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Encyclopedia > Glossopharyngeal nerve
Nerve: Glossopharyngeal nerve
Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. (Label for glossopharyngeal is at upper right.)
Latin nervus glossopharyngeus
Gray's subject #204 906
Innervates stylopharyngeus
From
To tympanic nerve
MeSH A08.800.800.120.290
Dorlands/Elsevier n_05/12565844

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve. Image File history File links Gray791. ... Grays FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (432x1000, 114 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vagus nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve Accessory nerve Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 16 Recurrent laryngeal nerve List of images in Grays Anatomy: IX. Neurology... Grays FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Grays Fig. ... The Tympanic Nerve (nerve of Jacobson) arises from the petrous ganglion, and ascends to the tympanic cavity through a small canal on the under surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ridge which separates the carotid canal from the jugular fossa. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Grays Fig. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The vagus nerve (or pneumogastric nerve) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...

Contents


Functions

There are a number of functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve:

The mechanism of the reflex arc Sensory neurons (or neurones) are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organisms environment into internal electrical motor reflex loops and several forms of involuntary behavior, including pain avoidance. ... Tongue The tongue is the large bundle of muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing. ... The Palatine tonsils. ... Pharynx is the part of the neck and throat just behind the mouth and nose. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... Motor nerves enable the brain to stimulate muscle contraction. ... Grays Fig. ...

Brainstem connections

The glossopharyngeal nerve, being mostly sensory, does not have a cranial nerve nucleus of its own. Instead it must project into many different structures in the brainstem: A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ...

The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ... Baroreceptors (or baroceptors) in the human body detect the pressure of blood flowing though them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... Lower motor neurons (LMNs) are the motoneurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles. ... The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The inferior salivatory nucleus is one of the components of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which stimulates secretion from the parotid gland. ... It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ...

Path

From the medulla oblongata, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus, and leaves the skull through the central part of the jugular foramen, in a separate sheath of the dura mater, lateral to and in front of the vagus and accessory nerves. The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The flocculus is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule; it is associated with the nodulus of the vermis; together, these two structures compose the vestibular part of the cerebellum. ... Behind the carotid canal is the jugular foramen, a large aperture, formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side, and may be subdivided into three compartments. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ...


In its passage through the jugular foramen, it grooves the lower border of the petrous part of the temporal bone; and, at its exit from the skull, passes forward between the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery; it descends in front of the latter vessel, and beneath the styloid process and the muscles connected with it, to the lower border of the Stylopharyngeus. Petrous portion can refer to: Petrous portion of the temporal bone Petrous portion of the internal carotid artery This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The temporal bones (os temporales) are situated at the sides and base of the skull. ... A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The external and internal jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... In anatomy, the styloid process is any sharp protrusion of a bone. ... The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...


It then curves forward, forming an arch on the side of the neck and lying upon the Stylopharyngeus and Constrictor pharyngis medius. The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Grays Fig. ...


Thence it passes under cover of the Hyoglossus, and is finally distributed to the palatine tonsil, the mucous membrane of the fauces and base of the tongue, and the mucous glands of the mouth. The Hyoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... The Palatine tonsils with the soft palate, uvula, and tongue visible. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The fauces (a Latin plural word for throat; the singular faux is rarely found), in anatomy, the hinder part of the mouth, which leads into the pharynx. ... Tongue The tongue is the large bundle of muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ...


Testing the glossopharyngeal nerve

The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve as it is responsible for the afferent limb of the reflex. Gag Reflex is a sketch comedy collective with ensembles near Chicago, Illinois and Austin, Texas. ...


External links

Major nerves (also see Peripheral nervous system)

Cranial nerves: I olfactory | II optic | III oculomotor | IV trochlear | V trigeminal | V1 ophthalmic (lacrimal, frontal, supratrochlear, supraorbital, nasociliary, ciliary ganglion) | V2 maxillary (sphenopalatine ganglion) | V3 mandibular (buccal - auriculotemporal - lingual - inferior alveolar - otic ganglion) | VI abducens | VII facial (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) | VIII vestibulocochlear (cochlear, vestibular) | IX glossopharyngeal | X vagus (recurrent laryngeal, Alderman's nerve) | XI accessory | XII hypoglossal NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... Grays Fig. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye away from the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Lacrimal Nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic. ... The Frontal Nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic, and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. ... The supratrochlear nerve, smaller than the Supraorbital nerve, passes above the pulley of the Obliquus superior, and gives off a descending filament, to join the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... The Lingual Nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... The sixth of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve is a motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle and therefore controls each eyes ability to abduct (move away from the midline). ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The chorda tympani are nerves of special sensation given off the facial nerve (VII) inside the skull. ... The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ... The vagus nerve (or pneumogastric nerve) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) which supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


Posterior spinal nerves: greater occipital The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. ...


