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Encyclopedia > Glycerin
Glycerol
Chemical name 1,2,3-propanetriol
Chemical formula C3H8O3
Molecular mass 92.09 g/mol
Melting point 18°C
Boiling point 290 °C
Density 1.261 g/cm3
Food energy 4.32 kcal/g
CAS number 56-81-5
HS number Crude Glycerol:1520.00.00
Pure Glycerol:2905.45.00
SMILES OCC(O)CO
Chemical structure of glycerol

Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. Glycerin is a sugar alcohol and has three hydrophilic alcoholic hydroxyl groups (-OH) that are responsible for its solubility in water. Glycerin is prochiral. Glycerin is used in glycerin soap, in cosmetics and creams, in foods, in chemistry, and in glycerin Fog machine mist. Glycerin is produced from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) by the enzyme glycerol three-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd p) in the mitochondrion of the eukaryotic cell during glycolysis.[1] IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally standardized system of names and numbers for classifying traded products developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO), an independent intergovernmental organization with over 160 member countries based in Brussels, Belgium. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Download high resolution version (1634x706, 4 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... In chemistry, alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn is bound to other hydrogen and/or carbon atoms. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... A girl in a swimming pool full of water Water (from the Old English word waeter; c. ... Refers to an atom in a molecule (usually a carbon atom) that would become chiral if one of two identical substituents is replaced by a new ligand; i. ... SOAP is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network, normally using HTTP. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... Closeup of a womans eye while wearing makeup Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of raw milk before homogenization. ... Multicolored chemicals are frequent hallmarks of chemistry. ... Fog Machine A fog machine is a device, used primarily in theatrical environments, which converts a water and glycol-based or glycerine-based fluid into a dense smoke-like vapor. ... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ... DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... Mitochondria structure : 1) Inner membrane 2) Outer membrane 3) Crista 4) Matrix In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ...

Contents


Glycerin and triglycerides

Glycerol (3D model), showing the atoms and the lone electron pairs associated with the oxygen atoms (in pink)
Enlarge
Glycerol (3D model), showing the atoms and the lone electron pairs associated with the oxygen atoms (in pink)

When referring to its function in living organisms, the term glycerol is preferred. Glycerol is an important component of triglycerides (i.e. fats and oils) and of phospholipids. Glycerol is a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats.(1) When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. The glycerol component can be converted to glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism. File links The following pages link to this file: Glycerin Categories: Free use images | Compound images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Glycerin Categories: Free use images | Compound images ... Triglycerides (also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides) are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide, is one of the most important carbohydrates. ...


A byproduct of saponification and transesterification to obtain biodiesel, this is produced by hydrolysis of three ester linkages and loss of three equivalents of fatty acid from fat or biological oil. Saponification is the hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of the acid. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... Biodiesel sample Biodiesel refers to any diesel-equivalent biofuel usually made of vegetable oils or animal fats. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... General formula of an ester of a carboxylic acid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Fats and oils are insoluble in water, because the OH groups of glycerin are replaced by ester groups. They are hydrophobic. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... A girl in a swimming pool full of water Water (from the Old English word waeter; c. ... General formula of an ester of a carboxylic acid. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ...


Glycerin and biodiesel

As a byproduct of biodiesel production, each of the OH sites in HO-CH2-CH(-OH)-CH2-OH is one of the three places where a fatty acid chain is broken off the triglyceride molecule. Biodiesel sample Biodiesel refers to any diesel-equivalent biofuel usually made of vegetable oils or animal fats. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Triglycerides (also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides) are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... In general, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its composition and chemical properties. ...


See: transesterification. In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ...


Purification

Like biodiesel by-product, the purification of the lower glycerin phase involves: neutralisation, separation of unreacted methanol, dilution with wash liquid stream coming from methylester washing, splitting of soaps and final concentration up to 80%. Partially refined glycerin can be delivered as such to specialized distillers. Biodiesel sample Biodiesel refers to any diesel-equivalent biofuel usually made of vegetable oils or animal fats. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react and produce salt and water. ... ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a very faint odor. ... Note: this page refers to dilution in the sense of trademark law. ...


Feedstock pre-treatment and upgrading of glycerin to pharmaceutical grade (>99.7%) can be optionally implemented within the biodiesel factory itself. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...


When used in food, care should be taken to use only pure vegetable glycerin that is specifically labeled for use in food. "External use only" warnings should be heeded. Vegetables in a market Vegie garden Venn diagram representing the relationship between fruits and vegetables For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


Applications

Drugs

  • Used in medical and pharmaceutical preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant. Also may be used to lower intracranial and intraocular pressures.
  • Laxative suppositories, cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants.

Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are completely separated by a lubricant film. ... A laxative is a preparation used for encouraging defecation, or the elimination of feces. ... Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM for short) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold remedies and cough syrups. ...

Personal care

Glycerin is a component of glycerin soap, which is made from denatured alcohol, glycerin, sodium castorate (from castor), sodium cocoate, sodium tallowate, sucrose, water and parfum (fragrance). Sometimes one adds sodium laureth sulfate. This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties.

