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Encyclopedia > Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William III of England. It is sometimes called the Bloodless Revolution, but this is Anglocentric as it ignores the three major battles in Ireland and serious fighting in Scotland.[1] Even in England it was not completely bloodless, since there were two significant clashes between the two armies, plus anti-Catholic riots in several towns.[2] The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in the autumn of 1689,[3] and is an expression that is still used by the Westminster Parliament.[4] This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... John Hampden (March 21, 1653 – December 12, 1696), the second son of Richard Hampden, returned to England after residing for about two years in France, and joined himself to Lord William Russell and Algernon Sidney and the party opposed to the arbitrary government of Charles II. With Russell and Sidney... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


The Revolution is closely tied in with the events of the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe, and may be seen as the last successful invasion of England.[5] It can be argued that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: never again would the monarch hold absolute power, and the Bill of Rights became one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain. The deposition of the Roman Catholic James II ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England, and also led to limited toleration for nonconformist Protestants—it would be some time before they had full political rights. In the case of Catholics, however, it was disastrous both socially and politically. Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament for over 100 years after this. They were also denied commissions in the British army and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or marry a Catholic, thus ensuring the Protestant succession. Combatants  Denmark Dutch Republic, England,[3]  Holy Roman Empire,  Portugal Duchy of Savoy, Spain,  Sweden France, Jacobites Commanders William III, Prince Waldeck, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Lorraine , Elector of Bavaria, Prince of Baden Louis XIV, Duc de Luxembourg â€ , Duc de Villeroi, Duc de Lorge, Duc de Boufflers, Nicolas Catinat... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Papal Coat-of-Arms Westminster Cathedral The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... The history of the British Army spans three centuries and numerous European, colonial and world wars. ...

Contents

Background

James II
King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Duke of Normandy.

During his three-year reign, King James II became directly involved in the political battles in England between Catholicism and Protestantism on the one hand, and on the other, between the divine right of the Crown and the political rights of Parliament. James's greatest political problem was his Catholicism, which left him alienated from both parties in Parliament. The low church Whigs had failed in their attempt to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681, and James's supporters were the High Church Anglican Tories. When James inherited the throne in 1685, he had much support in the 'Loyal Parliament', which was composed mostly of Tories. James's attempt to relax the penal laws alienated his natural supporters, however, because the Tories viewed this as tantamount to disestablishment of the Church of England. Abandoning the Tories, James looked to form a 'King's party' as a counterweight to the Anglican Tories, so in 1687 James supported the policy of religious toleration and issued the Declaration of Indulgence. By allying himself with the Catholics, Dissenters and nonconformists, James hoped to build a coalition that would advance Catholic emancipation. Image File history File links James_II_of_England. ... Image File history File links James_II_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... For the Religioustolerance. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ...


In 1686, James coerced the Court of the King's Bench into deciding that the King could dispense with religious restrictions of the Test Acts. James ordered the removal of Henry Compton, the anti-Catholic Bishop of London, and dismissed the Protestant fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford and replaced them with Catholics. One of the ancient courts of England, the Kings Bench (or Queens Bench when the monarch is female) is now a division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. ... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced...


James also created a large standing army and employed Catholics in positions of power in the army. To his opponents in Parliament this seemed like a prelude to arbitrary rule, so James prorogued Parliament without gaining Parliament's consent. At this time, the English regiments of the army were encamped at Hounslow, near the capital. The army in Ireland was purged of Protestants who were replaced with Catholics, and by 1688 James had more than 34,000 men under arms in his three kingdoms. A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... , Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow. ...


In April 1688, James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence and ordered all clergymen to read it in their churches. When the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, and six other bishops (see the Seven Bishops) wrote to James asking him to reconsider his policies, they were arrested on charges of seditious libel, but at trial they were acquitted to the cheers of the London crowd. The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... William Sancroft (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk on January 30, 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634. ... The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. ... Sedition refers to a legal designation of non-overt conduct that is deemed by a legal authority as being acts of treason, and hence deserving of legal punishment. ...


Matters came to a head in 1688, when James fathered a son; until then, the throne would have passed to his daughter, Mary, a Protestant. The prospect of a Catholic dynasty in the British Isles was now likely. Some leaders of the Tory Party united with members of the opposition, Whigs and set out to solve the crisis. James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ...


Conspiracy

William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland, stadtholder of Guelders, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht and Overijssel.
William III
King of England, Scotland and Ireland, stadtholder of Guelders, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht and Overijssel.

