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Encyclopedia > Glucose
Glucose
IUPAC name 6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane
-2,3,4,5-tetrol OR (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,3,4,5-tetraol
Identifiers
CAS number 921-60-8 (L-glucose)
SMILES C(C1C(C(C(C(O1)O)O)O)O)O
Properties
Molecular formula C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.16 g mol−1
Density 1.54 g cm−3
Melting point

α-D-glucose: 146°C
β-D-glucose: 150°C Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x1148, 295 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Glucose User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The name comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), which means "sweet", plus the suffix "-ose" which denotes a carbohydrate. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Two stereoisomers of the aldohexose sugars are known as glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as dextrose (dextrose monohydrate), especially in the food industry. This article deals with the D-form of glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be metabolized by cells in the biochemical process known as glycolysis. Main article: stereochemistry Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... An aldohexose is a hexose with an aldehyde group on one end. ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (rupture). ...


Glucose is commonly available in the form of a white substance or as a solid crystal. It can also be commonly found as an aqueous solution. The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ...

Contents

Structure

Glucose (C6H12O6) contains six carbon atoms one of which is part of an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form (in equilibrium), the latter being the result of an covalent bond between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form a six-membered cyclic hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium, and at pH 7 the cyclic form is predominant. As the ring contains five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom, which resembles the structure of pyran, the cyclic form of glucose is also referred to as glucopyranose. In this ring, each carbon is linked to a hydroxyl side group with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a sixth carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH2OH group. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... An aldehyde. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a pyran is a six member aromatic heterocyclic ring with five carbons and one oxygen. ...


Isomers

Aldohexose sugars have 4 chiral centers giving 24 = 16 stereoisomers. These are split into two groups, L and D, with 8 sugars in each. Glucose is one of these sugars, and L and D-glucose are two of the stereoisomers. Only 7 of these are found in living organisms, of which D-glucose (Glu), D-galactose (Gal) and D-mannose (Man) are the most important. These eight isomers (including glucose itself) are all diastereoisomers in relation to each other and all belong to the D-series. An aldohexose is a hexose with an aldehyde group on one end. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Diastereomers are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers or mirror images of each other. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ...


An additional asymmetric center at C-1 (called the anomeric carbon atom) is created when glucose cyclizes and two ring structures, called anomers are formed — α-glucose and β-glucose. These anomers differ structurally with respect to the relative positioning of their hydroxyl group linked to C-1 and the group at C-6, which is termed the reference carbon. When D-glucose is drawn as a Haworth projection or in the standard chair conformation, the designation α means that the hydroxyl group attached to C-1 is positioned trans to the -CH2OH group at C-5, while β means it is cis. Another popular method of distinguishing α from β is by observing whether the C-1 hydroxyl is below or above the plane of the ring, respectively, but this method is an inaccurate definition and may fail if the glucose ring is drawn upside down or in an alternative chair conformation. The α and β forms interconvert over a timescale of hours in aqueous solution, to a final stable ratio of α:β 36:64[citation needed], in a process called mutarotation. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... A Haworth projection of the structure for α-D-glucopyranose A Haworth projection is a common way of representing the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple three-dimensional perspective. ... Mutarotation is the term given to the change in the specific rotation of plane polarized light, when it is passed through an aldohexose ( Monosaccharides with six carbon atoms and H-C=0 Group ). Mutarotation refers to the conversion of a pure anomer of a hemiacetal carbohydrate to an equilibrium mixture...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x1100, 33 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Fischer projection of D-glucose In chemistry (particularly organic chemistry and biochemistry), a Fischer projection is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x530, 33 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x747, 58 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 48 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x728, 162 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... armchair conformational isomerism of Cyclohexane. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x758, 188 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... This is a calotte model of cyclohexane. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 542 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1100 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1098, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ...

