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Encyclopedia > Glycogenolysis
Glucose-6-phosphate
Glucose-6-phosphate

Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. This derivative of glucose is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in glycolysis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x807, 20 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x807, 20 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x970, 58 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose-6-phosphate Sugar phosphates ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x970, 58 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose-6-phosphate Sugar phosphates ... Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Glucose 1-phosphate is a glucose molecule with a phosphate group on the 1-carbon. ... Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. ... For a printable version of the glycolysis pathway click here Note: the Glucose 6-phosphate in the pathway the first carbon (C1) should not have two Hydrogens attached. ...


The hormones glucagon and epinephrine stimulate glycogenolysis. Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ...

Contents

Function

Glycogenolysis transpires in the muscle and liver tissue, where glycogen is stored, as a hormonal response to epinephrine (e.g., adrenergic stimulation) and/or glucagon, a pancreatic peptide triggered by low blood glucose concentrations. Adrenaline redirects here. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ...

  • Liver (hepatic) cells can consume the glucose-6-phosphate in glycolysis, or remove the phosphate group using the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase and release the free glucose into the bloodstream for uptake by other cells.
  • Muscle cells will not release glucose, but instead use the glucose-6-phosphate in glycolysis.

The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... For a printable version of the glycolysis pathway click here Note: the Glucose 6-phosphate in the pathway the first carbon (C1) should not have two Hydrogens attached. ... Glucose 6-phosphatase is an enzyme in the glycogenolysis pathway that removes the phosphate from glucose 6-phosphate. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... For a printable version of the glycolysis pathway click here Note: the Glucose 6-phosphate in the pathway the first carbon (C1) should not have two Hydrogens attached. ...

Clinical significance

Parenteral (intravenous) administration of glucagon is a common human medical intervention in diabetic emergencies when sugar cannot be given orally. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Reaction

First step

The overall reaction for the 1st step is:


Glycogen (n residues) + Pi <-----> Glycogen (n-1 residues)+ G1P


Here, glycogen phosphorylase cleaves the bond at the 1 position by substitution of a phosphoryl group. It breaks down glucose polymer at α-1-4 linkages until 4 linked glucoses are left on the branch. (Furthermore, glycogen phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) can be used as a marker enzyme to determine glycogen breakdown. ) Glycogen phosphorylase is the enzyme necessary to break up glycogen into glucose subunits. ... Glycogen phosphorylase is the enzyme necessary to break up glycogen into glucose subunits. ...


Second step

The 2nd step involves the debranching enzyme that moves the remaining glucose units to another non-reducing end. This results in more glucose units available to glycogen phosphorylase (step 1) A debranching enzyme is a molecule that helps facilitate the breakdown of glycogen. ...


Third step

The 3rd and last stage converts G1P (glucose-1-phosphate) to G6P (glucose-6-phosphat) through the enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Phosphoglucomutase (EC 5. ...


External links

  • The chemical logic of glycogen degradation at ufp.pt
  • MeSH Glycogenolysis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glycogen Metabolism (2825 words)
In the case of muscle cells this is acutely apparent since the purpose in glycogenolysis in muscle cells is to generate substrate for glycolysis.
This means that theroretically glycogenolysis occurring in skeletal muscle could generate free glucose which could enter the blood stream.
This activity is crucial to the enhancement of glycogenolysis in muscle cells where muscle contraction is induced via acetylcholine stimulation at the neuromuscular junction.
A Novel Assay for Evaluating Glycogenolysis in Rat Adipocytes and the Inability of Insulin To Antagonize Glycogenolysis ... (361 words)
The extent of glycogenolysis is determined by the decrease in radioactivity in precipitated glycogen, which was quite substantial under experimental conditions facilitating glycogenolysis.
(c) Glycogenolysis (as opposed to lipolysis) is activated at concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone or isoproterenol 7-11-fold lower and at adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate concentrations 7-fold lower.
In conclusion, the assay allowed us to compare glycogenolysis to lipolysis within the same cell, and to find that the sensitivity to hormones and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate was about 1 order of magnitude higher for glycogenolysis than for lipolysis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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