In 1686, a group of conspirators met at Charborough House in Dorset to plan the overthrow of "the tyrant race of Stuarts". In June 1688, a further conspiracy was launched at Old Whittington, in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, to depose James and replace him with his daughter Mary and her husband, William Henry of Orange — both Protestants and both grandchildren of Charles I of England. Before the birth of James's son on June 10, Mary had been the heir to the throne and William was third in line[6]. James however had only wanted to treat them as possible heirs on condition that they accepted his pro-Catholic position, which they had been unwilling to do for fear that French influence would become too great. William was also stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic, then in the preliminary stages of joining the War of the Grand Alliance against France. He had already acquired the reputation of being the main champion in Europe of the Protestant cause against Catholicism and French absolutism. It is still a matter of controversy whether the initiative for the conspiracy was taken by the English or by the stadtholder and his wife. William had been trying to influence English politics for well over a year, letting Grand Pensionary Gaspar Fagel publish an open letter to the English people in November 1687 deploring the religious policy of James, which action had generally been interpreted as a covert bid for kingship. On December 18 the Duke of Norfolk warned James of a conspiracy on the side of his son-in-law. After his envoy Everhard van Weede Dijkvelt in April 1687 had approached the main Whig and Tory leaders William had maintained a close secret correspondence with them, using as a contact Frederik van Nassau. In it he had not committed himself to any definite action, but an understanding had been reached that if William should, for whatever reason, ascend, he would in accordance with his anti-absolutist reputation restrain the use of Royal power; in return William desired a full employment of English military resources against France. It has been suggested that the crisis caused by the prospect of a new Catholic heir made William decide to invade the next summer as early as November 1687 [7], but this is disputed. It is certain however that in April 1688, when France and England concluded a naval agreement that stipulated that the French would finance an English squadron in The Channel, he seriously began to prepare for a military intervention and seek political and financial support for such an undertaking. Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... Charborough House is located between Sturminster Newton and Bere Regis in Dorset. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... , Old Whittington is a village in Derbyshire 10 miles south-east of Sheffield and 2 miles north (and a suburb) of Chesterfield. ... This article is about the English town. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Combatants  Denmark Dutch Republic, England,[3]  Holy Roman Empire,  Portugal Duchy of Savoy, Spain,  Sweden France, Jacobites Commanders William III, Prince Waldeck, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Lorraine , Elector of Bavaria, Prince of Baden Louis XIV, Duc de Luxembourg â€ , Duc de Villeroi, Duc de Lorge, Duc de Boufflers, Nicolas Catinat... The Grand Pensionary (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. ... Gaspar Fagel, painted by Johannes Vollevens Gaspar Fagel (January 25, 1634, The Hague - December 15, 1688) was a Dutch statesman. ... An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk was a politician and soldier. ...


Planning for an invasion

William and Mary laid careful plans over a number of months for an invasion, which they hoped to execute in September. Their first concern was to avoid any impression of foreign conquest and they asked already in April for a formal invitation to be issued by a group of worthies. Only after the Prince of Wales had been born however the Immortal Seven, consisting of one bishop and six nobles, decided to comply, the letter reaching William on June 30. It should be emphasized that this was not an invitation to become king but to "save the Protestant religion" and that the "seven" were not fully aware this would probably lead to a war with France. Also William's confidant Hans Willem Bentinck launched a propaganda campaign in England, presenting William as really a true Stuart but one blessedly free from the, according to the pamphlets, usual Stuart vices of cryptocatholicism, absolutism and debauchery. Much of the later "spontaneous" support for William had been carefully organised by him and his agents. The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans Willem Bentinck by Hyacinthe Rigaud Hans William, Baron Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, KG, PC (20 July 1649-23 November 1709) was a Dutch and English nobleman who became in an early stage the favourite of stadtholder William Henry, Prince of Orange. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


In May, William sent an envoy, Johann von Görtz, to Vienna to secretly ensure the support of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I. Learning that William promised not to persecute the Catholics in England, the emperor approved, promising in turn to make peace with the Ottoman Empire to free his forces for a campaign in the West; on September 4 1688 he would join an alliance with the Republic against France. The Duke of Hanover, Ernest Augustus and the Elector of Saxony, John George III, assured William that they would remain neutral. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Army of Saxony John George III, Elector of Saxony (20 June 1647 - 12 September 1691) was born into the house of Wettin. ...


The next concern was to assemble a powerful invasion force — contrary to the wishes of the English conspirators, who predicted that a token force would be sufficient. William, financed by the city of Amsterdam after secret and difficult negotiations by Bentinck with the hesitant Amsterdam burgomasters during June, hired 400 transports; also Bentinck negotiated contracts for 13,616 German mercenaries from Brandenburg, Würtemberg, Hesse-Cassel and Celle, to man Dutch border fortresses in order to free an equal number of Dutch elite mercenary troops for use against England. Further financial support was obtained from the most disparate sources: the Jewish banker Francisco Lopes Suasso lent two million guilders; when asked what security he desired, Suasso anwered: "If you are victorious, you will surely repay me; if not, the loss is mine". Remarkably even Pope Innocent XI, an inveterate enemy of Louis XIV of France, provided a loan. Total costs were seven million guilders, four million of which would ultimately be paid for by a state loan. In the summer the Dutch navy was expanded with 9000 sailors on the pretext of fighting the Dunkirkers. For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgomeister, literally translated meaning master of the citizens) is the English form, rendering (often the Anglo-Saxon equivalent Mayor is substituted) various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate and/or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Württemberg, shown within the German Empire (1871–1918) Capital Stuttgart Language(s) Swabian German Religion Lutheran Government Monarchy King  - ca 1089–1122 (first count) Conrad I  - 1457–96     (first duke from 1495)   Eberhard I (V)  - 1797–1816     (first king from 1806)   Frederick I (III)  - 1891–1918     (last king, died... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip of Hesse and his eldest son Wilhelm IV inherited the northern portion and established his capital in Kassel. ... Celle is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Blessed Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 – August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... During the Dutch Revolt (1568 - 1648) the Dunkirkers or Dunkirk Privateers were privateers in the service of the Spanish Empire operating from the ports of the Flemish coast: Nieuwpoort, Ostend, and in particular Dunkirk. ...


