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Encyclopedia > Globalization
Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. Shown here is a steel plant in the United Kingdom owned by the Indian company Tata Group.
Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. Shown here is a steel plant in the United Kingdom owned by the Indian company Tata Group.

Globalization in its literal sense is the process of globalizing, transformation of some things or phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and functioning together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces.[1] Globalization is very often used to refer to economic globalization, that is integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Corus (now Tata Steel) plant This is number 5 Blast Furnace located at the Port Talbot Corus Steel Plant South Wales UK. I, the creator of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Corus (now Tata Steel) plant This is number 5 Blast Furnace located at the Port Talbot Corus Steel Plant South Wales UK. I, the creator of... Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited), is a steel company based in Mumbai, India. ... The Tata Group is Indias largest conglomerate company, with revenues in 2005-06 of Rs. ...


The word globalization is also used, in a doctrinal sense to describe the neoliberal form of economic globalization.[3] Thomas L. Friedman "examines the impact of the 'flattening' of the globe", and argues that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse. He also argues that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice.[4] Economic Globalization can be defined as the process of increasing economic integration between two countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market[1] . Depending on the paradigm, globalization can be viewed as both a positive and a negative phenomenon. ... Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist, and author, currently working as an Op-Ed columnist for the New York Times. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. ... A supply chain, logistics network, or supply network is a coordinated system of organizations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service in physical or virtual manner from supplier to customer. ...

Contents

Terms

Sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference. The term 'internationalization refers to the importance of international trade, relations, treaties etc. Inter+national means between or among nations; , globalization would mean erasure of national boundaries for economic purposes; international trade (governed by comparative advantages) would become interregional trade (governed by absolute advantages). [5] In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ...


History

The word "Globalization" has been used by economists since 1981; however, its concepts did not become popular until the later half of the 1980s and 1990's. The earliest written theoretical concepts of globalization were penned by an American entrepreneur-turned-minister Charles Taze Russell who also coined the term 'corporate giants' in 1897. [7] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Charles Russell in 1911 Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), known as Pastor Russell, was an American evangelist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who founded what is known as the Bible Student movement. ...


Globalization in its largest extent began a bit before the turn of the 16th century, in Portugal. The country's global explorations in the 16th century linked continents, economies and cultures as never before. The Kingdom of Portugal kicked off what has come to be known as the Age of Discovery, in the mid-1400s. The westernmost country in Europe, it was the first to significantly probe the Atlantic Ocean, colonizing the Azores, Madeira and other Atlantic islands, then braving the west coast of Africa. In 1488, Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was the first to sail around the southern tip of Africa, and in 1498 his countryman Vasco da Gama repeated the experiment, making it as far as India. In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil. The Portuguese Empire would establish ports, forts and trading posts as far west as Brazil, as far east as Japan and Timor, and along the coasts of Africa, India and China. For the first time in history, a wave of global trade, colonization, and enculturation reached all corners of the world. Anthem: O Hino da Carta (from 1834) The Kingdom of Portugal in 1561 Capital Lisbon¹ Language(s) Portuguese Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy King  - 1139-1185 Afonso I  - 1908-1910 Manuel II History  - Established 26 July, 1139  - Peninsular War 1808-1814  - Brazilian suzerainty 1815  - Brazilian independence October 12, 1822  - Revolution... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Statue of Dias in Cape Town, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, sometimes Bartolomeu Dias de Novais (pron. ... For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... Pedro Álvares (about 1467 – about 1520), pron. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Globalization is viewed as a centuries long process, tracking the expansion of human population and the growth of civilization, that has accelerated dramatically in the past 50 years. Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire, the Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty, when the silk road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome. The Islamic Golden Age is also an example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an early global economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and technology; and later during the Mongol Empire, when there was greater integration along the Silk Road. Global integration continued through the expansion of European trade, as in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Portuguese and Spanish Empires reached to all corners of the world after expanding to the Americas. Globalization has had a tremendous impact on cultures, particularly indigenous cultures, around the world. Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


In the 17th century, Globalization became a business phenomenon when the Dutch East India Company, which is often described as the first multinational corporation, was established. Because of the high risks involved with international trade, the Dutch East India Company became the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership through the issuing of shares: an important driver for globalization. This article is about the trading company. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ...


In the 19th century it was sometimes called "The First Era of Globalization" a period characterized by rapid growth in international trade and investment, between the European imperial powers, their colonies, and, later, the United States. It was in this period that areas of sub-saharan Africa and the Island Pacific were incorporated into the world system. The "First Era of Globalization" began to break down at the beginning with the first World War, and later collapsed during the gold standard crisis in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern Globalizations

Globalization in the era since World War II was first the result of planning by economists, business interests, and politicians who recognized the costs associated with protectionism and declining international economic integration. Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference and the founding of several international institutions intended to oversee the renewed processes of globalization, promoting growth and managing adverse consequences. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The Bretton Woods system of international economic management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the major industrial states. ...


