Glycerol nucleic acid (GNA) is a chemical similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone". GNA is not known to occur naturally in existing life on Earth. Glycerol is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. This colorless, odorless, viscous liquid is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. ...
The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ...
DNA and RNA have a deoxyribose and ribose sugar backbone, respectively, whereas GNA's backbone is composed of repeating glycerol units linked by phosphodiester bonds. The glycerol molecule has just three carbon atoms and still shows Watson-Crick base pairing. Interestingly, the Watson-Crick base pairing is much more stable in GNA than its natural counterparts DNA and RNA as it requires a high temperature to melt a duplex of GNA. It is possibly the simplest of the nucleic acids, so making it a possible simple precursor to RNA. Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose â a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...
Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose â a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...
Diagram of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides A phosphodiester bond is a group of strong covalent bonds between the phosphorus atom in a phosphate group and two other molecules over two ester bonds. ...
General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ...
- Zhang Lilu, Peritz Adam, Meggers Eric (2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". J Am Chem Soc 127 (12): 4174-5. PMID 15783191.
- Meggers Laboratory
- Simpler than DNA - Chemical and engineering news
| Major Families of Biochemicals |
|Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides |
|Analogues of nucleic acids: ||Types of Nucleic Acids ||Analogues of nucleic acids: |
|Nucleobases: ||Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine) |
|Nucleosides: ||Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine |
|Nucleotides: ||monophosphates (AMP, UMP, GMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, UDP, GDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR) |
|Deoxynucleotides: ||monophosphates (dAMP, TMP, dGMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, TDP, dGDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, TTP, dGTP, dCTP) |
|Ribonucleic acids: ||RNA | mRNA | piRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | sgRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA | LNA |
|Deoxyribonucleic acids: ||DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC |
|Analogues of nucleic acids: ||GNA | PNA | TNA | morpholino |