In August, it became clear that William had surprisingly strong support within the English army, a situation brought about by James himself. In January 1688 he had forbidden any of his subjects to serve the Dutch and had demanded that the Republic dissolve its mercenary Scottish and English regiments. When this was refused, he asked that at least those willing would be released from their martial oath to be free to return to Britain. To this William consented as it would purify his army from Jacobite elements. In total 104 officers and 44 soldiers returned. The officers were enlisted within the British armies and so favoured that the established officer corps began to fear for its position. On August 14 Lord Churchill wrote to William: "I owe it to God and my country to put my honour into the hands of Your Highness". Nothing comparable happened within the Royal Navy however. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ...


Still, William had great trouble convincing the Dutch ruling elite, the regents, that such an expensive expedition was really necessary. Also he personally feared that the French might attack the Republic through Flanders, when its army was tied up in England. By early September he was on the brink of cancelling the entire expedition, when French policy played into his hand. On September 9 (Gregorian calendar)[8] the French envoy Jean Antoine de Mesmes handed two letters from the French king, who had known of the invasion plans since May, to the States-General of the Netherlands. In the first they were warned not to attack James. In the second they were urged not to interfere with the French policy in Germany. James hurriedly distanced himself from the first message, trying to convince the States that there was no secret Anglo-French alliance against them[9]. This however had precisely the opposite effect; many members became extremely suspicious.The second message proved that the main French effort was directed to the east, not the north, so there was no immediate danger of a French invasion for the Republic itself. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


From September 22, Louis XIV seized all Dutch ships present in French ports, seeming to prove that war with France was imminent, though Louis had meant it to be a mere warning. On September 26 the powerful city council of Amsterdam decided to officially support the invasion. On September 27 Louis crossed the Rhine into Germany and William began to move his army from the eastern borders to the coast. On September 29 the States of Holland gathering in secret session and fearing a French-English alliance, approved the operation, agreeing to make the English "useful to their friends and allies, and especially to this state". They accepted William's argument that a preventive strike was necessary to avoid a repeat of the events of 1672, when England and France had jointly attacked the Republic, "an attempt to bring this state to its ultimate ruin and subjugation, as soon as they find the occasion". The States ordered a Dutch fleet of 53 warships to escort the troop transports. This fleet was in fact commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and Vice-Admiral Philips van Almonde but in consideration for English sensitivities on October 6 placed under nominal command of Rear-Admiral Arthur Herbert, the very messenger who, disguised as a common sailor, had brought the invitation to William in The Hague. Though William was himself Admiral-General of the Republic he abstained from operational command, sailing conspicuously on the yacht Den Briel, accompanied by Lieutenant-Admiral Willem Bastiaensz Schepers, the Rotterdam shipping magnate who had organised the transport fleet. The States-General allowed the core regiments of the Dutch field army to participate under command of Marshall Frederick Schomberg. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The States of Holland and West Friesland were the representation of the three Estates (standen): Nobility, Clergy and Commons to the court of the Count of Holland. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest (Flushing, November 16, 1642–November 16, 1706) is a Dutch admiral from the 17th century. ... Philips van Almonde (29 december 1646 in Briel –January 6, 1711) was a Dutch Lieutenant Admiral, who served in his nation’s maritime conflicts of the 17th and early 18th centuries. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington (c. ... Hague redirects here. ... Friedrich Hermann (or Frédéric-Armand), 1st Duke of Schomberg (originally Schönberg) (December 1615 or January 1616—July 11, 1690), was both a marshal of France and an English general of all his Majestys Forces. Descended from an old family of the Palatinate, he was born at...