Rotamers

Within the cyclic form of glucose, rotation may occur around the O6-C6-C5-O5 torsion angle, termed the ω-angle, to form three rotamer conformations as shown in the diagram below. Referring to the orientations of the ω-angle and the O6-C6-C5-C4 angle the three stable staggered rotamer conformations are termed gauche-gauche (gg), gauche-trans (gt) and trans-gauche (tg). For methyl α-D-glucopyranose at equilibrium the ratio of molecules in each rotamer conformation is reported as 57:38:5 gg:gt:tg.[1] This tendency for the ω-angle to prefer to adopt a gauche conformation is attributed to the gauche effect. In stereochemistry, gauche interactions hinder bond rotation. ...

Rotamer conformations of α-D-glucopyranose
Rotamer conformations of α-D-glucopyranose

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 276 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 296 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 276 pixelsFull resolution (859 × 296 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Production

Natural

  1. Glucose is one of the products of photosynthesis in plants and some prokaryotes.
  2. In animals and fungi, glucose is the result of the breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis. In plants - the breakdown substrate is starch.
  3. In animals, glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.

The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... u fuck in ua ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...

Commercial

Glucose is produced commercially via the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Many crops can be used as the source of starch. Maize, rice, wheat, potato, cassava, arrowroot, and sago are all used in various parts of the world. In the United States, cornstarch (from maize) is used almost exclusively. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... “Yuca” redirects here. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ... Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ...


This enzymatic process has two stages. Over the course of 1-2 hours near 100 °C, these enzymes hydrolyze starch into smaller carbohydrates containing on average 5-10 glucose units each. Some variations on this process briefly heat the starch mixture to 130 °C or hotter one or more times. This heat treatment improves the solubility of starch in water, but deactivates the enzyme, and fresh enzyme must be added to the mixture after each heating.


In the second step, known as "saccharification", the partially hydrolyzed starch is completely hydrolyzed to glucose using the glucoamylase enzyme from the fungus Aspergillus niger. Typical reaction conditions are pH 4.0–4.5, 60 °C, and a carbohydrate concentration of 30–35% by weight. Under these conditions, starch can be converted to glucose at 96% yield after 1–4 days. Still higher yields can be obtained using more dilute solutions, but this approach requires larger reactors and processing a greater volume of water, and is not generally economical. The resulting glucose solution is then purified by filtration and concentrated in a multiple-effect evaporator. Solid D-glucose is then produced by repeated crystallizations. Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemical engineering, a multiple-effect evaporator is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat of steam to evaporate water. ... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ...

Function

We can speculate on the reasons why glucose, and not another monosaccharide such as fructose (Fru), is so widely used in evolution, the ecosystem, and metabolism. Glucose can form from formaldehyde under abiotic conditions, so it may well have been available to primitive biochemical systems. Probably more important to advanced life is the low tendency of glucose, by comparison to other hexose sugars, to non-specifically react with the amino groups of proteins. This reaction (glycation) reduces or destroys the function of many enzymes. The low rate of glycation is due to glucose's preference for the less reactive cyclic isomer. Nevertheless, many of the long-term complications of diabetes (e.g., blindness, kidney failure, and peripheral neuropathy) are probably due to the glycation of proteins or lipids. In contrast, enzyme-regulated addition of glucose to proteins by glycosylation is often essential to their function. The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ...


As an energy source

Glucose is an ubiquitous fuel in biology. It is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans. Use of glucose may be by either aerobic or anaerobic respiration (fermentation). Carbohydrates are the human body's key source of energy, through aerobic respiration, providing approximately 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) of food energy per gram. Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g. starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Through glycolysis and later in the reactions of the Citric acid cycle (TCAC), glucose is oxidized to eventually form CO2 and water, yielding energy, mostly in the form of ATP. The insulin reaction, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. A high fasting blood sugar level is an indication of prediabetic and diabetic conditions. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (food). ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (rupture). ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...


Glucose is a primary source of energy for the brain, and hence its availability influences psychological processes. When glucose is low, psychological processes requiring mental effort (e.g., self-control) are impaired.[2][3][4] For other uses, see Self control (disambiguation). ...


