FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Glycerol" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Glycerol
Glycerol
IUPAC name Propane-1,2,3-triol
Other names glycerin
glycerine
propane-1,2,3-triol
1,2,3-propanetriol
1,2,3-trihydroxypropane
glyceritol
glycyl alcohol
Identifiers
CAS number 56-81-5
SMILES OCC(O)CO
Properties
Molecular formula C3H5(OH)3
Molar mass 92.09382 g/mol
Density 1.261 g/cm³
Melting point

18 °C (64.4°F) Glycerine is a 1995 single by the rock band Bush from their debut album Sixteen Stone. ... Download high resolution version (1634x706, 4 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 444 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 610 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x773, 169 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glycerol ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

290 °C (554°F) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Viscosity 1.5 Pa·s
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Flash point 160 °C (closed cup)
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Glycerol is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. This colorless, odorless, viscous liquid is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Also commonly called glycerin or glycerine, it is a sugar alcohol, and is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. Glycerol has three hydrophilic alcoholic hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Its surface tension is 64.00 mN/m at 20 °C , and it has a temperature coefficient of -0.0598 mN/(m K). It is a central component of lipids. For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on glycerol. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption. ... Some common lipids. ...

Contents

Synthesis

Glycerol (3D model), showing the atoms and the lone electron pairs associated with the oxygen atoms (in pink)

Until recently, synthetic glycerol was mainly manufactured at an industrial scale from epichlorohydrin.[citation needed] Since glycerol forms the backbone of triglycerides, it is produced on saponification or transesterification. Soap-making and biodiesel production are respective examples. Glycerol is a 10% by-product of biodiesel manufacture (via the transesterification of vegetable oils). This has led to a glut of crude glycerol on the market, making the epichlorohydrin process no longer economical. File links The following pages link to this file: Glycerin Categories: Free use images | Compound images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Glycerin Categories: Free use images | Compound images ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ...




Applications

In foods and beverages, glycerol serves as humectant, solvent and sweetener, and may help preserve foods. It is also used as filler in low-fat food products (i.e., cookies), and as a thickening agent in liqueurs. Glycerol is also used as a sugar substitute. In this regard, it has approximately 27 calories per teaspoon and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. Although it has about the same food energy as table sugar, it does not raise blood sugar levels, nor does it feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavities. As a food additive, glycerol is also known as E number E422. A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... This article is about the food. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


In organic synthesis, glycerol is used as a readily available prochiral building block. Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Refers to an atom in a molecule (usually a carbon atom) that would become chiral if one of two identical substituents is replaced by a new ligand; i. ...


Feedstock

It is one of the major raw materials for the manufacture of polyols for flexible foams, and to a lesser extent rigid polyurethane foams. The name polyols refers to chemical compounds containing multiple hydroxyl groups. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


Glycerol is used to produce nitroglycerin, which is an essential ingredient of smokeless gunpowder and various munitions. Reliance on soap-making to supply co-product glycerine made it difficult to increase production to meet wartime demand. Hence, synthetic glycerin processes were national defense priorities in the days leading up to World War II. Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


Glycerol is also used to manufacture mono- and di-glycerides for use as emulsifiers, as well as polyglycerol esters going into shortenings and margarine. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ...


Pharmaceutical and personal care applications

Glycerol is used in in medical and pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant. It is found in cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, and soaps. Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM for short) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold remedies and cough syrups. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... For the Kate Nash song see Mouthwash (song) For the ska-punk band, see Mouthwash (band) Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. ... A section of Human Skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of a layer of tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ...


As a 10% solution, glycerol prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). It is also used as a substitute for ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. It is less extractive and is approximately 30% less able to be absorbed by the body. Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding glycerin to make glycerites.[1][2][3] Tinctures are the colours used to blazon coats of arms in heraldry. ... A glycerite is a fluid extract of an herb or other medicinal substance made with glycerin. ...


Used as a laxative when introduced into the rectum in suppository or liquid (enema) form; irritates the bowel and induces a hyperosmotic effect. Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... This 2qt (about 1. ... Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ...


Glycerol is a component of glycerol soap, which is made from denatured alcohol, glycerol, sodium castorate (from castor), sodium cocoate, sodium tallowate, sucrose, water, and parfum (fragrance). Sometimes one adds sodium laureth sulfate. This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily-irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties. It is possible to make glycerol soap at home. A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... Denatured alcohol is ethanol with added adulterants that make it useless for consumption as an intoxicating beverage by rendering it toxic or extremely distasteful to drink, but still useful for industrial processes or as a household chemical. ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ... Sodium cocoate is a generic name for the mixture of fatty acid salts (acid salts) of coconut oil that is used in soap making. ... Sodium tallowate or hydrogenated tallow is made from sodium hydroxide, water, and animal tallow See also sodium cocoate. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, a fixative, and alcohol used to give parts of the human body and sometimes other objects a long-lasting and pleasant smell. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Sodium laureth sulfate, or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ...


It is also used in de-/anti-icing fluids, as in vitrification of blood cells for storage in liquid nitrogen A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Labs Vitrification is a process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid which is free of any crystalline structure, either by the quick removal or addition of heat, or by mixing with an... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Potential uses

A great deal of research is being conducted to try to make value-added molecules from crude glycerol (typically containing 20 % water and residual esterification catalyst) obtained from biodiesel production, as an alternative to disposal by incineration. One such program to add value to this glut of glycerol is the UK-based initiative The Glycerol Challenge. Some potential uses for glycerol include the following: For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ...