These were the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund. It has been facilitated by advances in technology which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds, originally under the auspices of GATT, which led to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on free trade. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


Since World War II, barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered through international agreements - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the World Trade Organization (WTO), for which GATT is the foundation, have included: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main objective was the reduction of barriers to international trade. ... WTO redirects here. ...

  • Promotion of free trade:
  • Restriction of free trade:
    • Harmonization of intellectual property laws across the majority of states, with more restrictions.
    • Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions (e.g. patents granted by China would be recognized in the United States)

The Uruguay round (1984 to 1995) led to a treaty to create the World Trade Organization (WTO), to mediate trade disputes and set up a uniform platform of trading. Other bi- and multilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europe's Maastricht Treaty and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have also been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... A free trade zone (FTZ) or Export processing zone (EPZ) is one or more areas of a country where tariffs and quotas are eliminated and bureaucratic requirements are lowered in hopes of attracting new business and foreign investments. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey A container freight train in the UK Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport cargo transport using standard ISO containers (known as shipping containers or isotainers) that can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships, railroad cars, planes... Capital controls are restrictions on the trade of assets across international borders. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... WTO redirects here. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... NAFTA redirects here. ...


World exports rose from 8.5% of gross world product in 1970 to 16.1% of gross world product in 2001.[8] Gross world product is the total Gross National Product of all the countries in the world. ...


The use of the term globalization (in the doctrinal sense), in the context of these developments has been analysed by many including Noam Chomsky who states [6]

... That enhances what's called "globalization," a term of propaganda used conventionally to refer to a certain particular form of international integration that is (not surprisingly) beneficial to its designers: Multinational corporations and the powerful states to which they are closely linked.

Critics have observed that the term's contemporary usage comprises several meanings, for example Noam Chomsky states that: [7]

The term "globalization," like most terms of public discourse, has two meanings: its literal meaning, and a technical sense used for doctrinal purposes. In its literal sense, "globalization" means international integration. Its strongest proponents since its origins have been the workers movements and the left (which is why unions are called "internationals"), and the strongest proponents today are those who meet annually in the World Social Forum and its many regional offshoots. In the technical sense defined by the powerful, they are described as "anti-globalization," which means that they favor globalization directed to the needs and concerns of people, not investors, financial institutions and other sectors of power, with the interests of people incidental. That's "globalization" in the technical doctrinal sense.

Measuring globalization

Globalization has had an impact on different cultures around the world.
Globalization has had an impact on different cultures around the world.

Looking specifically at economic globalization, it can be measured in different ways. These centre around the four main economic flows that characterize globalization: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hksycss. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hksycss. ...

  • Goods and services, e.g. exports plus imports as a proportion of national income or per capita of population
  • Labor/people, e.g. net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted by population
  • Capital, e.g. inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population
  • Technology, e.g. international research & development flows; proportion of populations (and rates of change thereof) using particular inventions (especially 'factor-neutral' technological advances such as the telephone, motorcar, broadband)

As globalization, is not only an economic phenomenon, a multivariate approach to measuring globalization is the recent index calculated by the Swiss think tank KOF. The index measures the three main dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political. In addition to three indices measuring these dimensions, an overall index of globalization and sub-indices referring to actual economic flows, economic restrictions, data on personal contact, data on information flows, and data on cultural proximity is calculated. Data is available on a yearly basis for 122 countries, as detailed in Dreher, Gaston and Martens (2008).[8] According to the index, the world's most globalized country is Belgium, followed by Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The least globalized countries according to the KOF-index are Haiti, Myanmar the Central African Republic and Burundi.[9] Other measures conceptualize Globalization as diffusion and develop interactive procedure to capture the degree of its impact Jahn 2006. Globalization Index is a list of countries by A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine according to Globalization criteria. ... This article is about the institution. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


A.T. Kearney and Foreign Policy Magazine jointly publish another Globalization Index. According to the 2006 index, Singapore, Ireland, Switzerland, the U.S., the Netherlands, Canada and Denmark are the most globalized, while Egypt, Indonesia, India and Iran are the least globalized among countries listed. A.T. Kearney is an international management consulting firm, dating its origins back to the early days of the management consulting profession. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Globalization Index is a list of countries by A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine according to Globalization criteria. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Effects of globalization

