FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
July 13, 40 - August 23, 93

A statue of Agricola erected at the Roman Baths at Bath in 1894
Place of birth Gallia Narbonensis
Place of death Gallia Narbonensis
Allegiance Roman Empire
Years of service AD 58-85
Rank Proconsul
Commands Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Gallia Aquitania
Britannia
Battles/wars Battle of Watling Street
Battle of Mons Graupius
Awards Ornamenta triumphalia

Gnaeus Julius Agricola (July 13, 40 - August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. His biography, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae, was the first published work of his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, and is the source for most of what is known about him.[1] is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: Sometimes the 93 is used as shorthand for the 1993. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 207 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (615 × 1777 pixel, file size: 918 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of the statue of Gnaeus Julius Agricola erected in 1894 at the Roman Baths, taken 22 March 2006 by Ostrich I, the creator of this... The Great Bath — the entire structure above the level of the pillar bases is a later reconstruction. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus sometime after 31 BC. It served in Spain, Illyricum, and Germany before participating in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Combatants Roman Empire Iceni, Trinovantes, and other British tribes Commanders Gaius Suetonius Paulinus Boudica † Strength About 10,000 to 12,000 Estimated at 200,000 to 400,000 Casualties At least 400 Recorded at over 150,000 The Battle of Watling Street took place in AD 61 between an alliance... The Battle of Mons Graupius took place in AD 83 or 84. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: Sometimes the 93 is used as shorthand for the 1993. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Agricola (full Latin title: De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae) is a book by the Roman historian Tacitus, written c. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Agricola was born in the colonia of Forum Julii, Gallia Narbonensis (modern southern France). Agricola’s parents were from families of the highest equestrian rank. Both of his grandfathers served as Imperial Governors. His father Julius Graecinus was a praetor and had become a member of the Roman senate in the year of his birth. Graecinus had become distinguished in his interest for philosophy. Between August 40-January 41, the Roman Emperor Caligula ordered his death because he refused to prosecute the Emperor's second cousin Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus. A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ... Roman ruins, aquaduct Fréjus is a coastal town and commune, in the Var département, in southern France. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus was a consul of the Roman Empire, born in 14. ...


His mother was Julia Procilla. The Roman historian Tacitus describes her as "a lady of singular virtue". Tacitus states that Procilla had a fond affection for her son. Agricola was educated in Massilia (Marseille), and showed what was considered an unhealthy interest in philosophy. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M...


Political career

He began his career in Roman public life as a military tribune, serving in Britain under Gaius Suetonius Paulinus from 58 to 62. He was probably attached to the Legio II Augusta, but was chosen to serve on Suetonius's staff[2] and thus almost certainly participated in the suppression of Boudica's uprising in 61. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, also spelled Paullinus, (flourished 1st century CE) was a Roman general. ... Legio II Augusta, or Second Augustan Legion, was a Roman legion, levied by Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, and still operative in Britannia in 4th century. ... Boudica and Her Daughters near Westminster Pier, London, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ...


Returning from Britain to Rome in 62, he married Domitia Decidiana, a woman of noble birth. Their first child was a son. Agricola was appointed to the quaestorship for 64, which he served in Asia under the corrupt proconsul Salvius Titianus. While he was there his daughter, Julia Agricola, was born, but his son died shortly afterwards. He was tribune of the plebs in 66 and praetor in 68, during which time he was ordered by Galba to take an inventory of the temple treasures. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Domitia Decidiana was a Roman woman that lived in the first century. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul who was an ex-consul, an honor granted only to Asia and the other rich province of Africa. ... Julia Agricola (born 64 AD) was a only daughter and youngest child to Roman General Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Domitia Decidiana, a lady of illustrious birth. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ...