William's landing

The Dutch preparations, though carried out with great speed, could not remain secret. The English envoy Ignatius White, the Marquess d'Albeville, warned his country: an absolute conquest is intended under the specious and ordinary pretences of religion, liberty, property and a free Parliament…. Louis XIV threatened the Dutch with an immediate declaration of war, should they carry out their plans. Embarkations, started on September 22 (Gregorian calendar), had been completed on October 8 and the expedition was that day openly approved by the States of Holland; the same day James issued a proclamation to the English nation that it should prepare for a Dutch invasion to ward off conquest. On October 10 William issued the Declaration of The Hague, 60,000 copies of the English translation of which were distributed in England, in which he assured that his only aim was to maintain the Protestant religion, install a free parliament and investigate the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales. He would respect James's position. On October 14 he responded to the allegations by James in a second declaration, denying any intention to become king or conquer England. Whether he had any at that moment is still controversial. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The swiftness of the embarkations surprised all foreign observers. Louis had in fact delayed his threats against the Dutch until early September because he assumed it then would be too late in the season to set the expedition in motion anyway, if their reaction would be negative; typically such an enterprise would take at least some months. Being ready after the first week of October would normally have meant that the Dutch could have profited from the last spell of good weather, as the autumn storms tend to begin in the third week of that month. This year they came early however. For three weeks the invasion fleet was prevented by adverse southwesterly gales from departing from the naval port of Hellevoetsluis and Catholics all over the Netherlands and the British Isles held prayer sessions that this "popish wind" might endure, but late October it became the famous "Protestant Wind" by turning to the east, allowing a departure on October 28. It had originally been intended that the Dutch navy defeat the English first to free the way for the transport fleet but because it was now so late in the season and conditions onboard deteriorated rapidly, it was decided to sail in convoy. Hardly had the fleet reached open sea when the wind changed again to the southwest forcing most ships to return to port, becoming a favourable easterly only on November 9. First the fleet, reassembled on November 11, four times larger than the Spanish Armada and having, including sailors and supply train, about 60,000 men and 5,000 horses aboard, sailed north in the direction of Harwich where Bentinck had a landing site prepared. It was forced south however when the wind turned to the north and sailed in an enormous square formation, 25 ships deep, into the English Channel on November 13, saluting Dover Castle and Calais simultaneously to show off its size. The English navy positioned in the Thames estuary saw the Dutch pass twice but was unable to intercept, first because of the strong easterly wind, the second time due to an unfavourable tide. Landing with a large army in Torbay near Brixham, Devon on November 5 (Julian calendar (November 15 Gregorian calendar))[8], 1688, William was greeted with much show of popular support (this was Bentinck's alternative landing site), and some local men joined his army. His personal disembarkation was delayed somewhat to make it coincide with Bonfire Night, the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot.[10] On his banners read the proclamation: "The Liberties of England and the Protestant Religion I will maintain." Je maintiendrai ("I will maintain") is the motto of the House of Orange. William's army totalled approximately 15,000–18,000 on foot and 3,000 cavalry. It was composed mainly of 14,352 regular Dutch mercenary troops (many of them actually Scots, Scandinavians, Germans and Swiss), and about 5,000 English and Scottish volunteers with a substantial Huguenot element in the cavalry and Guards as well as 200 blacks from plantations in America.[11] Many of the mercenaries were Catholic.[12] On November 7 (November 17 Gregorian calendar), the wind turned southwest, preventing the pursuing English fleet commanded by George Legge from attacking the landing site. The French fleet was at the time concentrated in the Mediterranean, to assist a possible attack on the Papal State. Louis delayed his declaration of war until November 26 (Gregorian calendar), hoping at first that their involvement in a protracted English civil war would keep the Dutch from interfering with his German campaign. The Dutch call their fleet action the Glorieuze Overtocht, the "Glorious Crossing". Hellevoetsluis (population: 40,164 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... The phrase Protestant Wind has been used in more than one context, notably: The storm that lashed the Spanish Armada. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dover Castle is situated at Dover, Kent and has been described as the Key to England due to its defensive significance throughout history. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... Brixham (IPA: ) is a small town in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (from 1702 Orange-Nassau). ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Admiral George Legge (c. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


William considered his veteran army to be sufficient in size to defeat any forces (all rather inexperienced) James could throw against him, but it had been decided to avoid the hazards of battle and maintain a defensive attitude in the hope James's position might collapse by itself; thus he landed far away from James's army, expecting that his English allies would take the initiative in acting against James while he ensured his own protection against potential attacks. William was prepared to wait; he had paid his troops in advance for a three-month campaign. A slow advance had the added benefit of not over-extending the supply lines; the Dutch troops were under strict orders not even to forage, for fear that this would degenerate into plundering which would alienate the population. On November 9 William took Exeter after the magistrates had fled the city. From November 12, in the North, many nobles began to declare for William, as they had promised. However in the first weeks most people carefully avoided taking sides; as a whole the nation neither rallied behind its king, nor welcomed William, but passively awaited the outcome of events. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The collapse of James's regime