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • Industrial (alias trans nationalization) - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies
  • Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for corporate, national and subnational borrowers
  • Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital.
  • Political - political globalization is the creation of a world government which regulates the relationships among nations and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization. [10] Politically, the United States has enjoyed a position of power among the world powers; in part because of its strong and wealthy economy. With the influence of Globalization and with the help of The United States’ own economy, the People's Republic of China has experienced some tremendous growth within the past decade. If China continues to grow at the rate projected by the trends, then it is very likely that in the next twenty years, there will be a major reallocation of power among the world leaders. China will have enough wealth, industry, and technology to rival the United States for the position of leading world power. [11] The European Union, Russian Federation and India are among the other already-established world powers which may have the ability to influence future world politics.
  • Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations
  • Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities such as Globalism - which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to consume and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture"; loss of languages (and corresponding loss of ideas), also see Transformation of culture
  • Ecological- the advent of global environmental challenges that can not be solved without international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species. Many factories are built in developing countries where they can pollute freely.
  • Social - increased circulation by people of all nations with fewer restrictions
  • Transportation - fewer and fewer European cars on European roads each year (the same can also be said about American cars on American roads) and the death of distance through the incorporation of technology to decrease travel time.[clarify]
  • International cultural exchange
  • Technical
  • Legal/Ethical
    • The push by many advocates for an international criminal court and international justice movements.
    • Crime importation and raising awareness of global crime-fighting efforts and cooperation.
    • Sexual awareness – It is often easy to only focus on the economic aspects of Globalization. This term also has strong social meanings behind it. Globalization can also mean a cultural interaction between different countries. Globalization may also have social effects such changes in sexual inequality, and to this issue brought about a greater awareness of the different (often more brutal) types of gender discrimination throughout the world. For example, Women and girls in African countries have long been subjected to female circumcision- such a harmful procedure has been since exposed to the world, and the practice is now decreasing in occurrence.

Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. ... ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... The official Pokémon logo. ... This article is about the logic puzzle. ... The 26 February 2005 New York Times article, entitled Internet Fame Is a Cruel Mistress for a Numa Numa Dancer, about Gary Brolsma and his movie, Numa Numa Dance. ... This article is about paper folding. ... Countries that have their own versions of an Idol series. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Orkut is a social networking service which is run by Google and named after its creator, an employee of Google - Orkut Büyükkökten. ... Facebook is a social networking website that was launched on February 4, 2004. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football (soccer) competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Something is of universal value if it has the same value or worth for all, or almost all, people. ... Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. ... A cross-section of a submarine communications cable. ... Cell phone redirects here. ... The copyright symbol is used to give notice that a work is covered by copyright. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...

Pro-globalization (globalism)

Globalization advocates such as Jeffrey Sachs point to the above average drop in poverty rates in countries, such as China, where globalization has taken a strong foothold, compared to areas less affected by globalization, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty rates have remained stagnant.
Globalization advocates such as Jeffrey Sachs point to the above average drop in poverty rates in countries, such as China, where globalization has taken a strong foothold, compared to areas less affected by globalization, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty rates have remained stagnant.[12]

Supporters of free trade claim that it increases economic prosperity as well as opportunity, especially among developing nations, enhances civil liberties and leads to a more efficient allocation of resources. Economic theories of comparative advantage suggest that free trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources, with all countries involved in the trade benefiting. In general, this leads to lower prices, more employment, higher output and a higher standard of living for those in developing countries.[12][13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ...

One of the ironies of the recent success of India and China is the fear that... success in these two countries comes at the expense of the United States. These fears are fundamentally wrong and, even worse, dangerous. They are wrong because the world is not a zero-sum struggle... but rather is a positive-sum opportunity in which improving technologies and skills can raise living standards around the world.

Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty, 2005

Libertarians and proponents of laissez-faire capitalism say that higher degrees of political and economic freedom in the form of democracy and capitalism in the developed world are ends in themselves and also produce higher levels of material wealth. They see globalization as the beneficial spread of liberty and capitalism. [12] Jeffrey Sachs Jeffrey D. Sachs (born 1954) is an American economist known for his work as an economic advisor to governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa. ... This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Supporters of democratic globalization are sometimes called pro-globalists. They believe that the first phase of globalization, which was market-oriented, should be followed by a phase of building global political institutions representing the will of world citizens. The difference from other globalists is that they do not define in advance any ideology to orient this will, but would leave it to the free choice of those citizens via a democratic process[citation needed]. Democratic globalization or mundialization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in world organizations. ... A design for a World Citizen flag World Citizen badge World citizen is a term with a variety of meanings, often referring to a person who disapproves of traditional geopolitical divisions derived from national citizenship and approves world government and democracy. ...


Some, such as Senator Douglas Roche, O.C., simply view globalization as inevitable and advocate creating institutions such as a directly-elected United Nations Parliamentary Assembly to exercise oversight over unelected international bodies. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Douglas James Roche, OC , KCSG (born June 14, 1929) is a former Canadian politician, He served as Progressive Conservative MP for Edmonton—Strathcona from 1972-1984 when he appointed Canadas Ambassador for Disarmament, a position he held until 1989. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ...


