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Encyclopedia > Gnezdovo

Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Russian: Гнёздово) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. Types of settlements in Russia, Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states have certain peculiarities with respect to the English language traditions. ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia | Smolensk Oblast ...

Contents

Site

The archaeological site comprises a "citadel" (gorodische), formerly situated at the confluence of the Dnieper and Svinets Rivers, and a ring of ancient rural settlements (selitba) which occupy an area of 17.5 hectares, of which roughly 5,000 square metres had been excavated by the end of the 20th century. This makes the site one of the largest survivals of the Viking Age in Europe: only Hedeby covered a larger territory (24 hectares), with the sites of Birka (13 hectares), Dublin (12 hectares), Ribe (10 hectares), and Gdansk (1 hectare) trailing behind.[1] There are about 3,000 burial mounds, arranged in eight clusters of kurgans. Of these, about 1,300 mounds have been explored by Russian and Soviet archaeologists, starting in 1874. Confluence of Rhine and Mosel at Koblenz In geography, a confluence describes the point where two rivers meet and become one, usually when a tributary joins a more major river. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). ... European redirects here. ... Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10,000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Björkö around 1700, from Suecia antiqua et hodierna. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Ribe Cathedral in Ribe, Denmark. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1... Kurgan is a Türkic word for tumulus, burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, or a kurgan cenotaph. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


There is some disagreement among scholars as to which ethnic element predominated at Gnyozdovo. Although a Varangian presence is pronounced, nineteen mounds out of twenty contain ordinary burials of Krivich and Baltic men and women.[2] The burial rite is mostly cremation. The most numerous finds are household utensils and pottery. As a general observation, the Gnyozdovo tumuli have parallels with the "druzhina kurgans" of Chernigov, such as the Black Grave.[3] Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs or (more correct) Krivichi (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian ), one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ...


Finds

Seven hoards of Byzantine and Arabian coins and a Byzantine dish bearing an image of Simargl have shown that the local community carried on a prosperous trade along the Dnieper. The metal objects represented include hauberks (not typical for Scandinavian sites), helmets, battle-axes, Carolingian swords, and arrows. Among the more surprising discoveries were an early folding razor with a copper handle and a pivoted scissors, probably the earliest found in Eastern Europe. What Up. ... Semargl, Simargl, Semargl-Pereplut is a mythical creature in Slavic mythology. ... hauberk, Museum of Bayeux. ... Collection of Modern Safety Razors - Gillette Fusion Power, Gillette m3power, Mach3Turbo, Schick Quattro Chrome, Schick Quattro Power, Gillette Mach3, Gillette Sensor, Schick Xtreme3 System, Schick Xtreme SubZero, and Schick Xtreme3 Disposables A razor is an edge tool primarily used in shaving. ... Different types of scissors - sewing, kitchen, paper Scissors are a tool used for cutting thin material which requires little force. ...


The most unexpected discovery at Gnyozdovo was a Kerch amphora with the earliest inscription attested in the Old Russian language. The excavator has inferred that the word горушна (gorušna), inscribed on the pot in Cyrillic letters, designates mustard that was kept there.[4] This explanation has not been universally accepted and the inscription seems to be open to different interpretations.[5] The dating of the inscription to the mid-10th century[6] suggests a hitherto unsuspected popularity of the Cyrillic script in pre-Christian Rus.[7] Kerch (Russian: Керчь; Ukrainian: Керч; Old East Slavic: Корчев, Turkish and Crimean Tatar: Kerç) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transportation and tourist center of Ukraine. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... For the plant and spice of the same name, see the article on mustard. ...


Historical background

As Tatiana Jackson has observed, Norse sagas contain more detailed information about the Western Dvina (Norse: Dyna) than about any other river of Eastern Europe.[8] This fact highlights a great importance attached to the Dvina trade route by the Viking merchants-adventurers. The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (from Icelandic saga, plural sögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia...