In June of 68 the emperor Nero was deposed and committed suicide, and the period of civil war known as the year of four emperors began. Galba succeeded Nero, but was murdered in early 69 by Otho, who took the throne. Agricola's mother was murdered on her estate in Liguria by Otho's marauding fleet. Hearing of Vespasian's bid for the empire, Agricola immediately gave him his support. For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... Emperor Otho. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


After Vespasian had established himself as emperor, Agricola was appointed to the command of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, stationed in Britain, in place of Marcus Roscius Coelius, who had stirred up a mutiny against the governor, Marcus Vettius Bolanus. Britain had suffered revolt during the year of civil war, and Bolanus was a mild governor. Agricola reimposed discipline on the legion and helped to consolidate Roman rule. In 71 Bolanus was replaced by a more aggressive governor, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, and Agricola was able to display his talents as a commander in campaigns against the Brigantes. Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus sometime after 31 BC. It served in Spain, Illyricum, and Germany before participating in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century. ... Marcus Roscius Coelius (or Caelius) was a Roman military officer of the 1st century. ... Marcus Vettius Bolanus was a Roman soldier and politician. ... Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born around 30 AD) was a Roman general of the 1st century. ... The Brigantes were a British Celtic tribe which lived between Tyne and Humber. ...


When his command ended in 75, Agricola was enrolled as a patrician and appointed to govern Gallia Aquitania. In 77 he was recalled to Rome and appointed suffect consul, and betrothed his daughter to Tacitus. The following year Tacitus and Julia married; Agricola was appointed to the College of Pontiffs, and returned to Britain for a third time as its governor. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... The College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum (collegium in Latin means a board or committee rather than an educational institution) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ...


Governor of Britain

Arriving in mid-summer of 78, Agricola immediately moved against the Ordovices of north Wales, who had virtually destroyed the Roman cavalry stationed in their territory, and defeated them. He then moved north to the island of Mona (Anglesey), which had previously been reduced by Suetonius Paulinus in 61 but must have been regained by the Britons in the meantime, and forced its inhabitants to sue for peace. He established a good reputation as an administrator as well as a commander by reforming the widely corrupt corn levy. He introduced Romanising measures, encouraging communities to build towns on the Roman model and educating the sons of the native nobility in the Roman manner. The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...


He also expanded Roman rule north into Caledonia (modern Scotland). In the summer of 80 he pushed his armies to the estuary of the river Taus, virtually unchallenged, and established forts there. This is often interpreted as the Firth of Tay, but this would appear to be anomalous as it is further north than the Firths of Clyde and Forth, which Agricola did not reach until the following year. Others suggest the Taus was the Solway Firth.[3] This article is about the country. ... The Firth of Tay is a firth in Scotland between the regions of Fife and City of Dundee into to which Scotlands largest river in terms of flow, the River Tay empties. ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Map of Solway Firth. ...


Agricola in Ireland?

In 82 Agricola "crossed in the first ship" and defeated peoples unknown to the Romans until then. Tacitus, in Chapter 24 of Agricola,[4] does not tell us what body of water he crossed, although most scholars believe it was the Clyde or Forth, and some translators even add the name of their preferred river to the text; however, the rest of the chapter exclusively concerns Ireland. Agricola fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalls that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and a few auxiliaries. He had given refuge to an exiled Irish king whom he hoped he might use as the excuse for conquest. This conquest never happened, but some historians believe that the crossing referred to was in fact a small-scale exploratory or punitive expedition to Ireland.[5] The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ...


Irish legend provides a striking parallel. Tuathal Teachtmhar, a legendary High King, is said to have been exiled from Ireland as a boy, and to have returned from Britain at the head of an army to claim the throne. The traditional date of his return is 76-80, and archaeology has found Roman or Romano-British artefacts in several sites associated with Tuathal.[6]. Tuathal Teachtmhar was a legendary High King of Ireland, reputed to have ruled in the 1st or 2nd century. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For the magazine about archaeology, see Archaeology (magazine). ...