Glucose in glycolysis

α-D-Glucose Hexokinase α-D-Glucose-6-phosphate
  image:Glucose-6-phosphate_wpmp.png
ATP ADP
 
 
Compound C00031 at KEGG Pathway Database. Enzyme 2.7.1.1 at KEGG Pathway Database. Compound C00668 at KEGG Pathway Database. Reaction R01786 at KEGG Pathway Database.

Use of glucose as an energy source in cells is via aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Both of these start with the early steps of the glycolysis metabolic pathway. The first step of this is the phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase to prepare it for later breakdown to provide energy. A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates a six-carbon sugar, a hexose, to a hexose phosphate. ... Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. ... Image File history File links Glucose_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Glucose-6-phosphate_wpmp. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (rupture). ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule or the introduction of a phosphate group into an organic molecule. ... A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates a six-carbon sugar, a hexose, to a hexose phosphate. ...


The major reason for the immediate phosphorylation of glucose by a hexokinase is to prevent diffusion out of the cell. The phosphorylation adds a charged phosphate group so the glucose 6-phosphate cannot easily cross the cell membrane. Irreversible first steps of a metabolic pathway are common for regulatory purposes. A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates a six-carbon sugar, a hexose, to a hexose phosphate. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a phosphorylated glucose molecule on carbon 6. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As a precursor

Glucose is critical in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism. Also, in plants and most animals, it is a precursor for vitamin C (ascorbic acid) production. It is modified for use in these processes by the glycolysis pathway. In chemistry a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Some common lipids. ... In chemistry a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound. ... This article is about the nutrient. ...


Glucose is used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important substances. starch solution Starch, cellulose, and glycogen ("animal starch") are common glucose polymers (polysaccharides). Lactose, the predominant sugar in milk, is a glucose-galactose disaccharide. In sucrose, another important disaccharide, glucose is joined to fructose. These synthesis processes also rely on the phosphorylation of glucose through the first step of glycolysis. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ...


Sources and absorption

All major dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block, as in starch and glycogen, or together with another monosaccharide, as in sucrose and lactose. In the lumen of the duodenum and small intestine, the oligo- and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides by the pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases. Glucose is then transported across the apical membrane of the enterocytes by SLC5A1, and later across their basal membrane by SLC2A2 (ref). Some of the glucose goes directly toward fueling brain cells and erythrocytes, while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles, where it is stored as glycogen, and to fat cells, where it can be used to power reactions which synthesize some fats. Glycogen is the body's auxiliary energy source, tapped and converted back into glucose when there is need for energy. Enterocytes are epithelial cells of the superficial layer of the small and large bowel tissue. ... Sodium-glucose transport proteins are a family of glucose transporter found in the intestinal mucosa of the small intestine (SGLT1) and the proximal tubule of the nephron (SGLT2 and SGLT1). ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


See also


In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... HbA1c is shorthand for glycated hemoglobin A1c, a surrogate marker for blood glucose levels. ... 2,5-Dimethylfuran or DMF is a heterocyclic compound of the formula C6H8O. It is a derivative of furan. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Glycation is the result of a sugar-reducing molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonding to a protein or lipid molecule without the controlling action of an enzyme. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ...

 v  d  e 
Glycolysis Metabolic Pathway
Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
ATP ADP ATP ADP NAD+ + Pi NADH + H+
+ 2
NAD+ + Pi NADH + H+
1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoenolpyruvate Pyruvate Acetyl-CoA
ADP ATP H2O ADP ATP CoA + NAD+ NADH + H+ + CO2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ADP ATP H2O

The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (rupture). ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. ... Fructosephosphates are sugar phosphates based upon fructose. ... Fructosephosphates are sugar phosphates based upon fructose. ... DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... Image File history File links D-glucose_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Beta-D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Glycerone-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPG), also known as PGAP, is a 3-carbon organic molecule present in most, if not all, living organisms. ... Glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) or 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG). ... ... Name Phosphoenolpyruvate; Phosphoenolpyruvic acid; PEP Formula C3H5O6P Mass 167. ... Pyruvic acid (CH3COCO2H) is an alpha-keto acid which plays an important role in biochemical processes. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... Image File history File links 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links 3-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links 2-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Phosphoenolpyruvate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Pyruvate_wpmp. ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ... Image File history File links Acetyl_co-A_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NYYN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ...