Gnyozdovo is situated downstream from the Dvina–Dnieper portages, at a point where the Svinets and several small waterways empty into the Dnieper. Like Smolensk at a later period, Gnyozdovo flourished through trade along the Dnieper going south to Constantinople and north over portages to the Dvina and the Lovat, two rivers flowing to the Baltic Sea.[9] At the time of its establishment, the local citadel served a defensive function against possible attacks on the portages, where the Norse traders would be at their most vulnerable.[10] After internal tensions within Kievan Rus settled down, the site of Gnyozdovo "formed the critical exchange centre and refitting base on the route from the Baltic to the Black Sea".[11] For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Ловать Length 530 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 105 m³/s Area watershed  ? km² Origin Lake Lovatets Mouth Lake Ilmen Basin countries Belarus,Russia Lovat River (Russian: река́ Ло́вать) is a river in Pskov and Novgorod Oblasts of Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the...


The settlement declined in the early years of the 11th century, simultaneously with other Varangian trade stations in Eastern Europe. By the end of the century, Gnyozdovo's importance as a trade centre had been completely supplanted by nearby Smolensk. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Gnyozdovo and Smolensk

Scholars are not in agreement as to how Gnyozdovo is related to Smolensk (Norse: Smaleskja), situated at the confluence of the Dnieper and the Smolnya Rivers.


According to one point of view, Gnyozdovo was the functional and economic predecessor of modern Smolensk. Soviet archaeologists established that the earliest settlement on the site of Smolensk goes back to the early 11th century.[12] In other words, the emergence of Smolensk coincides with the decline of Gnyozdovo. The regional centre could have been moved from Gnyozdovo to Smolensk at some point following the Christianisation of Rus by Vladimir the Great.[13] Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ...


Another school of thought is represented by Petrukhin and Pushkina who maintain that Smolensk and Gnyozdovo peacefully coexisted throughout the 10th century.[14] According to this version, Gnyozdovo was a pogost of the ruling Kievan monarch which he used to levy tribute from the Krivichs. Since the knyaz's druzhina was composed primarily of the Norsemen, a substantial Varangian presence at Gnyozdovo seems to be well motivated. Concurrently, Smolensk was an urban centre of the Slavic (Krivich) population, where the regional veche was held. After Vladimir the Great established a local principality for his son, the administrative centre of the region and the seat of princely power was moved from Gnyozdovo to Smyadyn Castle near Smolensk.[15] As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ...


The dichotomy of a Slavic veche centre and a Varangian druzhina station has parallels in other areas of Rus: compare Novgorod and Holmsgard, Chernigov and Shestovitsa, Rostov and Sarskoye Gorodishche, Yaroslavl and Timeryovo. In later centuries, the ruling princes from the House of Rurik preferred to settle in a fortified castle at a distance from their capital: in Vyshgorod rather than Kiev, in Smyadyn rather than Smolensk, in Kideksha rather than Suzdal, in Bogolyubovo rather than Vladimir. A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... One of the excavators of Sarskoe was Nicholas Roerich. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, Muscovy and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Vyshhorod is a town in Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... St. ... Bogolyubovo (Russian: Боголюбово) is an urban type settlement in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located some 10 km northeast of Vladimir. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ...


