FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Glossopharyngeal
Nerve: Glossopharyngeal nerve
FIG. 793– Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Latin n. glossopharyngeus
Gray's subject #204
Innervates stylopharyngeus muscle
From
To
MeSH A08.800.800.120.290
Enlarge
Gray's FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ...


There are a number of functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve:

Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Many animals have longer and more flexible tongues than humans. ... The Palatine tonsils. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... A motor is a device that converts energy into mechanical power, and is often synonymous with engine. ... The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...

Brainstem connections

The glossopharyngeal nerve, being mostly sensory, does not have a nucleus of its own. Instead it must project into many different structures in the brainstem.


The Glossopharyngeal Nerve provides taste from the Posterior 1/3 of the tongue via the ("Solitary nucleus") or (Nucleus Solitarus). The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ...


Taste from the back of the tongue, and information from the carotid bodies enter the nucleus of tractus solitarius. Visceral pain goes to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear) and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the...


The neurons for the single muscle (stylopharyngeus) supplied by nerve IX are in the nucleus ambiguus. The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The nucleus ambiguus is a cranial nerve nucleus, located in the medulla oblongata, and handles the branchial motor functions of the ninth (glossopharyngeal) and tenth (vagus) cranial nerves. ...


Testing the glossopharyngeal nerve

The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve. The gag reflex is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat that prevents objects from entering the throat except as part of normal swallowing. ...


External links

Major nerves (also see Peripheral nervous system)

Cranial nerves: I olfactory | II optic | III oculomotor | IV trochlear | V trigeminal (V1 ophthalmic - supraorbital, V2 maxillary - sphenopalatine ganglion, V3 mandibular - auriculotemporal - buccal - inferior alveolar - otic ganglion) | VI abducens | VII facial (nervus intermedius) | VIII vestibulocochlear (cochlear, vestibular) | IX glossopharyngeal | X vagus (recurrent laryngeal, Alderman's nerve) | XI accessory | XII hypoglossal The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a major public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Nerves (yellow)    Nerves redirects here. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye towards the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear) and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... The sixth out of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve controls the lateral rectus muscle - this means that the action of this nerve controls each eyes ability to look laterally (away from the midline). ... Grays Fig. ... The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) which supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


Posterior spinal nerves: greater occipital The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. ...


C1-C4 - Cervical plexus: lesser occipital | greater auricular | lesser auricular | phrenic | ansa cervicalis The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral roots of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment near the neck. ... The lesser occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... The greater auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The lesser auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The phrenic nerve arises from spinal nerves C3, C4 and C5. ... The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. ...


C5-C8, T1 - Brachial plexus: supraclavicular branches (dorsal scapular, suprascapular, long thoracic) | lateral cord (musculocutaneous, lateral head of median nerve) | medial cord (ulnar, medial head of median nerve) | posterior cord (axillary, radial) The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, specifically from spinal nerves C4 and C5. ... The Nervus suprascapularis (Suprascapular nerve) is a nerve of the plexus brachialis. ... The long thoracic nerve supplies motor innervation to the serratus anterior muscle. ... The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The ulnar nerve is a nerve that in humans runs down the arm and forearm, and into the hand. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Posterior cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The axillary nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carriers nerve fibers from C5 and C6. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ...


T2-T11: intercostal The thoracic spinal nerves T3 through T12. ...


T12, L1-L5 - Lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric | ilioinguinal | genitofemoral | lateral femoral cutaneous | femoral | obturator Grays Fig. ... The Iliohypogastric Nerve arises from the first lumbar nerve. ... The Ilioinguinal Nerve, smaller than the Iliohypogastric nerve, arises with it from the first lumbar nerve. ... In human anatomy, the genitofemoral nerve originates from the upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal nerves. ... The Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (external cutaneous nerve) arises from the dorsal divisions of the second and third lumbar nerves. ... The femoral nerve supplies innervation to the anterior portion of the leg. ... The Obturator Nerve arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. ...


S1-S4 - Sacral plexus: gluteal | posterior femoral cutaneous | tibial | sciatic | common peroneal In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The Superior Gluteal Nerve () arises from the dorsal divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the Piriformis, accompanied by the superior gluteal vessels, and divides into a superior and an inferior branch. ... The Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (small sciatic nerve) is distributed to the skin of the perineum and posterior surface of the thigh and leg. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that runs down the lower limb. ... The Common peroneal nerve is a branch of the Sciatic nerve. ...


S2-S5 - Pudendal plexus: perforating cutaneous | pudendal | visceral | muscular | anococcygeal The pudendal plexus is not sharply marked off from the sacral plexus, and as a consequence some of the branches which spring from it may arise in conjunction with those of the sacral plexus. ... The Perforating Cutaneous Nerve usually arises from the posterior surface of the second and third sacral nerves. ... The pudendal nerve is responsible for orgasm, urination, and defecation in both sexes. ... The Visceral Branches arise from the third and fourth, and sometimes from the second, sacral nerves, and are distributed to the bladder and rectum and, in the female, to the vagina; they communicate with the pelvic plexuses of the sympathetic. ... The Muscular Branches are derived from the fourth sacral, and supply the Levator ani, Coccygeus, and Sphincter ani externus. ... Anococcygeal Nerves: The fifth sacral nerve receives a communicating filament from the fourth, and unites with the coccygeal nerve to form the coccygeal plexus. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
IX. Neurology. 5i. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (1031 words)
From the medulla oblongata, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes lateralward across the flocculus, and leaves the skull through the central part of the jugular foramen, in a separate sheath of the dura mater, lateral to and in front of the vagus and accessory nerves (Fig.
The branches to the vagus are two filaments which arise from the petrous ganglion, one passing to the auricular branch, and the other to the jugular ganglion, of the vagus.
—The branches of distribution of the glossopharyngeal are: the tympanic, carotid, pharyngeal, muscular, tonsillar, and lingual.
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL PAIN (1408 words)
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia was defined as a clinical entity by Harris in 1921.
The incidence of glossopharyngeal neuralgia is one-seventieth that of trigeminal neuralgia' The typical pain is a severe lancinating repetitive series of electric-like stabs in the region of the tonsil or posterior one-third of the tongue unilaterally.
Cardiac arrest occurring during an attack of glossopharyngeal neuralgia has been attributed to hypersensitivity of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus caused by repetitive afferent impulses from the pharynx.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m