When used as an emollient, glycerin should never be applied undiluted to the skin. The same powerful hygroscopic property that draws moisture out of the air to moisten the skin will draw moisture out of the skin if the glycerin is too concentrated. A minimum of two or three parts water should be added to one part glycerin. Emollients soften skin (and moisturisers add moisture). ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants used to reduce friction with the genitals or anus. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance of teeth. ... Antiseptic mouth rinse, often called mouthwash, is an oral hygiene product that claims to kill the germs that cause plaque, gingivitis, and bad breath. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... SOAP is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network, normally using HTTP. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... SOAP is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network, normally using HTTP. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... Denatured alcohol is ethanol with added adulterants that make it useless for consumption as an intoxicating beverage by rendering it toxic or extremely distasteful to drink, but still useful for industrial processes or as a household chemical. ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ... Sodium cocoate is a generic name for the mixture of fatty acid salts (acid salts) of coconut oil that is used in soap making. ... Sodium tallowate or hydrogenated tallow is made from sodium hydroxide, water, and animal tallow See also sodium cocoate. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, a fixative, and alcohol used to give parts of the human body and sometimes other objects a long-lasting and pleasant smell. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES, also SLS), is a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc. ... Diagram of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ...


Foods and beverages

Glycerin has approximately 27 food calories per teaspoon and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. Although it has about the same food energy as table sugar, it does not raise blood sugar levels, nor does it feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavities. Glycerin should not be consumed undiluted, as unhydrated glycerin will draw water from tissues, causing blistering in the mouth and gastric distress. As food additive, glycerin (glycerol) is also known as E number E422. A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... For other uses, see vanilla (disambiguation). ... A food coloring is any substance that is added to food to change its color. ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... A shelf filled with candies Candy is often used as a synonym for the more general term confectionery in North America, whereas the word has become archaic in most parts of the United Kingdom and survives today almost exclusively in the term candy floss. In some areas, notably Scotland, candy... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Various meats Meat, in its broadest modern definition, is all animal tissue intended to be used as food. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of various animals__most commonly cows but sometimes goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Margarine, as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter-substitutes. ... A chocolate chip cookie In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small, flat baked cake. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


Polyether polyols

  • One of the major raw materials for the manufacture of polyols for flexible foams, and to a lesser extent rigid polyurethane foams
  • Glycerin is the initiator to which propylene oxide/ethylene oxide is added

A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...

Alkyd resins (plastics) and cellophane

  • Used in surface coatings and paints
  • Used as a softener and plasticizer to impart flexibility, pliability and toughness
  • Uses include meat casings, collagen casings (medical applications)and nonmeat packaging
  • Plasticizer in cellophane.

Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose. ...

Absolute alcohol

Absolute alcohol or dehydrated alcohol is anhydrous pure ethanol, (C2H5OH) containing no more than one percent water. ... Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ...

Other applications

Use a mixture of one part glycerin to two parts water. Place the mixture in a flat pan, and totally submerge the leaves in a single layer in the liquid. You'll have to weigh them down to keep them submerged. In two to six days, they should have absorbed the liquid and be soft and pliable. Remove them from the pan and wipe off all the liquid with a soft cloth. Done correctly, the leaves will remain soft and pliable indefinitely.
  • Can be added to solutions of water and soap to increase that solution's ability to generate soap bubbles that will last a long time.
  • Use as antifreeze in cryogenic process.
  • Used in fog machine fluids
  • Used in hookah tobacco mixtures (called "ma'assel" or "shisha" tobacco), often along with molasses and/or honey.
  • Counteracts phenol burns

See also: oleochemicals. Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube, although this usually refers to personal lubricants) is a substance (usually a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Labs. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 2 , p Density 1. ... A water softener reduces calcium or magnesium concentration in hard water. ... Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... A soap bubble A soap bubble is a very thin film of soap water that forms a hollow shape with an iridescent surface. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... Fog Machine A fog machine is a device, used primarily in theatrical environments, which converts a water and glycol-based or glycerine-based fluid into a dense smoke-like vapor. ... Phenol, also known under the old name carbolic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from biological oils or fats. ...


External links

  • What is Glycerin?
  • Glossary for the Modern Soap Maker
  • Glycerin soap
  • Absolute alcohol using glycerin
  • Computational Chemistry Wiki

Sources


Glycerine is also the title of a single (albeit mispronounced) from the album Sixteen Stone by the band Bush. Sixteen Stone is a post-grunge album released by Bush in 1994 (see 1994 in music). ... Bush was a British post-grunge band formed in 1991. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glycerin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (984 words)
Glycerin is used in glycerin soap, in cosmetics and creams, in foods, in chemistry, and in glycerin Fog machine mist.
Glycerin is produced from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) by the enzyme glycerol three-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd p) in the mitochondrion of the eukaryotic cell during glycolysis.
Glycerin is a component of glycerin soap, which is made from denatured alcohol, glycerin, sodium castorate (from castor), sodium cocoate, sodium tallowate, sucrose, water and parfum (fragrance).
Acme-Hardesty Glycerine 99.5% Details (543 words)
Glycerine has many other uses, such as in antifreeze fluids for automatic sprinkler systems, defrosting for glass, de-icing, and in electrolytic fluids for making galvanized cloth and lightning arrestors.
Glycerine is found in cleansing materials such as soaps and synthetic detergents.
Glycerine is used in cough medicines and anesthetics, for ear treatments, and in bacteriological media.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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