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Encyclopedia > Gluten
Wheat - a prime source of gluten

Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i.e. non-living) proteins found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. It constitutes about 80% of the protein contained in wheat, and is a mixture of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten gives kneaded dough its elasticity, allowing leavening and contributing "chewiness" to baked products like bagels. The elasticity of gluten (whence its quality) is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights.[1][2] Photograph of a wheat field taken by Tarquin. ... Photograph of a wheat field taken by Tarquin. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Ergastic substances are non-protoplasm materials found in cells. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Gliadin is a glycoprotein, present in wheat and some other cereals, best known for its role, along with glutenin, in the formation of gluten. ... Glutenin (or glutenine) is a protein best known for its role, along with in gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter and intra molecule links. ... Kneading is a process in the making of bread, used to mix together the ingredients and add strength to the bread. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... In solid mechanics, elasticity is the property of materials which undergo reversible deformations under applied loads. ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... One Montreal-style bagel with mun (poppyseeds) and two with sesame seeds. ...

Contents

History

In 7th century China, vegetarian Buddhist monks, unwilling to give up the flavors and textures of Chinese cuisine, searched for ways to make a substantial vegetarian protein. After developing tofu, they continued trying to develop something with a firmer texture and a more satisfying chew. Many parts of China grew wheat, so they began by making a simple dough from wheat flour and water. While kneading the dough in a tub full of cold water, they noticed the starch extracted into the water; as they kneaded, more and more starch clouded the water. What finally remained was a chewy substance that was 70%-80% pure protein or "gluten".[3] For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tofu (the Japanese Romaji spelling), also called doufu (the Chinese Pinyin spelling often used in Chinese recipes) or bean curd (the literal translation), is a food of Chinese origin[1], made by coagulating soy milk, and then pressing the resulting curds into blocks. ...


Extraction

It is possible to extract gluten from the flour of wheat and other grains by washing out the starch. To do this, a simple dough of flour and water is rinsed with plain water and kneaded until the rinsing water remains clear and free from starch and bran. For chemical, non-food purposes, a saline solution provides better results. The remaining lump of dough should have a stringy, sticky texture reminiscent of chewing gum. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery which is designed to be chewed rather than swallowed. ...


Uses

Cooked gluten becomes firm to the bite and soaks up a certain amount of the surrounding broth and its taste. It is therefore commonly used in vegetarian cuisine, notably Buddhist cuisine and vegan cuisine, which in China has manifested into elaborate forms of faux-meats such as chicken, fish, pork, etc. (The Japanese variety is called seitan). Some consider it a convincing imitation meat (particularly duck) when the broth is flavored accordingly. Broth is a liquid in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered and strained out. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients. ... Buddhist cuisine is a kind of cuisine mainly for the believers of Buddhism. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... A piece of seitan Wheat gluten - also called seitan (pronounced SAY-tahn), wheat meat, wheat-meat, wheatmeat, gluten meat, or simply gluten - is a foodstuff made from the gluten of wheat. ... See Meat Analog. ...


In the process of baking with yeast, gluten is responsible for keeping the fermentation gases in the dough, allowing it to rise. After baking, the coagulated gluten ensures that the final product keeps its shape (although starch is also essential for structural integrity). Recently, gluten has also been implicated as being at least partially responsible for bread staling.[citation needed] Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (biochemistry). ... Irreversible egg protein denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high temperature (while cooking it) In biochemistry, denaturation is a structural change in biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, such that they are no longer in their native state, and their shape which allows for optimal activity. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ...


The development of gluten in baked goods affects the texture of the resulting product. More gluten development leads to chewier baked goods such as pizza dough and bagels, while less gluten development is desirable in more tender baked goods such as pie. There are several factors that affect the development of gluten in baked goods: A pizza with tomatoes, field mushrooms, and onions as toppings. ... Picture of a Bagel The bagel is a food traditionally made of yeasted wheat dough in the form of a ring which is boiled and then baked. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...

  • The amount of gluten-forming proteins in the wheat flour used (for instance, bread flour is high in these substances, while cake flour is low in them).
  • The amount of fat (shortening) in the product inhibits the formation of long gluten strands, so more shortening yields a more tender product.
  • Mixing is necessary to develop the gluten strands, so more mixing creates a chewier product.
  • Liquid is necessary to the development of the gluten, and more liquid generally is used in products where a chewier texture is desired. (see http://www.bakersassist.nl/processing5-2.htm).

As an example of a practical application, pie crust should be very tender, so a good pie crust uses low-gluten flour, lots of shortening, very little liquid, and is mixed only until combined. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ...


Gluten can be dried and milled into a flour, which, added to ordinary flour dough, makes for higher rising and increases the bread's structural strength and chewiness.[4]. Such doughs require extra kneading to rise to their full capacity, so a bread machine or food processor may be necessary to fully develop the gluten in high-gluten recipes.[5]


Gluten is used as a protein supplement, especially in low-carbohydrate baked goods, where it replaces flour. It is also added to many dog and cat foods to increase the protein content.[6]


Occurrence

Gluten is found in some cereals (e.g., wheat, rye, barley) and their end products. Wheat grown in countries with extreme weather conditions, such as Canada, tends to have a higher gluten content than wheat grown in countries where the winter is milder. Wheat flour with a high gluten content is called "strong" or "hard" flour, and is used for breads, whereas flour with a lower gluten content is called "soft" flour, and is used for cakes. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ...


