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Encyclopedia > Glycoprotein
N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins.
N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1].

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. Basically, glycoprotein is a biomolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (an oligosaccharide). The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 676 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 798 pixels, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Glicoprotein (1999) by Kosi Gramatikoff user:kosigrim I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 676 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 798 pixels, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Glicoprotein (1999) by Kosi Gramatikoff user:kosigrim I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Glycans are polysaccharides. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Posttranslational modification is the chemical modification of a protein after its translation. ...


In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are often glycosylated.

Contents

N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation

There are two types of glycosylation:

  • In N-glycosylation (see on the right), the addition of sugar chains can happen at the amide nitrogen on the side chain of the asparagine.

Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... For other articles using the abbreviation or acronym asn see ASN. Asparagine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... Hydroxylysine is an amino acid, C6H14N2O3. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ...

Monosaccharides

The eight sugars contained in glycoproteins.
The eight sugars contained in glycoproteins.

Monosaccharides commonly found in eukaryotic glycoproteins include[2]: Image File history File links Glykoproteine_Zucker. ... Image File history File links Glykoproteine_Zucker. ...

The principal sugars found in human glycoproteins
Sugar Type Abbreviation
Galactose Hexose Gal
Glucose Hexose Glc
Mannose Hexose Man
N-Acetylneuraminic acid Sialic acid (nine C atoms) NeuAc
Fucose Deoxyhexose Fuc
N-Acetylgalactosamine Aminohexase GalNAc
N-Acetylglucosamine Aminohexase GlaNac
Xylose Pentose Xyl

The sugar group(s) can assist in protein folding or improve proteins' stability. Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... N-acetylneuraminic acid, a sialic acid Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a nine-carbon monosaccharide. ... Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a nine-carbon monosaccharide. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... fucose rhamnose Deoxy sugars are sugars that have had a hydroxyl group replaced with a hydrogen. ... ... N-Acetylglucosamine (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide derivative of glucose. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Protein before and after folding. ...


Examples

One example of glycoproteins found in the body are mucins, which are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The sugars attached to mucins give them considerable water-holding capacity and also make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes. Mucins are a family of large, heavily glycosylated proteins. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ...


Glycoproteins are important for immune cell recognition, especially in mammals. Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system are: White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

Other examples of glycoproteins include: Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. ... T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. ...

  • components of the zona pellucida, which surrounds the oocyte, and is important for sperm-egg interaction.
  • structural glycoproteins, which occur in connective tissue. These help bind together the fibers, cells, and ground substance of connective tissue. They may also help components of the tissue bind to inorganic substances, such as calcium in bone.

Soluble glycoproteins often show a high viscosity, for example, in egg white and blood plasma. The zona pellucida (or zona striata in older texts) is a glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Albumen redirects here. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


Hormones

Hormones that are glycoproteins include: For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is normally only produced in the foetus during its development. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ...

Functions

Some functions served by glycoproteins[3]
Function Glycoproteins
Structural molecule Collagens
Lubricant and protective agent Mucins
Transport molecule Transferrin, ceruloplasmin
Immunologic molecule Immunoglobins, histocompatibility antigens
Hormone Chorionoic gonadotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Enzyme Various, eg, alkaline phosphatase
Cell attachment-recognition site Various proteins involved in cell-cell (eg, sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and hormone cell interactions
Antifreeze Certain plasma proteins of coldwater fish
Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies
Receptor Various proteins involved in hormone and drug action
Affect folding of certain proteins Calnexin, calreticulin
Regulation of development Notch and its analogs, key proteins in development
Hemostasis (and thrombosis) Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets

Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Mucins are a family of large, heavily glycosylated proteins. ... Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. ... Ceruloplasmin Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin), officially known as ferroxidase or iron(II):oxygen oxidoreductase, is a copper transport protein found in the blood. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... A phosphatase is an enzyme that dephosphorylates its substrate; i. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). ... Lectins are a type of receptor proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with sugar molecules (carbohydrates) without modifying them. ... Selectins are a family of cell-surface adhesion molecules of leukocytes and endothelial cells. ... Look up Receptor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... a type of protein found in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ... Calreticulin is a protein that binds Ca2+ ions (a second messenger molecule in signal transduction), rendering it inactive. ... The Notch pathway is a gene regulatory pathway involved in multiple differentiation processes. ... Hemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

Analysis

A variety of methods used in detection, purification, and structural analysis of glycoproteins are[4]

Some important methods used to study glycoproteins
Method Use
Periodic acid-Schiff stain Detects glycoproteins as pink bands after electrophoretic separation.
Incubation of cultured cells with glycoproteins as radioactive bands Leads to detection of a radioactive sugar after electrophoretic separation.
Treatment with appropriate endo- or exoglycosidase or phospholipases Resultant shifts in electrophoretic migration help distinguish among proteins with N-glycan, O-glycan, or GPI linkages and also between high mannose and complex N-glycans.
Sepharose-lectin column chromatography To purify glycoproteins or glycopeptides that bind the particular lectin used.
Compositional analysis following acid hydrolysis Identifies sugars that the glycoprotein contains and their stoichiometry.
Mass spectrometry Provides information on molecular mass, composition, sequence, and sometimes branching of a glycan chain.
NMR spectroscopy To identify specific sugars, their sequence, linkages, and the anomeric nature of glycosidic chain.
Methylation (linkage) analysis To determine linkage between sugars.
Amino acid or cDNA sequencing Determination of amino acid sequence.

Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used in histology and pathology. ... For specific types of electrophoresis (for example, the process of administering medicine, iontophoresis), see electrophoresis (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... An Endoglycosidase is an enzyme that releases oligosaccharides from glycoproteins or glycolipids. ... A exoglycosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme which breaks the glycosidic bonds at the terminal residue. ... Phospholipase Cleavage Sites. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Sepharose is a tradename for a crosslinked, beaded-form of agarose (a polysaccharide polymer material extracted from seaweed). ... Lectins are a type of receptor proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with sugar molecules (carbohydrates) without modifying them. ... Column chromatography in chemistry is the preparative application of chromatography. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Methylation is a term used in the chemical sciences to denote the attachment or substitution of a methyl group on various substrates. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a mature mRNA template. ...

See also

Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ... Glycocalix is the envelope of the surface of an animal cell membrane. ... An HIV envelope glycoprotein that is anchored to the membrane through non-covalent bonds along with gp41, both coming from a cleaved protein, gp160. ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. ...

External links

  • Structure of Glycoprotein and Carbohydrate Chain - Home Page for Learning Environmental Chemistry
  • Biochemistry 5thE 11.3. Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins
  • Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology: A Web Tour SPECIAL WEB SUPPLEMENT Science 23 March 2001 Vol 291, Issue 5512, Pages 2263-2502
  • MeSH Glycoproteins

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glycoprotein definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (196 words)
Glycoprotein: A molecule that consists of a carbohydrate plus a protein.
For instance, in the immune system almost all of the key molecules involved in the immune response are glycoproteins.
A glycopeptide is similar in structure to a glycoprotein but has a shorter chain of amino acids.
Glycoprotein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (296 words)
Glycoproteins are often used in proteins that are at least in part located in extracellular space (that is, outside the cell).
One example of glycoproteins found in the body are mucins, which are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Glycoproteins are important for immune cell recognition, especially in mammals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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