James refused a French offer to send an expeditionary force, fearing that it would cost him domestic support. He tried to bring the Tories to his side by making concessions but failed because he still refused to endorse the Test Act. His forward forces had gathered at Salisbury, and James went to join them on November 19 (Julian calendar) with his main force, having a total strength of about 19,000. Amid anti-Catholic rioting in London, it rapidly became apparent that the troops were not eager to fight, and the loyalty of many of James's commanders was doubtful; he had been informed of the conspiracy within the army as early as September but for unknown reasons had refused to arrest the officers involved. Some have argued however that, had James been more resolute, the army would have fought and fought well. [13]The first blood was shed at about this time in a skirmish at Wincanton, Somerset, where Royalist troops retreated after defeating a small party of scouts; the total body count on both sides came to about fifteen. In Salisbury, after hearing that some officers had deserted, among them Lord Cornbury, a worried James was overcome by a serious nose-bleed that he interpreted as an evil omen indicating that he should order his army to retreat, which the supreme army commander, the Earl of Feversham, also advised on the 23rd. The next day, Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, one of James's chief commanders, deserted to William. On the 26th, James's own daughter, Princess Anne, did the same. Both were serious losses. James returned to London that same day. The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wincanton is a town in south Somerset, southwest England. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon (28 November 1661 – 31 March 1723), styled Viscount Cornbury between 1674 and 1709, was Governor of New York and New Jersey between 1701 and 1708, and is perhaps best known for the claims of him cross-dressing while in office. ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham , (1641 - 19 April 1709), was a French nobleman who became Earl of Feversham in Stuart England. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ...


After Plymouth surrendered to him on November 18, William began to advance on the 21st. By the 24th, William's forces were at Salisbury; three days later they had reached Hungerford, where the following day they met with the King's Commissioners to negotiate. James offered free elections and a general amnesty for the rebels. In reality, by that point James was simply playing for time, having already decided to flee the country. He feared that his English enemies would insist on his execution and that William would give in to their demands. Convinced that his army was unreliable, he sent orders to disband it. December 10 saw the second engagement between the two sides with the Battle of Reading, a defeat for the King's men. In December there was anti-Catholic rioting in Bristol, Bury St. Edmunds, Hereford, York, Cambridge and Shropshire. On the 9th a Protestant mob stormed Dover Castle, where the Catholic Sir Edward Hales was Governor, and seized it. On December 8 William met at last with James's representatives; he agreed to James's proposals but also demanded that all Catholics would be immediately dismissed from state functions and that England would pay for the Dutch military expenses. He received no reply, however. This article is about the city in England. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Hungerford is a market town and civil parish in Berkshire, England, 10 miles (16 km) west of Newbury. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Reading in 1688 was the only substantial military action on mainland Britain during the Glorious Revolution. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dover Castle is situated at Dover, Kent and has been described as the Key to England due to its defensive significance throughout history. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the night of December 9-December 10, the Queen and the Prince of Wales fled for France. The next day saw James's attempt to escape, the king dropping The Great Seal in the Thames along the way. However, he was captured on December 11 by fishermen in Faversham opposite Sheerness, the town on the Isle of Sheppey. On the same day, 27 Lords Spiritual and Temporal, forming a provisional government, decided to ask William to restore order but at the same time asked the king to return to London to reach an agreement with his son-in-law. On the night of the 11th there were riots and lootings of the houses of Catholics and several foreign embassies of Catholic countries in London. The following night a mass panic gripped London during what was later termed the Irish Night. False rumours of an impending Irish army attack on London circulated in the capital, and a mob of over 100,000 assembled, ready to defend the city. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Faversham is a town in Kent, England, in the district of Swale, roughly halfway between Sittingbourne and Canterbury. ... , Sheerness is a town located beside the mouth of the River Medway on the northwest corner of the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, England. ... View towards Minster from Elmley Marshes The Isle of Sheppey is a small (36 square miles, 94 km²) island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some 38 miles (62km) to the east of central London. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ... The Irish Night was a name given by Londoners to describe the period of hysteria in that city after James II fled from there in the Revolution of 1688. ...


Upon returning to London on the 16th, James was welcomed by cheering crowds. He took heart at this and attempted to recommence government, even presiding over a meeting of the Privy Council. He sent Lord Feversham to William to arrange for a personal meeting to continue negotiations. Now for the first time it became evident that William had no longer any desire to keep James in power in England. He was extremely dismayed by the arrival of Lord Feversham. He refused the suggestion that he simply arrest James because this would violate his own declarations and burden his relationship with his wife. In the end it was decided that he should exploit James's fears; the three original commissioners were sent back to James with the message that William felt he could no longer guarantee the king's wellbeing and that James for his own safety had better leave London for Ham. William at the same time ordered all English troops to depart from the capital; no local forces were allowed within a twenty mile radius until the spring of 1689. Already the English navy had declared for William. James, by his own choice, went under Dutch protective guard to Rochester in Kent on December 18 (Julian calendar), just as William entered London, cheered by crowds dressed in orange. The Dutch officers had been ordered that "if he [James] wanted to leave, they should not prevent him, but allow him to gently slip through"[14]. James then left for France on December 23 after having received a request from his wife to join her, even though his followers urged him to stay. The lax guard on James and the decision to allow him so near the coast indicate that William may have hoped that a successful flight would avoid the difficulty of deciding what to do with him, especially with the memory of the execution of Charles I still strong. By fleeing, James ultimately helped resolve the awkward question whether he was still the legal king or not. A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... , Rochester is a town in Kent, England, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ...


