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Encyclopedia > Glutamic acid
Chemical structure of Glutamic acid Chemical structure of the amino acid glutamate

Glutamic acid Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1587x1394, 28 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Amino acid Glutamic acid ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (739x724, 24 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Glutamic acid ...

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 56-86-0
PubChem         611
Chemical data
Formula C5H9NO4 
Mol. weight 147.13
SMILES N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Complete data

Glutamic acid (Glu, E), is the protonated form of glutamate (the anion). Glutamate is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the essential amino acids. IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Physical properties Hazard properties Flash point - N/A R/S statement R: N/A S: N/A RTECS number: N/A Chemical properties Pharmacological properties OrganicBox_complete References a  CID 23327 from PubChem (D-glutamic acid) a  CID 33032 from PubChem (L-glutamic acid) This article is maintained by WP:Chemicals... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The twenty amino acids that are coded in the standard genetic code are called proteinogenic (protein building). ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ...

Contents

Structure

As its name indicates, it is acidic, with a carboxylic acid component to its side chain. Generally either the amino group will be protonated or one or both of the carboxylic groups will be deprotonated. At neutral pH all three groups are ionized and the species has a charge of -1. The pKa value for Glutamic acid is 4.1. This means that at pH below this value it will be protonated (COOH) and at pH above this value it will be deprotonated (COO-) Acidity redirects here. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. ... In chemistry, a carboxyl group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl (-OH) group, typically written as -COOH: where R is a hydrogen or an organic group. ... Deprotonation is a chemistry term that refers to the removal of a proton (hydrogen ion H+) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


A three-letter designation for either Gln or Glu is Glx—this is often used in cases in which peptide sequencing reactions may convert glutamine to glutamate (or vice versa), leaving the original identity of the amino acid in doubt. The one-letter abbreviation is E for glutamic acid and Q for glutamine. Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ...


Synthesis

Natural

Reactants Products Enzymes
Glutamine + H2O Glu + NH3 GLS, GLS2
NAcGlu + H2O Glu + Acetate (unknown)
α-ketoglutarate + NADPH + NH4+ Glu + NADP+ + H2O GLUD1, GLUD2
α-ketoglutarate + α-amino acid Glu + α-oxo acid transaminase
1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD+ + H2O Glu + NADH ALDH4A1
N-formimino-L-glutamate + FH4 Glu + 5-formimino-FH4 FTCD

Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... Synthesis NAcGlu is synthesized from Glu and Ac-CoA by NAGS and hydrolyzed by a specific hydrolase. ... Ketoglutaric acid is used for either of two crystalline keto derivatives C5H6O5 of glutaric acid. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... Ketoglutaric acid is used for either of two crystalline keto derivatives C5H6O5 of glutaric acid. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... In biochemistry, a transaminase or an aminotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a type of reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid. ... Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is a glutamate precursor. ... Space-filling model of NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important coenzymes found in cells. ... Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) is an intermediate in the metabolism of histidine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ...

Function

In metabolism

Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel for other functional roles in the body. A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α-ketoacid, typically catalysed by a transaminase. The reaction can be generalised as such: A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Transamination is the reaction between an amino acid and an alpha-keto acid. ... In biochemistry, a transaminase or an aminotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a type of reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid. ...

R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid

A very common α-ketoacid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. When α-ketoglutarate undergoes transamination, it always results in glutamate being formed as the corresponding amino acid product. The resulting α-ketoacid product is often a useful one as well, which can contribute as fuel or as a substrate for further metabolism processes. Examples are as follows: Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part...

alanine + α-ketoglutarate pyruvate + glutamate
aspartate + α-ketoglutarate oxaloacetate + glutamate

Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle. Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Aspartic acid, also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway by which a 6-carbon glucose (Glc) molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part...