The conquest of Caledonia (Scotland)

The following year Agricola raised a fleet and encircled the tribes beyond the Forth, and the Caledonians rose in great numbers against him. They attacked the camp of the Legio IX Hispana at night, but Agricola sent in his cavalry and they were put to flight. The Romans responded by pushing further north. Another son was born to Agricola this year, but he died in his first year. // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... Legio IX Hispana was a Roman legion probably levied by Julius Caesar before 58 BC, for his Gallic wars. ...


In the summer of 84 Agricola faced the massed armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Tacitus estimates their numbers at more than 30,000.[7] Agricola put his auxiliaries in the front line, keeping the legions in reserve, and relied on close-quarters fighting to make the Caledonians' large/slashing swords useless. Even though the Caledonians routed and therefore lost this battle, two thirds of their army managed to escape and hide in the Scottish highlands or the "trackless wilds" as Tacitus calls them. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian's side and about 360 on the Roman side. Satisfied with his victory, Agricola extracted hostages from the Caledonian tribes and began to march his army south. He also instructed the prefect of the fleet to sail around the north coast, confirming for the first time that Britain was in fact an island. Calgacus was the Romanised name of the leader of the Caledonian Confederacy who fought the Roman army of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius in AD 83 or 84. ... The Battle of Mons Graupius took place in AD 83 or 84. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ...


Later years

Agricola was recalled from Britain in 85, after an unusually long tenure as governor. Tacitus claims that Domitian ordered his recall because Agricola's successes outshone the Emperor's own modest victories in Germany. The relationship between Agricola and the Emperor is unclear: on the one hand, Agricola was awarded triumphal decorations and a statue (the highest military honours apart from an actual triumph); on the other, Agricola never again held a civil or military post, in spite of his experience and renown. He was offered the governorship of the province of Africa, but declined it, whether due to ill health or (as Tacitus claims) the machinations of Domitian. In 93AD Agricola died on his family estates in Gallia Narbonensis aged fifty-three. A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


See also

// Northumberland, Englands most northerly county, is a land of historical extremes. ... The Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) is a series of textbooks published by Cambridge University Press, used to teach Latin to secondary school students. ...

References

  1. ^ Tacitus, Agricola; Dio Cassius (Roman History 66.20) and three inscriptions found in Britain (including the Verulamium Forum inscription) also make reference to Agricola.
  2. ^ Agricola 5
  3. ^ William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Vol 1 pp. 75-76
  4. ^ Agricola 24
  5. ^ Vittorio di Martino (2003), Roman Ireland, The Collins Press
  6. ^ R. B. Warner (1995), "Tuathal Techtmar: a myth or ancient literary evidence for a Roman invasion?", Emania 13
  7. ^ Tacitus, Agricola 29

Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... The Verulamium Forum Inscription (dated to the reign of Titus, 79–81) is one of the many Roman Inscriptions of Britain, but it is special as it is the only one that is at least partly legible. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Agricola
Preceded by
Sextus Julius Frontinus
Roman governors of Britain
AD 78–85
Succeeded by
Sallustius Lucullus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Agricola, Gnaeus Julius (1448 words)
Agricola was appointed to the quaestorship for all of 64
Agricola fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalls that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and a few auxiliaries.
The relationship between Agricola and the Emperor is unclear: On the one hand, Agricola was awarded triumphal decorations and a statue (the highest military honors apart from an actual triumph); on the other, Agricola never again held a civil or military post, in spite of his experience and renown.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola - LoveToKnow 1911 (343 words)
GNAEUS JULIUS AGRICOLA (A.D. 37-93), Roman statesman and general, father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, was born on the 13th of June A.D. 37 (according to others, 39) at Forum Julii (Frejus) in Gallia Narbonensis.
Although the legation of Britain lasted as a rule only three years, Agricola held the post for at least seven and succeeded in reconciling the inhabitants to Roman rule and inducing them to adopt the customs and civilization of their conquerors.
The Life of Agricola by his son-in-law Tacitus is practically a panegyric or funeral oration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m