William made King

On December 28, William took over the provisional government and, on the advice of his Whig allies, summoned an assembly of all the surviving MPs of Charles II's reign, thus bypassing the Tories of the Loyal Parliament of 1685. This assembly called for a chosen Convention, elected on January 5, which convened on January 22. The name "Convention" was chosen because only the King could call a Parliament. Although James had fled the country, he still had many followers, and William feared that the king might return, relegating William to the role of a mere regent, a solution that was unacceptable to him. On December 30, William (in a conversation with the Marquess of Halifax) threatened not to stay in England "if King James came again" and determined to go back to the Netherlands "if they went about to make him [William] Regent".[15] is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Savile, Marquess of Halifax. ...


The Convention Parliament was very divided on the issue. The radical Whigs in the Lower House proposed to elect William as a king (meaning that his power would be derived from the people); the moderates wanted an acclamation of William and Mary together; the Tories wanted to make him regent or only acclaim Mary as Queen. The Lower House resolved that the throne was vacant as a result of James's desertion, amounting to abdication; the Lords voted that either James was still King or Mary already Queen, but that the Throne of England couldn't possibly be "vacant". Mary, however, opposed this position, and William made it known to the Tory leaders at this point that they could either accept him as king or deal with the Whigs without his military presence, for then he would leave for the Republic. Confronted with this choice, the Tory majority of Lords decided on February 6 that the throne was vacant after all. The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


William and Mary were offered the throne as joint rulers, an arrangement which they accepted. On February 13, 1689 (New Style)[8], February 23 (Gregorian calendar) Mary II and William III jointly acceded to the throne of England. A commission had on February 2 formulated 23 Heads of Grievances which were renamed the Declaration of Rights; these were read aloud before William and Mary accepted the throne. They were crowned on April 11, swearing an oath to uphold the laws made by Parliament. Although their succession to the English throne was relatively peaceful, much blood would be shed before William's authority was accepted in Ireland and Scotland. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Scotland there had been no serious support for the rebellion, but when James fled for France, most members of the Scottish Privy Council went to London to offer their services to William; on January 7 they asked William to take over the responsibilities of government. On March 14 a Convention convened in Edinburgh, dominated by the Presbyterians because the episcopalists continued to support James. There was nevertheless a strong Jacobite fraction, but a letter by James received on March 16, in which he threatened to punish all who rebelled against him, resulted in his followers leaving the Convention, which then on April 4 decided that the throne of Scotland was vacant. The Convention formulated the Claim of Right and the Articles of Grievances. On May 11 William and Mary accepted the Crown of Scotland; after their acceptance, the Claim and the Articles were read aloud, leading to an immediate debate over whether or not an endorsement of these documents was implicit in that acceptance. The Privy Council of Scotland was a body which formerly advised the King. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jacobite uprisings

James had cultivated support on the fringes of his Three Kingdoms -- in Catholic Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. Supporters of James, known as Jacobites, were prepared to resist what they saw as an illegal coup by force of arms. The first Jacobite rebellion, an uprising in support of James in Scotland, took place in 1689. It was led by John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount of Dundee, known as "Bonnie Dundee", who raised an army from Highland clans. In Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell led local Catholics, who had been discriminated against by previous English monarchs, in the conquest of all the fortified places in the kingdom except Derry, and so held the Kingdom for James. James himself landed in Ireland with 6,000 French troops to try to regain the throne in the Williamite war in Ireland. The war raged from 1689–1691. James fled Ireland following a humiliating defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, but Jacobite resistance was not ended until after the battle of Aughrim in 1691, when over half of their army was killed or taken prisoner. The Irish Jacobites surrendered under the conditions of the Treaty of Limerick on 3 October 1691. England stayed relatively calm throughout, although some English Jacobites fought on James's side in Ireland. Despite the Jacobite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie, the uprising in the Scottish Highlands was quelled due to death of its leader, Claverhouse, and Williamite victories at Dunkeld and Cromdale. Many, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, continued to see the Stuarts as the legitimate monarchs of the Three Kingdoms, and there were further Jacobite rebellions in Scotland during the years 1715, 1719 and 1745 For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones usurped by his... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... The Viscount Dundee John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee (c. ... See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel (1630 – 14 August 1691), the fifth son of Sir William Talbot, Bart. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war in Ireland. ... The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Covenantor Royalists (Highlanders & Lowlanders) Commanders Alexander Cannon William Cleland† George Munro Strength 5000 1200 foot Casualties 300 unknown The Battle of Dunkeld was fought between Jacobite clans supporting King James VII of Scotland and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, in... The Battle of Cromdale took place at the Haugh of Cromdale in Speyside on April 30 and May 1, 1690. ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected...


