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Encyclopedia > Glycosaminoglycan
Chondroitin sulfate
Chondroitin sulfate

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. They are synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi.This unit consists of an N-acetyl-hexosamine and a hexose or hexuronic acid, either or both of which may be sulfated. The combination of the sulfate group and the carboxylate groups of the uronic acid residues gives them a very high density of negative charge. Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine). They also vary in the geometry of the glycosidic linkage. This family of carbohydrates is essential or important for the life of vertebrates and an assortment of lower animals. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixel Image in higher resolution (977 × 422 pixel, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixel Image in higher resolution (977 × 422 pixel, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... The α-D form of glucuronic acid. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Galactosamine is a hexosamine based upon galactose. ... Chemical structure of α-D-glucosamine Glucosamine (C6H14NO5) is an amino sugar that is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. ...

GAGs form an important component of connective tissues. GAG chains may be covalently linked to a protein to form proteoglycans. Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ...

Examples of GAGs

Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan found in connective tissue. ... Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan (formerly called a mucopolysaccharide) found mostly in skin, but also in blood vessels, heart valves, tendons, and lungs. ... Keratan sulfate, also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans (structural carbohydrates) that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. ... Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan widely used as an injectable anticoagulant. ... Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ...

See also

The mucopolysaccharidoses are inborn errors of metabolism resulting from the deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes needed in glycosaminoglycan catabolism. ... A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is any of a class of large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) joined by a covalent bond. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Glycosaminoglycan-synthetic polymer conjugates - Patent 5510418 (10892 words)
The composition of claim 10, wherein the glycosaminoglycan is selected from the group consisting of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, dermatan sulfate, heparin, keratan sulfate, keratosulfate, chitin, chitosan 1, chitosan 2, and derivatives thereof, and mixtures of these glycosaminoglycans or their derivatives.
By varying the chemical linkage between the glycosaminoglycan and the synthetic polymer, it is possible to vary the effect with respect to the release of the cytokine or growth factor.
In accordance with one method, (1) the hydrophilic synthetic polymer is activated, (2) the glycosaminoglycan is subjected to chemical modification by deacetylation and/or desulfation, and (3) the activated synthetic polymer is reacted with the chemically modified glycosaminoglycan.
Proteoglycan and Glycosaminoglycan Structure Laboratory (144 words)
Research focuses on sequencing glycosaminoglycans using mass spectrometry and determining the domain structure and protein binding properties of these molecules.
esearch focuses on the functional implications of glycosaminoglycan structure and structural diversity.
Understanding of the molecular basis for glycosaminoglycan function entials the ability to rapidly correlate structure and protein binding activity.
  More results at FactBites »



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