References

  1. ^ Kirschner, K.N. Woods, R.J. (2001). "Solvent interactions determine carbohydrate conformation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98 (19): 10541-10545. PMID 11526221. 
  2. ^ Fairclough, S. H., & Houston, K. (2004). "A metabolic measure of mental effort.". Biological Psychology 66: 177-190. 
  3. ^ Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., Brewer, L.E., & Schmeichel, B.J. (2007). "Self-Control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92: 325-336. 
  4. ^ Gailliot, M.T., & Baumeister, R.F. (in press). "The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control.". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Glucose
  • EINECS number 200-075-1 (D-glucose)
  • EINECS number 213-068-3 (L-glucose)
  • CID 5793 from PubChem (D-glucose)
  • CID 206 from PubChem (L-glucose)
  • More on the chemistry and function of glucose in biology at EvoWiki
  • Computational Chemistry Wiki

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde An aldose is a monosaccharide (a certain type of sugar) containing one aldehyde group per molecule and having a chemical formula of the form CnH2nOn (n>=3). ... Fructose, an example of a ketose. ... Glucose in its alpha-D-glucopyranose form Pyranose is a collective term for carbohydrates which have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms. ... Cyclohexane conformation is a much studied topic in organic chemistry because of the complex interrelationship between the different conformers of cyclohexane and its derivatives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... Mutarotation is the term given to the change in the specific rotation of plane polarized light, when it is passed through an aldohexose ( Monosaccharides with six carbon atoms and H-C=0 Group ). Mutarotation refers to the conversion of a pure anomer of a hemiacetal carbohydrate to an equilibrium mixture... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Sedoheptulose is a keto-heptose - a simple sugar with 5 carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of L-arabinose The chemical structure of D-arabinofuranose Arabinose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Gulose is an aldohexose sugar. ... L-Idose is a 6 carbon monosaccharide(a hexose) It has an aldehyde group and is an aldose. ... Talose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Allose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Fischer projection of L-sorbose Sorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugars known as monosaccharides. ... Tagatose is a functional sweetener. ... D-Psicose (D-ribo-2-hexulose, C6H12O6) is an ultralow-energy monosaccharide sugar. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... Rhamnose is a naturally-occurring sugar. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a type of alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α, α-1, 1-glucoside bond between α-glucose units found extensively but not abundantly in nature. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Stachyose is an oligosaccharide (tetra-saccharide) consisting of two D-galactose units and one sucrose sequentially linked. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissue and the nervous system, normally attached to a protein core. ... The repeating disaccharide unit of hyaluronan Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan, formerly called a mucopolysaccharide, found mostly in skin, but also in blood vessels, heart valves, tendons, and lungs. ... Keratan sulfate, also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal amoeba infection, or amebiasis. ... Apramycin (also Nebramycin II) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glucose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1210 words)
The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal.
In animals, glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.
Some of glucose goes directly to fuel brain cells and erythrocytes, while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles, where it is stored as glycogen, and to fat cells, where it is stored as fat.
Glucose meter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1692 words)
A glucose meter (or glucometer) is a medical device for determining the approximate amount of glucose in a drop of blood obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet.
Glucose levels in plasma (one of the components of blood) are generally 10-15% higher than glucose measurements in whole blood (and even more after eating).
Besides glucose oxidase, the test kit containes a benzidine derivative, which is oxidized to a blue polymer by the hydrogen peroxide formed in the oxidation reaction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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