Some varieties of wheat, including kamut and spelt, have low contents of gluten.[7] The gluten in spelt is more fragile than that found in ordinary wheat, so dough made with it collapses when overkneaded.[8] Many gluten sensitive people can tolerate these varieties, but those with coeliac disease should avoid all food containing wheat derivatives. Originally classified as Triticum turgidum var. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coeliac disease or celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals in all age groups after early infancy. ...


No gluten is contained in rice (even glutinous rice), wild rice, maize (corn), millets, sorghum, buckwheat, quinoa, or amaranth (the latter three being broad-leaf grains, and not true cereals). Oats and teff do not contain gluten, but are sometimes grown directly adjacent to, and/or milled on the same equipment as other grains that do contain gluten, and so are commonly contaminated. Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do contain avenin.[9] Avenin is a prolamine which is toxic to the intestinal submucosa in some individuals with coeliac disease.[10] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Pearl millet in the field The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ... Amarant redirects here. ... Orders See text. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... Prolamins are a group of globulin proteins found in grasses, most prominently the cereal crops such as wheat (gliadin), barley (secalin), rye (hordein) and oats (avenin). ... Avenin is the prolamin (protein high in proline and glutamine) found in oats. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In the gastrointestinal tract. ... Coeliac disease or celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals in all age groups after early infancy. ...


Non-cereals, including legumes such as soybeans, seeds such as sunflower seeds, and pseudocereals such as quinoa, contain no gluten. It is fairly common to call corn storage proteins "corn gluten", while corn contains prolamins, like wheat, it does not actually contain gluten [3]. | color = lightgreen | name = Soybean | image = Soybean. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... // “Grain” redirects here. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Prolamins are a group of globulin proteins found in grasses, most prominently the cereal crops such as wheat (gliadin), barley (secalin), rye (hordein) and oats (avenin). ...


Adverse Reactions

Approximately one in 133 individuals is sensitive to gluten. Celiac (or Coeliac) disease or Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy (GSE) is the predominant disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten. GSE is an abnormal immune reaction to digestive breakdown products of gliadin. Incurable, it damages the lining of the small intestine, which results in chronic malnutrition. Treatment requires a lifelong gluten-free diet and avoiding exposure to air-borne gluten-containing particles such as wheat flour. Gluten Allergy and Idiopathic Gluten Sensitivity are two other adverse reactions to gluten.[11] 4 different commercial forms of Triticeae cultivars. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. ... A gluten-free diet is a diet completely free of ingredients derived from gluten-containing cereals: wheat (including Kamut and spelt), barley, rye, and triticale. ...


Patients with gluten sensitivities other than GSE also benefit from a gluten-free diet and avoiding gluten inhalation. An example of gluten-related skin sensitivity is Dermatitis herpetiformis, an intensely itchy skin eruption, which is nearly always accompanied by coeliac disease. This dermatitis usually develops in young adults, more frequently in males, with people of North European ethnicity being especially susceptible to it.[12] Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) or Duhrings Disease, is a skin disorder often associated with celiac disease. ...


See also

Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a supplement to bulk out a meat dish. ... Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize. ...

References

  1. ^ [1] Edwards et al. (2003) Role of gluten and its components in determining durum semolina dough viscoelastic properties. Cereal chem. 80:755-763
  2. ^ [2] Tosi et al. (2005) Modification of the Low Molecular Weight (LMW) Glutenin Composition of Transgenic Durum Wheat: Effects on Glutenin Polymer Size and Gluten Functionality. Molecular Breeding 16:113-126
  3. ^ "http://iskconkl.wordpress.com/2006/11/22/hail-seitan/", Hail Seitan, IskonKL News, November 22, 2006
  4. ^ Amendola, J., Rees, N., & Lundberg, D. E. (2002). Understanding Baking
  5. ^ Echkardt, LW & Butts, DC. (1997). Rustic European Breads from your Bread Machine
  6. ^ "http://www.iwga.net/04_pet.htm",Pet Food, International Wheat Gluten Association
  7. ^ "http://newcrop.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/V3-156.html", Stallknecht, G.F., et al., Alternative wheat cereals as food grains, pp.156-170. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops. ASHS Press 1996)
  8. ^ Hughes, Helga ,The Spelt Cookbook (Avery Publishing, 1995) ISBN 0-89529-696-9
  9. ^ csaceliacs.org Use of oats
  10. ^ csaceliacs.org Information about oats
  11. ^ "http://www.uams.edu/celiac/review/GSE1.htm", Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy by David A. Nelsen, MD, MS
  12. ^ "http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/dermatitis_herpeti.html", Dermatologic Disease Database, American Osteopathic College of Dermatology

  Results from FactBites:
 
gluten: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1192 words)
Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley.
Gluten is responsible for the elasticity of kneaded dough, which allows it to be leavened, as well as the "chewiness" of baked products like bagels.
Wheat flour with a high gluten content is called "strong" flour, and is used for breads, whereas flour with a lower gluten content is called "soft" flour, and is used for cakes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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