Supporters of globalization argue that the anti-globalization movement uses anecdotal evidence[citation needed] to support their protectionist view, whereas worldwide statistics strongly support globalization: Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ...

  • From 1981 to 2001, according to World Bank figures, the number of people living on $1 a day or less declined from 1.5 billion to 1.1 billion in absolute terms. At the same time, the world population increased, so in percentage terms the number of such people in developing nations declined from 40% to 20% of the population.[14] with the greatest improvements occurring in economies rapidly reducing barriers to trade and investment; yet, some critics argue that more detailed variables measuring poverty should be studied instead [15].
  • The percentage of people living on less than $2 a day has decreased greatly in areas effected by globalization, whereas poverty rates in other areas have remained largely stagnant. In East-Asia, including China, the percentage has decreased by 50.1% compared to a 2.2% increase in Sub-Saharan Africa.[13]
Area Demographic 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 Percentage Change 1981-2002
East Asia and Pacific Less than $1 a day 57.7% 38.9% 28.0% 29.6% 24.9% 16.6% 15.7% 11.1% -80.76%
Less than $2 a day 84.8% 76.6% 67.7% 69.9% 64.8% 53.3% 50.3% 40.7% -52.00%
Latin America Less than $1 a day 9.7% 11.8% 10.9% 11.3% 11.3% 10.7% 10.5% 8.9% -8.25%
Less than $2 a day 29.6% 30.4% 27.8% 28.4% 29.5% 24.1% 25.1% 23.4% -29.94%
Sub-Saharan Africa Less than $1 a day 41.6% 46.3% 46.8% 44.6% 44.0% 45.6% 45.7% 44.0% +5.77%
Less than $2 a day 73.3% 76.1% 76.1% 75.0% 74.6% 75.1% 76.1% 74.9% +2.18%

'SOURCE: World Bank, Poverty Estimates, 2002[13]

  • Income inequality for the world as a whole is diminishing.[16] Due to definitional issues and data availability, there is disagreement with regards to the pace of the decline in extreme poverty. As noted below, there are others disputing this. The economist Xavier Sala-i-Martin in a 2007 analysis argues that this is incorrect, income inequality for the world as a whole has diminished. [9]. Regardless of who is right about the past trend in income inequality, it has been argued that improving absolute poverty is more important than relative inequality.[10]
  • Life expectancy has almost doubled in the developing world since World War II and is starting to close the gap between itself and the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Even in Sub-Saharan Africa, the least developed region, life expectancy increased from 30 years before World War II to about a peak of about 50 years before the AIDS pandemic and other diseases started to force it down to the current level of 47 years. Infant mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world.[17]
  • Democracy has increased dramatically from there being almost no nations with universal suffrage in 1900 to 62.5% of all nations having it in 2000.[18]
  • Feminism has made advances in areas such as Bangladesh through providing women with jobs and economic safety.[12]
  • The proportion of the world's population living in countries where per-capita food supplies are less than 2,200 calories (9,200 kilojoules) per day decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s.[19]
  • Between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52% to 81% of the world. Women made up much of the gap: female literacy as a percentage of male literacy has increased from 59% in 1970 to 80% in 2000.[20]
  • The percentage of children in the labor force has fallen from 24% in 1960 to 10% in 2000.[21]
  • There are similar increasing trends toward electric power, cars, radios, and telephones per capita, as well as a growing proportion of the population with access to clean water.[22]
  • The book The Improving State of the World also finds evidence for that these, and other, measures of human well-being has improved and that globalization is part of the explanation. It also responds to arguments that environmental impact will limit the progress.

Although critics of globalization complain of Westernization, a 2005 UNESCO report[23] showed that cultural exchange is becoming mutual. In 2002, China was the third largest exporter of cultural goods, after the UK and US. Between 1994 and 2002, both North America's and the European Union's shares of cultural exports declined, while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Xavier Sala i Martín (b. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... The Improving State of the World: Why Were Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M. Goklany. ...


Anti-globalization (mundialism)

Main article: Anti-globalization

Anti-globalization is a pejorative term used to describe the political stance of people and groups who oppose the neoliberal version of globalization. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free...


“Anti-globalization" may involve the process or actions taken by a state in order to demonstrate its sovereignty and practice democratic decision-making. Anti-globalization may occur in order to put brakes on the international transfer of people, goods and ideology, particularly those determined by the organizations such as the IMF or the WTO in imposing the radical deregulation program of free market fundamentalism on local governments and populations. Moreover, as Canadian journalist Naomi Klein argues in her book No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (also subtitled No Space, No Choice, No Jobs) anti-globalism can denote either a single social movement or an umbrella term that encompasses a number of separate social movements [24] such as nationalists and socialists. In either case, participants stand in opposition to the unregulated political power of large, multi-national corporations, as the corporations exercise power through leveraging trade agreements which damage in some instances the democratic rights of citizens, the environment particularly air quality index and rain forests, as well as national governments sovereignty to determine labor rights including the right to unionize for better pay, and better working conditions, or laws as they may otherwise infringe on cultural practices and traditions of developing countries. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... Naomi Klein (b. ... No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, a controversial book written by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein, first appeared in January 2000. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


Most people who are labeled "anti-globalization" consider the term to be too vague and inaccurate [25][26] Podobnik states that "the vast majority of groups that participate in these protests draw on international networks of support, and they generally call for forms of globalization that enhance democratic representation, human rights, and egalitarianism."


