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Encyclopedia > Globular Amphora culture
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).

The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. 3400-2800 BC, is an archaeological culture overlapping the central area occupied by the Corded Ware culture. Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture. To the northeast was the Narva culture. It occupied much of the same area as the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. The name was coined by Gustaf Kosinna because of the characteristic pottery, globular-shaped pots with two to four handles. Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ... Narva culture, ca. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ...

Contents

Extent

It was located in the area defined by the Elbe catchment on the west and that of the Vistula on the east, extending southwards to the middle Dniester and eastwards to reach the Dnieper. West of the Elbe, some globular amphorae are found in megalithic graves. The GAC finds in the Steppe area are normally attributed to a rather late expansion between 2950-2350 cal. BC from a centre in Wolhynia and Podolia. This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... This article is about the river. ...


Economy

The economy was based on raising a variety of livestock, pigs particularly in its earlier phase, in distinction to the Funnelbeaker culture's preference for cattle. Settlements are sparse, and these normally just contain small clusters pits. No convincing house-plans have yet been excavated. It is suggested that some of these settlements were not year-round, or may have been temporary.


Burials

The GAC is primarily known from its burials. Inhumation was in a pit or cist. A variety of grave offerings were left, including animal parts (such as a pig's jaw) or even whole animals, e.g., oxen. Grave gifts include the typical globular amphorae and stone axes. There are also cattle-burials, often in pairs, accompanied by grave gifts. There are also secondary burials in Megalithic graves. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... A cist (IPA ) is a small stone-built coffin-like box used to hold the bodies of the dead (notably during the Bronze Age in Britain and occasionally in Native American burials). ...


Interpretation

The inclusion of animals in the grave is seen as an intrusive cultural element by Gimbutas. The practice of suttee, hypotised by Gimbutas is also seen as a highly intrusive cultural element. The supporters of Marija Gimbutas and her Kurgan hypothesis point to these distinctive burial practices and state this represents the second-wave migration of Indo-Europeans. Suttee is an ancient Indian funeral practice in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband’s funeral pyre. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ...


Sources

  • J. P. Mallory, "Globular Amphora Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • Mikhail M. Charniauski et al. (eds.), Eastern exodus of the globular amphora people: 2950-2350 BC. Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Prehistory 1996, Baltic-Pontic studies 4.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Globular Amphora culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (344 words)
3400-2800 BC, is an archaeological culture contemporaneous with and overlapping the central area occupied by the Corded Ware culture.
Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture, which also overlapped portions occupied by the Corded Ware culture.
It was located in the area defined by the Elbe catchment on the west and that of the Vistula on the east, extending southwards to the middle Dnieper and eastwards to reach the Dniester.
Kurgan hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1677 words)
Subsequent expansion beyond the steppes leads to hybrid cultures, such as the Globular Amphora culture to the west, the immigration of proto-Greeks to the Balkans and the nomadic Indo-Iranian cultures to the east around 2500 BC.
4000–3500: The Pit Grave culture, the prototypical kurgan builders, emerges in the steppe, and the Maykop culture in the northern Caucasus.
Proto-Greek is spoken in the Balkans, Proto-Indo-Iranian north of the Caspian in the emerging Andronovo culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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