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Encyclopedia > Glycine
Skeletal formula of glycine Ball-and-stick model of the glycine molecule Space-filling model of the glycine molecule

Glycine Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 459 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 631 pixel, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glycine ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 652 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 1012 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glycine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1005, 227 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glycine User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ...

Systematic (IUPAC) name
aminoethanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 56-40-6
PubChem         750
Chemical data
Formula C2H5NO2 
Mol. weight 75.07
Complete data

Glycine (Gly, G), also known as aminoethanoic acid, is a nonpolar amino acid. It is the simplest of the 20 standard (proteinogenic) amino acids: its side chain is a hydrogen atom. Because there is a second hydrogen atom at the α carbon, glycine is not optically active. IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  EINECS number 200-272-2 a  b  c  d  e  CID 750 from PubChem (Glycine) ... Species See text Glycine Willd. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... The twenty amino acids that are coded in the standard genetic code are called proteinogenic (protein building). ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non-superposable mirror images of each other. ...


Since glycine has no side chain, it can fit into many places where no other amino acid can. For example, only glycine can be the internal amino acid of a collagen helix. Glycine is the most fundamental "amino acid" that there is. All other amino acids are spin-out molecules of glycine. In collagen, the collagen helix is a major shape in quaternery structure. ...


Glycine is very evolutionarily conserved at certain positions in some proteins (for example, in cytochrome c, myoglobin, and hemoglobin), because mutations that change it to an amino acid with a larger side chain could break the protein's structure. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cytochrome c with heme c. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin. ...


Most proteins contain only small quantities of glycine. A notable exception is collagen, which is about one-third glycine. Tropocollagen triple helix. ...

Contents

Physiological function

Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem and retina. When glycine receptors are activated, Cl- enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Strychnine is an antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors. Glycine is a required co-agonist along with glutamate for NMDA receptors. In contrast to the inhibitory role of glycine in the spinal cord, this behaviour is facilitated at the (NMDA) glutaminergic receptors which are excitatory. The LD50 of glycine is 7930 mg/kg in rats (oral),[3] and it usually causes death by hyperexcitability. Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is commonly abbreviated to Impulses are transmitted from neuron to neuron by the release of a chemical transmitter across synaptic clefts from the synaptic vesicles along the axon to the postsynaptic receptors of another neuron. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... The biochemistry definition of agonist is a drug or other chemical that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiologic reaction typical of a naturally occurring substance. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Glycine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that cells of the body can synthesize sufficient amounts to meet physiological requirements.


Presence in the Interstellar Medium

In 1994 a team of astronomers from the University of Illinois, led by Lewis Snyder, claimed that they had found the glycine molecule in space. It turned out that, with further analysis, this claim could not be confirmed. Nine years later, in 2003, Yi-Jehng Kuan from National Taiwan Normal University and Steve Charnley claimed that they detected interstellar glycine toward three sources in the interstellar medium [1]. They claimed to have identified 27 spectral lines of glycine utilizing a radio telescope. According to computer simulations and lab-based experiments, glycine was probably formed when ices containing simple organic molecules were exposed to ultraviolet light [4]. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... National Taiwan Normal University (國立台灣師範大學) is a large university in downtown Taipei. ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... The noun spectrum (plural: spectra) has a variety of meanings. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of radio receiver used in astronomy. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


In October 2004, Snyder and collaborators reinvestigated the glycine claim in Kuan et al. (2003). In a rigorous attempt to confirm the detection, Snyder showed that glycine was not detected in any of the three claimed sources [2].


Should any glycine claim be substantiated, it does not prove that life exists outside the Earth, but certainly makes that possibility more plausible by showing that amino acids can be formed in the interstellar medium. The finding would also indirectly support the idea of panspermia, the theory that life was brought to Earth from space. As in Miller-Urey experiment, it should be noted that glycine is but the simplest of amino acids. Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Panspermia is the hypothesis that the seeds of life are in the Universe, that they may have delivered life to Earth, and that they may deliver or have delivered life to other habitable bodies; also the process of such delivery. ... The Miller-Urey experiment attempts to recreate the chemical conditions of the primitive Earth in the laboratory, and synthesized some of the building blocks of life. ...


References

  1. a  Kuan YJ, Charnley SB, Huang HC, et al. (2003) Interstellar glycine. ASTROPHYS J 593 (2): 848-867
  2. a  Snyder LE, Lovas FJ, Hollis JM, et al. (2005) A rigorous attempt to verify interstellar glycine. ASTROPHYS J 619 (2): 914-930
  3. a Safety (MSDS) data for glycine. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory Oxford University (2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  4. Dawson, R.M.C., Elliott, D.C., Elliott, W.H., and Jones, K.M., Data for Biochemical Research (3rd edition), pp. 1-31 (1986)
  5. a  www.newscientist.com

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ...