Nomenclature

The place-name Gnyozdovo seems to be a late medieval derivation from the Slavic word for "nest". It is first recorded in the 17th-century documents. Historians disagree as to what was the earlier name of the settlement. Those who view Gnyozdovo as the antecedent of Smolensk, believe that the name of Smolensk originally applied to Gnyozdovo. According to them, Constantine VII referred to the site of Gnyozdovo when he mentioned the fortress of Smolensk in De Administrando Imperio. The Primary Chronicle records Smolensk even earlier, in connection with Askold and Dir's raid against Kiev in 867. Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (Constantinople, 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karvounopsina. ... De Administrando Imperio is the commonly used title of a scholarly work from ca. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Vasmer and other etymologists derive the name of Smolensk from the Smolnya River. If so, the original Slavic name for Gnyozdovo must have been different. Tatiana Jackson theorizes that it may have been derived from the name of the Svinets River, reconstructing it as Svinechsk (Свинеческъ). As the name of the river seems to be related to the Russian word for "swine" and ancient Gnyozdovo was situated on a promontory, Jackson identified this settlement with Sýrnes ("swine promontory" in Old Norse), one of seven or eight cities of Gardariki listed in the Norse geographical treatise of Hauksbók.[16] Max Vasmer (1886 – 1962) was a Russian-born German linguist who studied problems of etymology of Indo-European, Finno-Ugrian and Turkic languages and worked on history of Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, and Finno-Ugrian peoples in Eastern Europe. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... The Hauksbók is one of the few medieaval Norse manuscripts of which we know the author. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press, 2000. Page 90.
  2. ^ Авдусин Д.А. Гнездово и днепровский путь. // Новое в археологии. Moscow, 1972.
  3. ^ Сизов В.И. Курганы Смоленской губернии. // Материалы по археологии России, №28. Saint Petersburg, 1902.
  4. ^ The Great Soviet Encyclopaedia, 2nd ed. Article "Гнездовская надпись".
  5. ^ Roman Jakobson, Linda R. Waugh, Stephen Rudy. Contributions to Comparative Mythology. Walter de Gruyter, 1985. Page 333.
  6. ^ The latest coins found in the same burial go back to 295 AH, i.e. to 906/907 AD.
  7. ^ Of the three Runic inscriptions found in ancient Rus, only one, from Ladoga, predates the Gnyozdovo inscription.
  8. ^ Джаксон Т.Н. Austr i Gordum: древнерусские топонимы в древнескандинавских источниках. Moscow, 2001. Pages 71-72.
  9. ^ A Slavonic chronicle reports that an important portage existed between the Lovat River and the Dnieper.
  10. ^ Булкин В.А. Гнездовский могильник и курганные древности Смоленского Поднепровья. Leningrad, 1973.
  11. ^ A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures (ed. by Mogens Herman Hansen). Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2000. Page 265.
  12. ^ Авдусин Д.И. К вопросу о происхождении Смоленска и его первоначальной топографии. // Смоленску 1100 лет. Smolensk, 1967.
  13. ^ Булкин В.А., Лебедев Г.С. Гнездово и Бирка (к проблеме становления города). [Gnyozdovo and Birka]. // Культура средневековой Руси. Leningrad, 1974.
  14. ^ В. Я. Петрухин, Т. А. Пушкина. К предыстории древнерусского города. // История СССР, №4. Moscow-Leningrad, 1979. Pages 100-112.
  15. ^ This residence of the Smolensk princes is first recorded under year 1015 in the Life of Sts. Boris and Gleb, attributed to Nestor the Chronicler.
  16. ^ Джаксон Т.Н. Austr i Gordum: древнерусские топонимы в древнескандинавских источниках. Moscow, 2001. Pages 72-74.
Garðaríki
Volkhov-Volga trade route: Lyubsha | Aldeigja | Álaborg | Hólmgarðr | Sarskoe | Timerevo
Dvina-Dnieper trade route: Pallteskja | Gnezdovo | Chernigov | Kænugarðr
Other locations: Bjarmaland | Khortitsa | White Shores | Miklagarðr | Særkland
Varangians | Slavs | Merya | Bulgars | Khazars


Roman Osipovich Jakobson (October 11, 1896 - July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Gāhshomāri-ye Hejri; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ... Ловать Length 530 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 105 m³/s Area watershed  ? km² Origin Lake Lovatets Mouth Lake Ilmen Basin countries Belarus,Russia Lovat River (Russian: река́ Ло́вать) is a river in Pskov and Novgorod Oblasts of Russia. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... A medieval Russian icon of Boris and Gleb Boris and Gleb, Christian names Roman and David, were the first Russian saints. ... Mark Antokolski Nestor the Chronicler Nestor (c. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Nicholas Roerich. ... One of the excavators of Sarskoe was Nicholas Roerich. ... Timerevo (Russian: Тимерёво, Timeryovo) is an archaeological site near the village Bolshoe Timeryovo, seven kilometers southwest of Yaroslavl, which yielded the largest deposits of early medieval Arabic coins in Northern Europe. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Bjarmaland (a. ... Khortytsya view from space. ... Berezan Island is a small island in the Black Sea at the Dnieper-Buh estuary, 850m in length, 200–850m in width. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Varangians or Varyags (Russian: Варяги, Varyagi) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards and southwards, mainly from the present areas of Sweden and some from Denmark, though also from Norway Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of what later became Russia, reaching the Caspian... Countries inhabited by Slavs (dark green - East Slavs) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ...


 
 

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