Stiglitz, Joseph and Andrew Charlton write[27]:

The anti-globalization movement developed in opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. The term 'anti-globalization' is in many ways a misnomer, since the group represents a wide range of interests and issues and many of the people involved in the anti-globalization movement do support closer ties between the various peoples and cultures of the world through, for example, aid, assistance for refugees, and global environmental issues.

Members aligned with this viewpoint prefer instead to describe themselves as the Global Justice Movement, the Anti-Corporate-Globalization Movement, the Movement of Movements (a popular term in Italy), the "Alter-globalization" movement (popular in France), the "Counter-Globalization" movement, and a number of other terms. Activists protest policies of the World Bank in Washington, DC The Global Justice Movement is the broad globalized social movement opposing what is often known as “corporate globalization” and promoting equal distribution of economic resources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-globalization. ...


Critiques of the current wave of economic globalization typically look at both the damage to the planet, in terms of the perceived unsustainable harm done to the biosphere, as well as the perceived human costs, such as increased poverty, inequality, miscegenation, injustice and the erosion of traditional culture which, the critics contend, all occur as a result of the economic transformations related to globalization. They challenge directly the metrics, such as GDP, used to measure progress promulgated by institutions such as the World Bank, and look to other measures, such as the Happy Planet Index,[28] created by the New Economics Foundation[29]. They point to a "multitude of interconnected fatal consequences--social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation"[30] which they claim are the unintended but very real consequences of globalization. // The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact, introduced by the new economics foundation (nef), in July 2006. ... The New Economics Foundation is a British think-tank, or, in their own description, a think-and-do tank. The groups goal is to promote their progressive view of welfare economics and environmentalism. ...


The terms globalization and anti-globalization are used in various ways. Noam Chomsky states that[31][32] Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...

The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule. No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration. Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity - that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems.
"The dominant propaganda systems have appropriated the term "globalization" to refer to the specific version of international economic integration that they favor, which privileges the rights of investors and lenders, those of people being incidental. In accord with this usage, those who favor a different form of international integration, which privileges the rights of human beings, become "anti-globalist." This is simply vulgar propaganda, like the term "anti-Soviet" used by the most disgusting commissars to refer to dissidents. It is not only vulgar, but idiotic. Take the World Social Forum, called "anti-globalization" in the propaganda system -- which happens to include the media, the educated classes, etc., with rare exceptions. The WSF is a paradigm example of globalization. It is a gathering of huge numbers of people from all over the world, from just about every corner of life one can think of, apart from the extremely narrow highly privileged elites who meet at the competing World Economic Forum, and are called "pro-globalization" by the propaganda system. An observer watching this farce from Mars would collapse in hysterical laughter at the antics of the educated classes."

Critics argue that: 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

    • Poorer countries are sometimes at disadvantage: While it is true that globalization encourages free trade among countries on an international level, there are also negative consequences because some countries try to save their national markets. The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural goods. It is difficult for these countries to compete with stronger countries that subsidize their own farmers. Because the farmers in the poorer countries cannot compete, they are forced to sell their crops at much lower price than what the market is paying. [33]
    • Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers: The deterioration of protections for weaker nations by stronger industrialized powers has resulted in the exploitation of the people in those nations to become cheap labor. Due to the lack of protections, companies from powerful industrialized nations are able to offer workers enough salary to entice them to endure extremely long hours and unsafe working conditions. The abundance of cheap labor is giving the countries in power incentive not to rectify the inequality between nations. If these nations developed into industrialized nations, the army of cheap labor would slowly disappear alongside development. With the world in this current state, it is impossible for the exploited workers to escape poverty. It is true that the workers are free to leave their jobs, but in many poorer countries, this would mean starvation for the worker, and possible even his/her family. [34]
    • The shift to service work: The low cost of offshore workers have enticed corporations to move production to foreign countries. The laid off unskilled workers are forced into the service sector where wages and benefits are low, but turnover is high. This has contributed to the widening economic gap between skilled and unskilled workers. The loss of these jobs has also contributed greatly to the slow decline of the middle class which is a major factor in the increasing economic inequality in the United States. Families that were once part of the middle class are forced into lower positions by massive layoffs and outsourcing to another country. This also means that people in the lower class have a much harder time climbing out of poverty because of the absence of the middle class as a stepping stone. [35]
    • Weak labor unions: The surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever growing number of companies in transition has caused a weakening of labor unions in the United States. Unions lose their effectiveness when their membership begins to decline. As a result unions hold less power over corporations that are able to easily replace workers, often for lower wages, and have the option to not offer unionized jobs anymore. [36]