Glycerine acetate is the ester produced from the esterification of glycerol with acetic acid. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... In organic chemistry, acrolein or propenal is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ...

Metabolism

Glycerol is a precursor for synthesis of triacylglycerols and of phospholipids in the liver and adipose tissue. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. The glycerol component can be converted to glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism. This article is about lipid molecules, for FAT see File Allocation Table. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


Before glycerol can enter the pathway of glycolysis or gluconeogenesis (depending on physiological conditions), it must be converted to their intermediate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in the following steps: The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (rupture). ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ...

Glycerol Glycerol kinase Glycerol-3-phosphate Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Triosephosphate isomerase Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
ATP ADP NAD+ NADH
+ H+
NADH
+ H+
NAD+

The enzyme glycerol kinase is present only in the liver. In adipose tissue, glycerol 3-phosphate is obtained from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glycerol 3-phosphate is a chemical intermediate in the glycolysis metabolic pathway. ... Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase converts glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. ... DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI), is an enzyme (EC 5. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... Download high resolution version (1634x706, 4 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 29 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Glycerol kinase is a phosphotransferase enzyme involved in lipolysis. ... DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase converts glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. ...


Danger of contamination with diethylene glycol

On May 4, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration advised all US makers of medicines to test all batches of glycerine for the toxic diethylene glycol.[10] This follows an occurrence of 100 fatal poisonings in Panama resulting from a Chinese factory deliberately falsifying records in order to export the cheaper diethylene glycol as the more expensive glycerol.[11] Glycerine and diethylene glycol are similar in appearance, smell, and taste. The US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed following the 1937 "Elixir Sulfanilamide" incident of poisoning caused by diethylene glycol contamination of medicine. “FDA” redirects here. ... Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound described by the structural formula HO-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH. It is a clear, hygroscopic, odorless liquid. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... The Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster was a mass poisoning in the United States in 1937. ...


See also

Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from biological oils or fats. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...

References

  1. ^ Walter S. Long. The Composition of Commercial Fruit Extracts Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-), Vol. 28, Jan. 14, 1916 - Jan. 13, 1917 (Jan. 14, 1916 - Jan. 13, 1917), pp. 157-161 doi:10.2307/3624347
  2. ^ David Winston www.herbaltherapeutics.com
  3. ^ http://www.newhope.com/nutritionsciencenews/NSN_backs/Apr_99/backtalk.cfm
  4. ^ J. A. Melero, R. vanGrieken, G. Morales and M. Paniagua (2007). "Acidic Mesoporous Silica for the Acetylation of Glycerol: Synthesis of Bioadditives to Petrol Fuel". Energy Fuels 21 (3): 1782-1791. doi:10.1021/ef060647q. 
  5. ^ Dow Chemical Company (15 Mar 2007). Dow Achieves Another Major Milestone in its Quest for Sustainable Chemistries. Press release.
  6. ^ L. Ott, M. Bicker and H. Vogel (2006). "The catalytic dehydration of glycerol in sub- and supercritical water: a new chemical process for acrolein production" 8 (2): 214-220. doi:10.1039/b506285c. 
  7. ^ Watanabe, M. et al (2007). "Acrolein synthesis from glycerol in hot-compressed water". Bioresource Technology 98: 1285-1290. 
  8. ^ S. S. Yazdani and R. Gonzalez (2007). "Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuels industry". Current Opinion in Biotechnology 18 (3): 213-219. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2007.05.002. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (27 Jun 2007). 
  9. ^ Dow Chemical Company (26 March 2007). Dow Epoxy Advances Glycerine-To-Epichlorohydrin and Liquid Epoxy Resins Projects by Choosing Shanghai Site. Press release.
  10. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA Advises Manufacturers to Test Glycerin for Possible Contamination." Released May 4, 2007. Last retrieved May 8, 2007.
  11. ^ WALT BOGDANICH and JAKE HOOKER. "From China to Panama, a Trail of Poisoned Medicine." New York Times. Published: May 6, 2007. Last retrieved May 8, 2007.

David Winston is an herbalist and ethnobotanist who, for the last 26 years has practiced herbal medicine in United States. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Current Opinion in Biotechnology [ISSN 0958-1669] is a review journal launched in 1990 and is one in a series of ten Current Opinion life-sciences journals published by Elsevier. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biofuels and Glycerol (569 words)
A global glut of glycerol is occurring as industrialised nations move to substitute fossil fuels with more sustainable alternatives.
During the manufacture of biodiesel via the transesterification of oils from plants such as rape, soya and palm, 100kg of glycerol (also known as glycerin) is produced for every 1 tonne biodiesel.
Glycerol (propane 1,2,3 triol) is a potentially valuable building block molecule.
Glycerol (1094 words)
This is known as glycerol hyperhydration, and glycerol is used by some athletes to improve thermoregulation and endurance during exercise or exposure to hot environments.
Glycerol not metabolized in the liver is transported to various tissues and undergoes metabolism.
Glycerol supplementation should be avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m