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Encyclopedia > Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale body") is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. It is part of the lenticular nucleus (the other part being the putamen), which is the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum. In primates, the medial medullary lamina divides it into two parts—the internal and external segments, which form two of the major nuclei of the basal ganglia. In non-primates the two parts of the globus pallidus are even more distinct. The non-primate globus pallidus is usually considered homologous to the primate external segment of the globus pallidus, whereas the non-primate entopeduncular nucleus is often considered the homolog of the internal segment of the globus pallidus. The globus pallidus is traversed by numerous myelinated nerve fibres that give it the pale appearance for which it is named. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The outermost layer of the brain, the cortex is rich in neurons and is the site of most sophisticated neural processing (See also: cerebral cortex). ... Comparative brain sizes In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the higher, supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus describes the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... In biology, Phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = race and genetic = birth) is the taxonomical classification of organisms based on how closely they are related in terms of evolutionary differences. ... The corpus striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. ... In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. ... Two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... In neuroscience, myelin is an electrically insulating fatty layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons, especially those in the peripheral nervous system. ...


The external segment of the globus pallidus

The external segment of the globus pallidus consists mostly of neurons that send axons to the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the internal segment of the globus pallidus, where they release the neurotransmitter GABA. It receives GABAergic inputs from the striatum and also a reciprocal glutamatergic projection from the subthalamic nucleus. It is sometimes used as a target for deep brain stimulation as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. An axon, or nerve fibre, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus of the basal ganglia. ... The substantia nigra (Latin for black substance) is a portion of the midbrain thought to be involved in certain aspects of movement and attention. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... Chemical structure of GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in widely divergent species. ... The striatum is a subcortical part of the brain consisting of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of a group of treatments involving surgical implantation of a medical device called brain pacemaker which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ...


The internal segment of the globus pallidus

The internal segment of the globus pallidus is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABA-containing neurons send their axons to various thalamic and brain stem nuclei. The thalamus (from Greek thálamos = bedroom, chamber) is a part of the brain. ... The term brain stem refers to a composite substructure of the brain. ...


External links

  • Interactive High Resolution Brain Atlases and Brain Maps

  Results from FactBites:
 
Globus pallidus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (266 words)
The non-primate globus pallidus is usually considered homologous to the primate external segment of the globus pallidus, whereas the non-primate entopeduncular nucleus is often considered the homolog of the internal segment of the globus pallidus.
The globus pallidus is traversed by numerous myelinated nerve fibres that give it the pale appearance for which it is named.
The external segment of the globus pallidus consists mostly of neurons that send axons to the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the internal segment of the globus pallidus, where they release the neurotransmitter GABA.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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