C1-C4 - Cervical plexus: lesser occipital | greater auricular | lesser auricular | phrenic | ansa cervicalis The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral roots of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment near the neck. ... The lesser occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... The greater auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The lesser auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5). ... The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. ...


C5-C8, T1 - Brachial plexus: supraclavicular branches (dorsal scapular, suprascapular, long thoracic) | lateral cord (musculocutaneous, lateral antibrachial cutaneous, lateral head of median nerve) | medial cord (ulnar, medial head of median nerve, medial antibrachial cutaneous, medial brachial cutaneous) | posterior cord (axillary, radial) The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, specifically from spinal nerves C4 and C5. ... The Nervus suprascapularis (Suprascapular nerve) is a nerve of the plexus brachialis. ... Grays Fig. ... The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... The lateral antibrachial cutaneous nerve (branch of musculocutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) passes behind the cephalic vein, and divides, opposite the elbow-joint, into a volar and a dorsal branch. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... Grays Fig. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial Antibrachial Cutaneous Nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. ... The Medial Brachial Cutaneous Nerve (lesser internal cutaneous nerve; nerve of Wrisberg) is distributed to the skin on the ulnar side of the arm. ... The Posterior cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The axillary nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carriers nerve fibers from C5 and C6. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ...


T2-T11: intercostal The thoracic spinal nerves T3 through T12. ...


T12, L1-L5 - Lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric | ilioinguinal | genitofemoral | lateral femoral cutaneous | femoral | obturator Grays Fig. ... The Iliohypogastric Nerve arises from the first lumbar nerve. ... The Ilioinguinal Nerve, smaller than the Iliohypogastric nerve, arises with it from the first lumbar nerve. ... In human anatomy, the genitofemoral nerve originates from the upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal nerves. ... The Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (external cutaneous nerve) arises from the dorsal divisions of the second and third lumbar nerves. ... The Femoral Nerve supplies innervation the anterior portion of the leg. ... The Obturator Nerve arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. ...


S1-S4 - Sacral plexus: gluteal | posterior femoral cutaneous | tibial | sciatic | sural | common peroneal In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The Superior Gluteal Nerve () arises from the dorsal divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the Piriformis, accompanied by the superior gluteal vessels, and divides into a superior and an inferior branch. ... The Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (small sciatic nerve) is distributed to the skin of the perineum and posterior surface of the thigh and leg. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... The sural nerve (short saphenous nerve), formed by the junction of the medial sural cutaneous with the peroneal anastomotic branch, passes downward near the lateral margin of the tendo calcaneus, lying close to the small saphenous vein, to the interval between the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus. ... The Common peroneal nerve is a branch of the Sciatic nerve. ...


S2-S5 - Pudendal plexus: perforating cutaneous | pudendal | visceral | muscular | anococcygeal The pudendal plexus is not sharply marked off from the sacral plexus, and as a consequence some of the branches which spring from it may arise in conjunction with those of the sacral plexus. ... The Perforating Cutaneous Nerve usually arises from the posterior surface of the second and third sacral nerves. ... The pudendal nerve is responsible for orgasm, urination, and defecation in both sexes. ... The Visceral Branches arise from the third and fourth, and sometimes from the second, sacral nerves, and are distributed to the bladder and rectum and, in the female, to the vagina; they communicate with the pelvic plexuses of the sympathetic. ... The Muscular Branches are derived from the fourth sacral, and supply the Levator ani, Coccygeus, and Sphincter ani externus. ... Anococcygeal Nerves: The fifth sacral nerve receives a communicating filament from the fourth, and unites with the coccygeal nerve to form the coccygeal plexus. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossopharyngeal nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (416 words)
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves.
From the medulla oblongata, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus, and leaves the skull through the central part of the jugular foramen, in a separate sheath of the dura mater, lateral to and in front of the vagus and accessory nerves.
The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve as it is responsible for the afferent limb of the reflex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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