Anglo-Dutch Alliance

Though he had carefully avoided making it public, William's main motive in organizing the expedition had been the opportunity to bring England into an alliance against France. On December 9, 1688 he had already asked the States-General to send a delegation of three to negotiate the conditions. On February 18 (Julian calendar) he asked the Convention to support the Republic in its war against France, but it refused, only consenting to pay ₤600,000 for the continued presence of the Dutch army in England. On March 9 (Gregorian calendar) the States-General responded to Louis's earlier declaration of war by declaring war on France in return. On April 19 (Julian calendar) the Dutch delegation signed a naval treaty with England. It stipulated that the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet would always be commanded by an Englishman, even when of lower rank; also it specified that the two parties would contribute in the ratio of five English vessels against three Dutch vessels, meaning in practice that the Dutch navy would in future remain smaller than the English. The Navigation Acts were not repealed. On May 18 the new Parliament allowed William to declare war on France. On September 9 1689 (Gregorian calendar), William as King of England joined the League of Augsburg against France. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ...


Having England as an ally meant that the military situation of the Republic was strongly improved; but this very fact induced William to be uncompromising in his position towards France. This policy led to a large number of very expensive campaigns which were largely paid for with Dutch funds. In 1712 the Republic was financially exhausted; it withdrew from international politics and was forced to let its fleet deteriorate, making England the dominant maritime power of the world. The Dutch economy, already burdened by the high national debt and concommitant high taxation, suffered from the other European states' protectionist policies, which its weakened fleet was no longer able to resist. To make matters worse, the main Dutch trading and banking houses moved much of their activity from Amsterdam to London after 1688. Between 1688 and 1720, world trade dominance shifted from the Republic to England.


Legacy

The Glorious Revolution of 1688 is considered by some as being one of the most important events in the long evolution of the respective powers of Parliament and the Crown in England. With the passage of the Bill of Rights, it stamped out once and for all any possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards absolute monarchy in the British Isles by circumscribing the monarch's powers. These powers were greatly restricted; he or she could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, make royal appointments, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission. Since 1689, government under a system of constitutional monarchy in England, and later the United Kingdom, has been uninterrupted. Since then, Parliament's power has steadily increased while the Crown's has steadily declined. Unlike in the English civil war of the mid-seventeenth century, the "Glorious Revolution" did not involve the masses of ordinary people in England (the majority of the bloodshed occurred in Ireland). This fact has led many historians to suggest that in England at least the events more closely resemble a coup d'état than a social revolution.[16] English Bill of Rights (1689). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Coup redirects here. ...


Prior to his arrival in England, the new king William III of England had of course not been a member of the Church of England, but of the Dutch Reformed Church. Consequently, as a Calvinist and Presbyterian he was now in the unenviable position of being the head of the Church of England, while technically being a Nonconformist. This was, however, not his main motive for promoting religious toleration. More important in that respect was the need to keep his Catholic allies[17] in the coming struggle with Louis XIV happy[18]. Though he had promised legal toleration for Catholics in his Declaration of October, 1688, he was ultimately unsuccessful in this respect, due to opposition by the Tories in the new Parliament[19]. The Revolution led to the Act of Toleration of 1689, which granted toleration to Nonconformist Protestants, but not to Catholics. The Williamite victory in Ireland is still commemorated by the Orange Order for preserving British and Protestant dominance in the country. William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... The Act of Toleration was an act of the English Parliament (24 May 1689, citation ) which granted freedom of worship to Nonconformists , Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists, Congregationalists and Quakers, but not to Catholics. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... Williamite refers to the followers of William III of England who deposed James II in the Glorious Revolution. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ...


Lord Macaulay's account of the Revolution in "The History of England from the Accession of James the Second" exemplifies its semi-mystical significance to later generations. Thomas Macaulay The Right Honourable Thomas Babington (or Babbington) Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (October 25, 1800 - December 28, 1859) was a nineteenth century British poet, historian and Whig politician. ... The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as The History of England. The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive...