In December 2007, World Bank economist Branko Milanovichas called much previous empirical research on global poverty and inequality into question because, according to him, improved estimates of purchasing power parity indicate that developing countries are worse off than previously believed. Milanovic remarks that "literally hundreds of scholarly papers on convergence or divergence of countries’ incomes have been published in the last decade based on what we know now were faulty numbers. With the new data, economists will revise calculations and possibly reach new conclusions" moreover noting that "implications for the estimates of global inequality and poverty are enormous. The new numbers show global inequality to be significantly greater than even the most pessimistic authors had thought. Until the last month, global inequality, or difference in real incomes between all individuals of the world, was estimated at around 65 Gini points – with 100 denoting complete inequality and 0 denoting total equality, with everybody’s income the same – a level of inequality somewhat higher than that of South Africa. But the new numbers show global inequality to be 70 Gini points – a level of inequality never recorded anywhere." [37]


The critics of globalization typically emphasize that globalization is a process that is mediated according to corporate interests, and typically raise the possibility of alternative global institutions and policies, which they believe address the moral claims of poor and working classes throughout the globe, as well as environmental concerns in a more equitable way.[38]


The movement is very broad, including church groups, national liberation factions, peasant unionists, intellectuals, artists, protectionists, anarchists, those in support of relocalization and others. Some are reformist, (arguing for a more humane form of capitalism) while others are more revolutionary (arguing for what they believe is a more humane system than capitalism) and others are reactionary, believing globalization destroys national industry and jobs. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Anarchist redirects here. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


One of the key points made by critics of recent economic globalization is that income inequality, both between and within nations, is increasing as a result of these processes. One article from 2001 found that significantly, in 7 out of 8 metrics, income inequality has increased in the twenty years ending 2001. Also, "incomes in the lower deciles of world income distribution have probably fallen absolutely since the 1980s". Furthermore, the World Bank's figures on absolute poverty were challenged. The article was skeptical of the World Bank's claim that the number of people living on less than $1 a day has held steady at 1.2 billion from 1987 to 1998, because of biased methodology.[39]


A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called 'champagne glass' effect,[40] was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed the distribution of global income to be very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income.[41]

+ Distribution of world GDP, 1989
Quintile of Population Income
Richest 20% 82.7%
Second 20% 11.7%
Third 20% 2.3%
Fourth 20% 1.4%
Poorest 20% 1.2%

SOURCE: United Nations Development Program. 1992 Human Development Report[42]


Economic arguments by fair trade theorists claim that unrestricted free trade benefits those with more financial leverage (i.e. the rich) at the expense of the poor.[43] For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Leverage is using given resources in such a way that the potential positive or negative outcome is magnified. ...


Americanization related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and object being brought into other countries. So globalization, a much more diversified phenomenon, relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of objects, markets and so on into each others countries.


Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as the promotion of corporatist interests.[44] They also claim that the increasing autonomy and strength of corporate entities shapes the political policy of countries.[45] [46] Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ...


Social

International Social Forums


See main articles: European Social Forum, the Asian Social Forum, World Social Forum (WSF). The European Social Forum (ESF) is an annual conference held by members of the alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement). ... The Asian Social Forum will be held from 2-7 January 2003 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first WSF was an initiative of the administration of Porto Alegre in Brazil. This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ...


The slogan of the World Social Forum was "Another World Is Possible". It was here that the WSF's Charter of Principles was adopted to provide a framework for the forums.


The WSF became a periodic meeting: in 2002 and 2003 it was held again in Porto Alegre and became a rallying point for worldwide protest against the American invasion of Iraq. In 2004 it was moved to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, in India), to make it more accessible to the populations of Asia and Africa. This last appointment saw the participation of 75,000 delegates. , Bombay redirects here. ...


In the meantime, regional forums took place following the example of the WSF, adopting its Charter of Principles. The first European Social Forum (ESF) was held in November 2002 in Florence. The slogan was "Against the war, against racism and against neo-liberalism". It saw the participation of 60,000 delegates and ended with a huge demonstration against the war (1,000,000 people according to the organizers). The other two ESFs took place in Paris and London, in 2003 and 2004 respectively. The European Social Forum (ESF) is an annual conference held by members of the alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


Recently there has been some discussion behind the movement about the role of the social forums. Some see them as a "popular university", an occasion to make many people aware of the problems of globalization. Others would prefer that delegates concentrate their efforts on the coordination and organization of the movement and on the planning of new campaigns. However it has often been argued that in the dominated countries (most of the world) the WSF is little more than an 'NGO fair' driven by Northern NGOs and donors most of which are hostile to popular movements of the poor.[47]


