FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Glucagon" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Glucagon
Glucagon ball and stick model
Glucagon ball and stick model
A microscopic image stained for glucagon.
A microscopic image stained for glucagon.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. The polypeptide has a molecular weight of 3485 daltons and was discovered in 1923 by Kimball and Murlin. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x885, 23 KB)Glucagon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x885, 23 KB)Glucagon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (863x557, 1322 KB)From NIH. Uploaded by Brazucs. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (863x557, 1322 KB)From NIH. Uploaded by Brazucs. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, one of the central metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Its primary structure in humans is: NH2-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe- Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser- Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu- Met-Asn-Thr-COOH A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ...

Contents

History

In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied pancreatic extracts and found an additional substance with hyperglycemic properties.[1] Glucagon was sequenced in the late-1950s.[2] A more complete understanding of its role in physiology and disease was not established until the 1970s, when a specific radioimmunoassay was developed. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system that serves two major functions: exocrine (producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin). ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Radioimmunoassay is a scientific method used to test hormone levels in the blood without the need to use a bioassay. ...


Physiology

Production

The hormone is synthesized and secreted from alpha cells (α-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the endocrine portion of the pancreas. The alpha cells are located in the outer rim of the islet. Alpha cells are endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. ... The endocrine (i. ...


Regulatory mechanism

Increased secretion of glucagon is caused by:

Decreased secretion of glucagon (inhibition) is caused by: In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycæmia in the UK) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ... Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ...

Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ...

Function

Glucagon helps maintain the level of glucose in the blood by binding to glucagon receptors on hepatocytes, causing the liver to release glucose - stored in the form of glycogen - through a process known as glycogenolysis. As these stores become depleted, glucagon then encourages the liver to synthesize additional glucose by gluconeogenesis. This glucose is released into the bloodstream. Both of these mechanisms lead to glucose release by the liver, preventing the development of hypoglycemia. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa peptide that is activated by glucagon and is a member if the g-protein coupled family of receptors. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen (requiring removal of glucose unit from glycogen and addition of phosphate) thus producing glucose 1-phosphate, and subsequently reconfigured (C-1 -> C-6) to yield glucose 6-phosphate, a potent reaction intermediary leading to glucose available to the blood and brain, pyruvic acid (yet... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...

In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Pyruvic acid Acetoacetic acid Levulinic acid Keto acids are organic acids containing a ketone functional group and a carboxylic acid group. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...

Mechanism of action

Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor located in the plasma membrane. The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The subunits breakup under GTP hydrolysis and the alpha subunit specifically activates the next enzyme in the cascade, adenylate cyclase. The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa peptide that is activated by glucagon and is a member if the g-protein coupled family of receptors. ... Figure 1. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ... Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ...


Adenylate cyclase manufactures cAMP (cyclical AMP) which activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This enzyme in turn activates phosphorylase B kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates phosphorylase B. Phosphorylase B is the enzyme responsible for the release of glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen polymers. Camp may mean: Gatherings of people: Campsite Temporary settlement of a band of foragers. ... Glucose 1-phosphate is a glucose molecule with a phosphate group on the 1-carbon. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ...


Pathology

Abnormally-elevated levels of glucagon may be caused by pancreatic tumors such as glucagonoma, symptoms of which include necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), elevated amino acids and hyperglycemia. It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in up to a 1000-fold overproduction of the hormone glucagon. ... Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a classical symptom observed in patients with glucagonoma and is present in 80% of cases. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. ...


Uses

An injectable form of glucagon is essential first aid in cases of severe hypoglycemia, usually in a dose of 1 milligram. The glucagon is given by intramuscular injection, and quickly raises blood glucose levels. Glucagon can be administered IV at 0.25 - 0.5 unit. Hypoglycemia (hypoglycæmia in the UK) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ...


Anecdotal evidence suggests a benefit of higher doses of glucagon in the treatment of overdose with beta blockers; the likely mechanism of action is the increase of cAMP in the myocardium, effectively bypassing the inhibitory action of the β-adrenergic second messenger system.[3] Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ...


Media

Image File history File links Animation of a rotating glucagon structure. ... The Lake Palanskoye in northern Kamchatka was formed when a large landslide disrupted the drainage pattern, forming a natural dam. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a bitmap image format that is widely used on the World Wide Web, both for still images and for animations. ...

References in pop culture

In contemporary usage, parody is a form of satire that imitates another work of art in order to ridicule it. ... Weird Al Yankovic (album) Alfred Matthew Weird Al Yankovic (IPA pronunciation: ; born October 23, 1959) is an American musician, satirist, parodist, accordionist, and television producer. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system that serves two major functions: exocrine (producing pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin). ... Straight Outta Lynwood is the 12th album by Weird Al Yankovic. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... The endocrine (i. ...

References

  1. ^ Kimball C, Murlin J. Aqueous extracts of pancreas III. Some precipitation reactions of insulin. J Biol Chem 1923;58:337-348. PDF fulltext.
  2. ^ Bromer W, Winn L, Behrens O. The amino acid sequence of glucagon V. Location of amide groups, acid degradation studies and summary of sequential evidence. J Am Chem Soc 1957;79:2807-2810.
  3. ^ White CM. A review of potential cardiovascular uses of intravenous glucagon administration. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:442-7. PMID 10234590.

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     

BENSONEssie
21st August 2010
Following my own exploration, millions of people on our planet receive the mortgage loans from good creditors. So, there is a good possibility to get a secured loan in any country.

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m