferdinand; Michael J. Miller, translator (2002). Married Saints and Blesseds. Ignatius Press, p. 147. ISBN 0898708435. 
Preceded by
(none)
Defender of the Holy Sepulchre
10991100
Succeeded by
Baldwin I (as King of Jerusalem)
Preceded by
Conrad
Duke of Lower Lotharingia
10871096
Succeeded by
Henry of Limburg
Preceded by
Godfrey III
Lord of Bouillon
1076–1096
Succeeded by
sold to the Bishopric of Liège
Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... William of Tyre (c. ... New Advent is an online Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Conrad (12 February 1074 - 27 July 1101 was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. As such he was King of Germany from 1087 to 1098 and also King of Italy from 1093 to 1098. ... The Duchy of Lower Lotharingia encompassed part of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany west of the Rhine and a nothern part of France (east from the Schelde). ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Henry I (c. ... Godfrey IV, Duke of Lower Lotharingia, called Godfrey the Hunchback (died 26 February 1076), was a son of Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lotharingia. ... The Lordship of Bouillon was in the 10th and 11th century one of the core holdings of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty, and appears to have been their original patrimonial possession. ... Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Godfrey of Bouillon - definition of Godfrey of Bouillon in Encyclopedia (946 words)
Until the beginning of 1099 Godfrey was a minor figure in the crusade, with Baldwin, Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, and Tancred determining the course of events.
Godfrey was active in the siege of the city, and on July 15, 1099, he was one of the first to enter the city, which was the scene of a general massacre of Muslims and Jews.
Godfrey's role in the crusade was described by Albert of Aix, the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum, and Raymond of Aguilers.
Godfrey of Bouillon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1306 words)
Nevertheless, Godfrey of Bouillon fought for Henry both on the Elster and in the siege of Rome, and in 1082 was finally given the duchy of Lower Lotharingia.
Godfrey was the first to arrive at the siege of Nicaea, and was in the main contingent of the crusade after they split, possibly for faraging reasons, after Nicaea.
Godfrey was believed to have possessed immense physical strength; it was said that in Cilicia he wrestled a bear and won, and that he once beheaded a camel with one blow of his sword.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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