References

  1. ^ Sheila L. Croucher. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity a Changing World. Rowman & Littlefield. (2004). p.10
  2. ^ Bhagwati, Jagdish (2004). In Defense of Globalization. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 
  3. ^ ZNet, Corporate Globalization, Korea and International Affairs, Noam Chomsky interviewed by Sun Woo Lee, Monthly JoongAng, 22 February 2006
  4. ^ Friedman,Thomas L. "The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention." Emergin: A Reader. Ed. Barclay Barrios. Boston: Bedford, St. Martins, 2008. 49
  5. ^ Daly, Herman (1999). "Globalization versus Internationalization - Some Implications". Ecological Economics 31: 31-37. Elsevier.  [1]
  6. ^ [2] ZForums, Chomsky Chat, >(2) What are the direct relationships between 9/11 and globalization?
  7. ^ Noam Chomsky chats with Washington Post readers, The Washington Post, March 24, 2006
  8. ^ Axel Dreher, Noel Gaston, Pim Martens, Measuring Globalisation: Gauging Its Consequences, Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-74067-6.
  9. ^ KOF Index of Globalization
  10. ^ Stipo, Francesco. World Federalist Manifesto. Guide to Political Globalization, ISBN 978-0-9794679-2-9, http://www.worldfederalistmanifesto.com
  11. ^ Hurst E. Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and consequences, 6th ed. P.91
  12. ^ a b c d Sachs, Jeffrey (2005). The End of Poverty. New York, New York: The Penguin Press. 1-59420-045-9. 
  13. ^ a b c World Bank, Poverty Rates, 1981 - 2002. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  14. ^ "How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?" by Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. [3]
  15. ^ Michel Chossudovsky, "Global Falsehoods"
  16. ^ David Brooks, "Good News about Poverty"
  17. ^ Guy Pfefferman, "The Eight Losers of Globalization"
  18. ^ Freedom House
  19. ^ [http://reason.com/news/show/34961.html BAILEY, R.(2005).
  20. ^ BAILEY, R.(2005). The poor may not be getting richer but they are living longer.
  21. ^ Oxford Leadership Academy.
  22. ^ ScienceDirect
  23. ^ [http://http://www.uis.unesco.org/template/pdf/cscl/IntlFlows_EN.pdf 2005 UNESCO report
  24. ^ No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein.
  25. ^ Morris, Douglas "Globalization and Media Democracy: The Case of Indymedia", Shaping the Network Society, MIT Press 2003. Courtesy link to(pre-publication version) [4]
  26. ^ [5] Podobnik, Bruce, Resistance to Globalization: Cycles and Evolutions in the Globalization Protest Movement, p. 2.
  27. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph & Charlton Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development. 2005 p. 54 n. 23
  28. ^ The Happy Planet Index
  29. ^ The New Economics Foundation
  30. ^ Capra, Fritjof (2002). The Hidden Connections. New York, New York: Random House. 0-385-49471-8. 
  31. ^ Noam Chomsky Znet May 07, 2002 / The Croatian Feral Tribune April 27, 2002 [6]
  32. ^ Interview by Sniježana Matejčić, June 2005 en 2.htm
  33. ^ Hurst E. Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and consequences, 6th ed. P.41
  34. ^ Chossudovsky, Michel. The globalization of poverty and the new world order / by Michel Chossudovsky. Edition 2nd ed. Imprint Shanty Bay, Ont. : Global Outlook, c2003.
  35. ^ The Declining Middle Class: A Further Analysis, Journal article by Patrick J. Mcmahon, John H. Tschetter; Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 109, 1986
  36. ^ Hurst E. Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and consequences, 6th ed. P.41
  37. ^ Developing Countries Worse Off Than Once Thought - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  38. ^ Fórum Social Mundial
  39. ^ Wade, Robert Hunter. 'The Rising Inequality of World Income Distribution', Finance & Development, Vol 38, No 4 December 2001
  40. ^ Xabier Gorostiaga,"World has become a 'champagne glass' globalization will fill it fuller for a wealthy few' National Catholic Reporter, Jan 27, 1995 '
  41. ^ United Nations Development Program. 1992 Human Development Report, 1992 (New York, Oxford University Press)
  42. ^ Human Developemnt Report 1992. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  43. ^ NAFTA at 10, Jeff Faux, Economic Policy Institute, D.C.
  44. ^ Lee, Laurence. "WTO blamed for India grain suicides", Al Jazeera, 17 May 2007. Retrieved on [[17 May 2007]]. (English) 
  45. ^ Bakan, Joel (2004). The Corporation. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster. 0-7432-4744-2. 
  46. ^ Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler. 1-57675-301-8. 
  47. ^ Pambazuka News

Herman Daly (1938) is an American ecological economist and professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Joel Conrad Bakan (born 1959) is a Canadian lawyer and writer. ... Confessions of an Economic Hitman John Perkins (b. ...