Glutamate also plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen. Glutamate undergoes deamination, an oxidative reaction catalysed by glutamate dehydrogenase, as follows: General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule. ... Glutamate dehydrogenase is an enzyme, present in mitochondria, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-Ketoglutarate, and vice versa. ...

glutamate + water + NAD+ → α-ketoglutarate + NADH + ammonia + H+

Ammonia (as ammonium) is then excreted predominantly as urea, synthesised in the liver. Transamination can thus be linked to deamination, effectively allowing nitrogen from the amine groups of amino acids to be removed, via glutamate as an intermediate, and finally excreted from the body in the form of urea. Space-filling model of NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important coenzymes found in cells. ... Space-filling model of NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important coenzymes found in cells. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


As a neurotransmitter

Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... A. Schematic of an electrophysiological recording of an action potential showing the various phases which occur as the wave passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Glutamate is a neurotransmitter in nerve cells which binds to all glutamate receptors located on neuron membranes, and is an example of a transmembrane receptor. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ...


Glutamate transporters[3] are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells. This process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, and is called excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of cell death include: Glutamate transporters exist in the membranes of neurons and glial cells to remove excess amounts of the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate from the synapse. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged and killed by glutamate and similar substances. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ...

  • Damage to mitochondria from excessively high intracellular Ca2+[4].
  • Glu/Ca2+-mediated promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes.

Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... The ischemic cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that take place in the brain after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply) (Arnold, 2003). ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... Thanks to the Grasspea Flour, an aquatint print by Goya showing the effects of Lathyrism Lathyrism or Neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of humans and domestic animals, caused by eating certain legumes of the genus Lathyrus. ...


Glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarisations around one second apart, and this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from a non-epileptic seizure. ... In neuroscience, depolarization refers to the event a neuron undergoes when its membrane potential grows more positive with respect to the extracellular solution. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ...


Experimental techniques to detect glutamate in intact cells include using a genetically-engineered nanosensor[2]. The sensor is a fusion of a glutamate-binding protein and two fluorescent proteins. When glutamate binds, the fluorescence of the sensor under ultraviolet light changes by resonance between the two fluorophores. Introduction of the nanosensor into cells enables optical detection of the glutamate concentration. Synthetic analogs of glutamic acid that can be activated by ultraviolet light have also been described[6]. This method of rapidly uncaging by photostimulation is useful for mapping the connections between neurons, and understanding synapse function. Nanosensors are a technology that may exist in the future. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Fluorescent proteins localize the guanosine 5-triphosphate hydrolase ARF in the Golgi apparatus of a living macrophage. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Photostimulation is the use of light to artificially activate biological compounds, cells, or even whole organisms. ...


In brain nonsynaptic glutamatergic signaling circuits

Extracellular glutamate in Drosophila brains has been found to regulate postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering, via a process involving receptor desensitization[7]. A gene expressed in glial cells actively transports glutamate into the extracellular space[7], while in the nucleus accumbens stimulating group II metabotropic glutamate receptors was found to reduce extracellular glutamate levels[8]. This raises the possibility that this extracellular glutamate plays an "endocrine-like" role as part of a larger homeostatic system. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means outside the cell. This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ...


GABA precursor

Glu also serves as the precursor for the synthesis of the inhibitory GABA in GABA-ergic neurons. This reaction is catalyzed by GAD, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is most abundant in cerebellum and pancreas. A protein precursor is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by posttranslational modification. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in GABAergic nerve endings. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ...


Stiff-man syndrome is a neurologic disorder caused by anti-GAD antibodies, leading to a decrease in GABA synthesis and therefore, impaired motor function such as muscle stiffness and spasm. Since the pancreas is also abundant for the enzyme GAD, a direct immunological destruction occurs in the pancreas and the patients will have diabetes mellitus. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) (or occasionally, stiff-man syndrome) is a rare neurologic disorder of unknown etiology. ...


Sources and absorption

Glutamic acid is present in a wide variety of foods and is responsible for one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste (umami), especially in its physiological form, the sodium salt of glutamate in a neutral pH. Ninety-five percent of the dietary glutamate is metabolized by intestinal cells in a first pass [5]. The basic tastes are the commonly recognized types of taste sensed by humans. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ...