Notes

  1. ^ England, Scotland, and Ireland at time shared a king but were still separate realms with their own parliaments. This is not to say however that in the case of Ireland it was an independent entity - it was not. The Irish parliament was completely under the control of Westminster and had been since Poynings Law of 1494. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland formed the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Act of Union (1800) between Great Britain and Ireland dissolved the Irish Parliament. This was done because under pressure in 1782, Poynings Law had been overturned. Westminster did not want the Irish to have the freedom to act alone, maybe in opposition to the interests of the English Parliament - see William Pitt's speech for this reference.
  2. ^ The English Civil War (also known as the Great Rebellion) was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688, and for them, in comparison to that bloody civil war, (or even compared to the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685) the deaths in the strife of 1688 were mercifully few (or bloodless).
  3. ^ In testimony before a House of Lords committee in the fall of 1689; Schwoerer, L.G. (2004), The Revolution of 1688-89: Changing Perspectives, Cambridge U.P., 310 pages ISBN 0521526140, p. 3
  4. ^ Glorious Revolution www.explore.parliament.uk and The Glorious Revolution (PDF), issued by the House of Commons Information Office
  5. ^ See e.g. Jonathan I. Israel, "The Dutch role in the Glorious Revolution", in Israel, J.I. (ed.) (1991) The Anglo-Dutch Moment. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact, Cambridge U.P. ISBN 0-521-39075-3, p. 105; see also Jonathan I. Israel and Geoffrey Parker, "Of Providence and Protestant Winds: the Spanish Armada of 1588 and the Dutch armada of 1688", pp 335-364 in the same volume.
  6. ^ After Mary's sister Anne. This line of succession was overturned by the Bill of Rights; see Succession to the British throne
  7. ^ D. Hoak, The Anglo-Dutch revolution of 1688-89, p.24
  8. ^ a b c In this article "New Style" means the start of year is adjusted to 1 January. Events on the European mainland are usually given using the Gregorian calendar, while events in Great Britain and Ireland are usually given using the Julian calendar with the year adjusted to 1 January. Dates with no explicit Julian or Gregorian postscript will be using the same calendar as the last date with an explicit postscript.
  9. ^ As there had been in 1672 with the concerted attack by France and England on the Republic on the basis of the Secret treaty of Dover.
  10. ^ Hunt, Tristram. Why everyone in Britain should light a bonfire tonight, Daily Mail, 5 November, 2006
  11. ^ Robert Beddard, A Kingdom without a King: The Journal of the Provisional Government in the Revolution of 1688 (Phaidon, 1988), p. 19.
  12. ^ Keith Schuchard, M. (2002), Restoring the Temple of Vision: Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart, Brill ISBN 9004124896, p. 762
  13. ^ J. Childs, The army, James II, and the Glorious Revolution, Manchester, 1980
  14. ^ Journaal van Constantijn Huygens, i, 62
  15. ^ H. C. Foxcroft, The Life and Letters of Sir George Savile, Marquis of Halifax: Volume II (London, 1898), pp. 203–4. Quoted in Beddard, p. 65.
  16. ^ The importance of the event has divided historians ever since Friedrich Engels judged it "a relatively puny event". Friedrich Engels, "Introduction to Socialism: Utopian and Scientific", in:Feuerbach, L., Marx, K., Engels, F. (1997), German Socialist Philosophy, Continuum International Publishing Group, 324 pages ISBN 082640748X, p. 269
  17. ^ i.e. Spain and the German Emperor
  18. ^ Israel, pp.137-138
  19. ^ Israel, p. 20

Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[2] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... Poynings Law refers to the time when Sir Edward Poyning was sent as viceroy to Ireland by Henry VII of England. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... Succession to the British Throne is governed both by common law and statute. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Dover, also known as the Secret Treaty of Dover, was an offensive and defensive treaty between England and France signed at Dover. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper, currently published in a tabloid format. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Maurice Ashley, The Glorious Revolution of 1688 (Hodder & Stoughton, 1966; also Panther History 1968)
  • Robert Beddard, A Kingdom without a King: The Journal of the Provisional Government in the Revolution of 1688 (Phaidon, 1988).
  • Eveline Cruickshanks, The Glorious Revolution (British History in Perspective) (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000). ISBN 0312230095.
  • Jonathan I. Israel, The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its World Impact (Cambridge University Press, 2003). ISBN 0521544068.
  • Carmel McCaffrey, In Search of Ireland's Heroes [Ivan R Dee 2006] ISBN-13 978-1-56663-615-5
  • John Miller, The Glorious Revolution (Longman, 2d. Ed., 1997). ISBN 0582292220.
  • David Onnekink, The Anglo-Dutch Favourite: The Career of Hans Willem Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland (1649-1709), Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, ISBN 0-754-65545-8
  • Steven C. A. Pincus, England's Glorious Revolution 1688–89: A Brief History with Documents (Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005). ISBN 0312167148.
  • Stuart Prall, The Bloodless Revolution: England, 1688 (Anchor Books, 1972).
  • Edward Vallance, The Glorious Revolution: 1688 — Britain's Fight for Liberty (Brown Little, 2006). ISBN 1933648244.

Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Carmel McCaffrey was born in Dublin, Ireland and teaches Irish history and Irish literature at Johns Hopkins University. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glorious Revolution — FactMonster.com (444 words)
Glorious Revolution, in English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of
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The Army, James II, and the Glorious Revolution
EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 (2994 words)
The Glorious Revolution was when William of Orange took the English throne from James II in 1688.
The second credibility story of the Glorious Revolution was that the increased credibility of the government's constitutional structure translated into an increased credibility for the government's commitments.
While the Glorious Revolution was critical to the Financial Revolution in England, the follow up assertion in North and Weingast (1989) that the Glorious Revolution increased the security of property rights in general, and so spurred economic growth, remains an open question.
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