External links


v  d  e
Major Families of Biochemicals
Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides
Analogues of nucleic acids: The 20 Common Amino Acids Analogues of nucleic acids:
Alanine (dp) | Arginine (dp) | Asparagine (dp) | Aspartic acid (dp) | Cysteine (dp) | Glutamic acid (dp) | Glutamine (dp) | Glycine (dp) | Histidine (dp) | Isoleucine (dp) | Leucine (dp) | Lysine (dp) | Methionine (dp) | Phenylalanine (dp) | Proline (dp) | Serine (dp) | Threonine (dp) | Tryptophan (dp) | Tyrosine (dp) | Valine (dp)

[[zh:甘 Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid, strictly speaking, is a naturally-occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  206-418-1 EINECS for D-alanine a  200-273-8 EINECS for L-alanine a  PubChem 602 a  PubChem 5950 This... Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  EINECS number 205-866-5 ((-)-D-arginine hydrate) a  EINECS number 200-811-1 (for L-arginine) a  CID 71070 from PubChem... For other articles using the abbreviation or acronym asn see ASN. Asparagine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  CID 6267 from PubChem (L-asparagine) This article is maintained by WP:Chemicals (Talk)  WP:Drugs (Talk)  WP:Molecular and Cellular Biology... Aspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  CID 424 from PubChem — racemic a  CID 83887 from PubChem — (D-aspartic acid) a  CID 5960 from PubChem — (L-aspartic acid) a... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  [1] This article is maintained by WP:Chemicals (Talk)  WP:Drugs (Talk)  WP:Molecular and Cellular Biology (Talk)   Categories: ... Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  CID 23327 from PubChem (D-glutamic acid) a  CID 33032 from PubChem (L-glutamic acid) This article is maintained by WP:Chemicals... Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  CID 738 from PubChem (Gln) a  CID 145815 from PubChem (D) a  CID 5961 from PubChem (L) ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  EINECS number 200-272-2 a  b  c  d  e  CID 750 from PubChem (Glycine) ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  EINECS number 200-745-3 (D-histidine) a  EINECS number 206-513-8 (L-histidine) a  CID 71083 from PubChem (D-histidine) a  CID 6274 from PubChem (L-histidine) ... Isoleucine is one of the 20 natural amino acids, and is coded for in DNA. Its chemical composition is identical to that of leucine, but the arrangement of its atoms is slightly different, resulting in different properties. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  b  c  d  e  f  g  PubChem 6306 ... Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA. It is isomeric with isoleucine. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  b  c  d  e  PubChem 6106 Categories: | ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  EINECS number 200-294-2 (Lysine) a  CID 866 from PubChem (DL-Lysine) a  CID 5962 from PubChem (L-Lysine) Category: ... Methionine (Met, M. C5H11NO2S) is an essential nonpolar amino acid, and a lipotropic. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  63-68-3 EINECS for L-Methionine a  PubChem 876 a  PubChem 6137 Category: ... Phe redirects here. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  EINECS number 200-568-1 (phenylalanine) a  CID 994 from PubChem (phenylalanine) a  CID 71567 from PubChem (D-phenylalanine) a  CID 6140 from PubChem (L-phenylalanine) Category: ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  205-702-2 EINECS for Proline a  PubChem 6148988 a  PubChem 6137 Category: ... Serine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  200-274-3 EINECS for Serine a  PubChem 617 a  PubChem 5951 Category: ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  EINECS number 200-774-1 (Threonine) a  CID 69435 from PubChem (D-Threonine) a  CID 6288 from PubChem (L-Threonine) Category: ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  73-22-3 EINECS for Tryptophan a  PubChem 9060 a  PubChem 6305 Category: ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  200-460-4 EINECS for Tyrosine a  PubChem 71098 a  PubChem 1153 Category: ... Valine is one of the 20 natural amino acids, and is coded for in DNA. Nutritionally, valine is also an essential amino acid. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete a  200-773-6 EINECS for Valine a  PubChem 71563 a  PubChem 1182 Category: ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
glycine. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (0 words)
Glycine is the only one of these amino acids that is not optically active, i.e., it does not have
Nevertheless, in the free state glycine participates in several important reactions, including the biosynthesis of heme, an important constituent of hemoglobin, and the biosyntheses of serine (another amino acid), purines (constituents of genetic material), and glutathione (a coenzyme).
Glycine was the first amino acid to be isolated from a protein, in this case gelatin.
Glycine - Amino Acids (402 words)
Glycine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.
Glycine is also known to serve as a basic nitrogen source for the manufacture of many other amino acids and is useful in the synthesis of hemoglobin, glutathione, DNA and RNA.
Glycine is also used in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, which is very important in maintenance of proper red blood cell integrity and oxygen carrying capacity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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