Further reading

Peter Ludwig Berger (born March 17, 1929) is an American sociologist well known for his work The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York, 1966). ... Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist, and author, currently working as an Op-Ed columnist for the New York Times. ... For other uses, see The World Is Flat (disambiguation). ... Gavin Kitching (B.Sc. ... Jerry Mander is an American activist best known for his book Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television (1977), and for his contribution to a book on an unrelated topic, The Great International Paper Airplane Book (1971). ... Edward (Teddy) Goldsmith (b. ... Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his contributions to welfare economics for his work on famine, human development theory... Development as Freedom is a book written by Amartya Sen. ... Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a member of the Columbia University faculty. ... Stiglitz (bearded, in coat and tie) talking about his book at the University of Michigan in 2005 Globalization and Its Discontents is a book written in 2002 by the 2001 Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz. ... Joseph Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a member of the Columbia University faculty. ... Making Globalization Work is a book written by Nobel Prize-winning author of Globalization and Its Discontents, Joseph E. Stiglitz. ... Martin Wolf is an English journalist. ...

See also

Postmodernism
preceded by Modernism

Postmodernity
Postchristianity
Postmodern philosophy
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern art
Postmodernist film
Postmodern literature
Postmodern music
Postmodern theater
Critical theory
Globalization
Consumerism
Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Belief in God per country (Eurobarometer 2005) PostChristianity [1], postChristendom or postChristianism are variants of a term used to describe a contemporary cultural attitude strictly linked to postmodernism. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Postmodernist film describes the ideas of postmodernism in film. ... The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... Postmodern theatre is a recent phenomenon in world theatre, coming as it does out of the postmodern philosophy that originated in Europe in the 1960s. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Consumerist redirects here. ...

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Borderless Selling is the process of selling services to clients outside the country of origin of services through modern methods which eliminate the actions specifically designed to hinder international trade. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... Deglobalization, also deglobalisation (chiefly UK/Ireland), refers to a process of diminishing interdependence and integration between units around the world, typically nation-states. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... Development criticism refers to far-reaching criticisms of modernization and its central aspects : modern technology, industrialization, capitalism and economic globalization . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and geographic boundaries, has also helped to spread some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans. ... Globalization Index is a list of countries by A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine according to Globalization criteria. ... The globally integrated enterprise is a term coined in 2006 in the name of Sam Palmisano, CEO of IBM Corp, used to denote is a company that fashions its strategy, its management, and its operations in pursuit of a new goal: the integration of production and value delivery worldwide. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... Great Transition is a vision created by environmental scholars of the Global Scenario Group of how humanity could create a planetary civilization that reflects egalitarian social and ecological values, affirms diversity, and defeats poverty, war, and environmental destruction. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mundialization is all the ideas and actions expressing the solidarity of populations of the globe and aiming to establish institutions and supranational laws of a federative structure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. ... Netocracy was a term invented by the editorial board of the American technology magazine Wired in the early 1990s as a standard replacement for the clichéd term the digital class, the concept of netocracy was later picked up by the Swedish philosophers Alexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist for... Neo-medievalism is a theory that suggests political power, in some modern societies, is more akin to the political arrangements that existed in Medieval Europe. ... The term new world order has been used to refer to a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. ... Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ... Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. ... For other uses, see The World Is Flat (disambiguation). ... The rise of technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one. ... Walmarting is a newly formed word with three meanings. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ... World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed principally by Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein, with major contributions by Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi, Christopher Chase-Dunn, Peter Turchin, Andrey Korotayev, Janet Abu Lughod, Tom Hall, and others. ... WTO redirects here. ...

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Globalization

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ... The University of California, Riverside is a public, coeducational university situated in Riverside, California beside Box Springs Mountain. ... Ecology and Society (formerly Conservation Ecology) is an Open Access, interdisciplinary journal published by the Resilience Alliance. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Ben Shalom Bernanke[1] (born December 13, 1953) (pronounced ber-NAN-kee, bər-nan-kē or ), is an American economist and current Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve. ...

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  • CBC Archives CBC Television reports on the opening of Moscow McDonalds (1990) - sample of Western business expanding into former communist countries.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Globalization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3789 words)
Some maintain that globalization is an imagined geography; that is, a political tool of ruling neo-liberalists, who are attempting to use certain images and discourses of world politics to justify their political agendas.
A consequence of economic globalization is increasing relations among members of an industry in different parts of the world (globalization of an industry), with a corresponding erosion of national sovereignty in the economic sphere.
Globalization also means cross-border management activities or development processes to adapt to the emergence of a globalized market or to seek and realize benefit from economies of scale or scope or from cross-border learning among different country-based organizations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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