Overall, glutamic acid is the single largest contributor to intestinal energy. As a source for umami, the sodium salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as a food additive to enhance the flavor of foods, although an identical effect can be achieved by mixing and cooking together different ingredients rich in this amino acid and other umami substances as well. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate, sodium glutamate, flavour enhancer 621, EU food additive code: E621, HS code: 29224220 (IUPAC name 2-aminopentanedioic acid. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ...


Another source of MSG is fruits, vegetables and nuts that have been sprayed with Auxigro. Auxigro is a growth enhancer that contains 30% glutamic acid. Auxigro is a chemical-based growth-enhancer that is currently approved by the EPA for spray on fruits, vegetables, and grains. ...


China-based Fufeng Group Limited is the largest producer of Glutamic Acid in the world, with capacity increasing to 300,000 tons at the end of 2006 from 180,000 tons during 2006, putting them at 25 - 30% of the chinese market. Meihua is the second largest Chinese producer. Together, the top five producers have roughly 50% share in China. Chinese demand is roughly 1.1 million tons per year, while global demand, including China, is 1.7 million tons per year.


Pharmacology

The drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamic acid non-competitively at the NMDA receptor. For the same reasons, sub-anaesthetic doses of Ketamine have strong dissociative and hallucinogenic effects. Glutamate does not easily pass the blood brain barrier, but: "glutamate flux from plasma into brain is mediated by a high affinity transport system at the Blood-Brain Barrier" [1]. It can also be converted into glutamine. Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a ligand that inhibits the function of an agonist and inverse agonist for a specific receptor. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine. ... Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...


Glutamate transport and supply are obvious targets for the treatment of epilepsy, therefore. In particular Glutamate Restriction Diets are now claiming success anecdotally, by limiting or eliminating intake of wheat, peanut, soy and bean.


High glutamate diets, that is, with brewer's yeast, have also been successful in treating schizophrenia. There is, however, no published data to this effect.


References

  1. Nelson DL and Cox MM. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4th edition.
  2. a  Image:Free_text.png Okumoto, S., et al. (2005). "Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A 102 (24): 8740-8745. PMID 15939876.  Free text
  3. a  Molecular pharmacology of glutamate transporters, EAATs and VGLUTs. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2004 Jul; 45(3):250-65. PubMed
  4. a  Delayed increase of Ca2+ influx elicited by glutamate: role in neuronal death. Mol Pharmacol. 1989 Jul;36(1):106-12; PubMed
  5. a  Image:Free_text.png Reeds, P.J., et al. (2000). "Intestinal glutamate metabolism". Journal of Nutrition 130 (4s): 978S-982S. PMID 10736365. . Free text
  6.   Image:Free_text.png Corrie, J.E., et al. (1993). "Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate". Journal of Physiology 465 (Jun): 1-8. PMID 7901400.  Free text
  7.   Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE (2007). "Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo". Journal of Neuroscience 27 (1): 111-123. PMID 17202478. 
  8.   Zheng Xi, Baker DA, Shen H, Carson DS, Kalivas PW (2002). "Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 300 (1): 162-171. PMID 11752112. 

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Alanine (dp) | Arginine (dp) | Asparagine (dp) | Aspartic acid (dp) | Cysteine (dp) | Glutamic acid (dp) | Glutamine (dp) | Glycine (dp) | Histidine (dp) | Isoleucine (dp) | Leucine (dp) | Lysine (dp) | Methionine (dp) | Phenylalanine (dp) | Proline (dp) | Serine (dp) | Threonine (dp) | Tryptophan (dp) | Tyrosine (dp) | Valine (dp)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glutamic Acid (436 words)
Glutamic acid is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.
Glutamic acid is interconverted to glutamine, which is known to be a very important amino acid in preventing ammonia intoxication, and is also a brain-active neurotransmitter substance.
Glutamate is one of the most important excitatory transmitters in the central nervous system in lower animals and may also be important in humans.
Nikon MicroscopyU Movie Gallery: Glutamic Acid (180 words)
First isolated in 1865, glutamic acid is an amino acid that functions as an important metabolic intermediate.
In animals, glutamic acid is a nonessential amino acid.
Glutamine is the monoamide of glutamic acid, and an abundant constituent of proteins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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