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Encyclopedia > Global System for Mobile Communications
Mobile phone and data
standards
0G
1G
2G
3G
4G
Frequency bands

The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.[1][2] The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call quality, which means that it is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. ... Push-to-Talk (PTT), also known as Press-to-Transmit, is a method of conversing on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode. ... The Mobile Telephone System (MTS) was one of the earliest mobile telephone standards. ... The Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) is a pre-cellular VHF/UHF radio system that links to the PSTN. IMTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. ... The Advanced Mobile Telephone System was a 0G method of radio communication, mainly used in Japanese portable radio systems. ... OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony), was the first land mobile telephone network in Norway. ... MTD (Swedish abbreviation for Mobilelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D) was a manual mobile phone system for the 450 MHz frequency band. ... Autotel (also called PALM, or Public Automated Land Mobile) is a radiotelephone service which was the missing link between earlier MTS/IMTS and later cellular telephone services. ... ARP (Autoradiopuhelin, Car Radio Phone in English) was the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. ... 1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cellphones. ... For other meanings of the abbreviation, see: NMT. NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephone in English) is a mobile phone system that was specified by the Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) starting in 1970, and opened for service in 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion... Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is the analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas in 1983[1][2] It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s, and is still... hicap is a mobile techonology which has a consumer interface with a wide variety of industry references. ... Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) uses unused bandwidth normally used by AMPS mobile phones between 800 and 900 MHz to transfer data. ... Cingular Interactive Truck at Ground Zero on 9/11/2001 Mobitex Network Design Mobitex is an OSI based open standard, national public access wireless data network first introduced in 1991 by carriers RAM Mobile Data and in Canada 1990 by Rogers Cantel. ... DataTac is a wireless data network technology originally developed by Motorola and deployed in the United States as the ARDIS network. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Iden is also a village in East sussex, England iDEN Base Radio at a Cell Site Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications technology, it is known to eat little children, developed by Motorola, which provides its users the benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone. ... IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). ... Interim Standard 95 (IS-95), is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. ... Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a 2G mobile phone standard developed and used exclusively in Japan. ... Circuit Switched Data, often known as CSD, is the original form of data transmission developed for the GSM mobile phone system. ... The Personal Handy-phone System (PHS), also marketed as the Personal Access System (PAS), is a mobile network system operating in the 1880-1930 MHz frequency band. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), is a development of Circuit Switched Data, the original data transmission mechanism of the GSM mobile phone system. ... Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network, or WiDEN, is a software upgrade developed by Motorola for its iDEN enhanced specialized mobile radio (or ESMR) wireless telephony protocol. ... CDMA2000 is a family of third-generation (3G) mobile telecommunications standards that use CDMA, a multiple access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data, and signalling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile phones and cell sites. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows it to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. ... W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... FOMA, officially short for Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access, is the brand name for the 3G services being offered by Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. ... UMTS-TDD is a mobile data network standard built upon the UMTS 3G cellular mobile phone standard, using a TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, or other 3GPP-approved, air interface that uses Time Division Duplexing to duplex spectrum between the up-link and down-link. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard, being pursued in the Peoples Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Datang and Siemens AG, in an attempt to develop home-grown technology and not be dependent on Western... The Generic Access Network (GAN) was formerly known as Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), until it was adopted by the 3GPP in April 2005. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (Sometimes known as High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family, which provides a roadmap for UMTS-based networks to increase their data transfer speeds and capacity. ... High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5. ... HSPA+ (or HSPA Evolution) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol defined in 3GPP release 7 (expected in 2007). ... High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPPs Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. ... This article is about the mobile phone standard. ... Ultra Mobile Broadband is the brand name to describe the advanced technologies and services that will be supported by the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision C (Rev. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802. ... WiBro (Wireless Broadband, Korean: 와이브로) is a wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. ... Cellular frequencies - the general term which unites radio frequencies utilized by cellular networks to provide service to their subscribers. ... The Specialized Mobile Radio system (SMR) is a conventional two-way radio system, or trunked radio system, operated by a service in the 800 or 900 Mhz bands. ... Cellular frequencies - the general term which unites radio frequencies utilized by cellular networks to provide service to their subscribers. ... Personal Communications Service or PCS is the name for the 1900-MHz radio band used for digital mobile phone services in Canada and the United States. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ... A mobile phone operator (also wireless carrier) is a telephone company that provides phone services for mobile phone subscribers. ... The term Digital Call Quality had entered into popular english language in the late 20th century at a time of increasing popularity of GSM mobile (cell) phones (2G) replacing the preceding analogue system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment

From the point of view of the consumers, the key advantage of GSM systems has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as the Short Message Service (SMS). The advantage for network operators has been the ability to deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy inter-operability.[3] Like other cellular standards GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services which mean subscribers can use their phones on GSM networks all over the world. Image File history File links GSMLogo. ... Image File history File links GSMLogo. ... “SMS” redirects here. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ...


As the GSM standard continued to develop, it retained backward compatibility with the original GSM phones; for example, packet data capabilities were added in the Release '97 version of the standard, by means of GPRS. Higher speed data transmission has also been introduced with EDGE in the Release '99 version of the standard. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows it to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. ...

Contents

History of GSM

The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s, particularly in Europe. The lack of a technological standardization prompted the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) to create the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in 1982 with the objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe.[4] Cellular redirects here. ... Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was established on June 26, 1959 as a coordinating body for European state telecommunications and postal organizations. ...


In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland.[5] By the end of 1993, over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries.[6] The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ... Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM operator founded on September 19, 1988. ...


Radio interface

GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including the United States and Canada) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. A cellular network is a radio network made up of a number of radio cells (or just cells) each served by a fixed transmitter, normally known as a cell site or base station. ... GSM frequency ranges or frequency bands are the radio spectrum frequencies designated by the ITU for the operation of the GSM system for mobile phones. ...


The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems.


In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890-915 MHz, and the downlink frequency band is 935-960 MHz. This 25 MHz bandwidth is subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels, each spaced 200 kHz apart. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. This article deals with Uplink in the telecommunications terminology. ... In radio communications, a downlink is the link from a satellite to a ground station. ... Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital multiplexing in which two or more apparently simultaneous channels are derived from a given frequency spectrum, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... In telecommunication, the term burst transmission has the following meanings: transmission that combines a very high data signaling rate with very short transmission times - i. ... Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ...


The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.


GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 6 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called "Full Rate" (13 kbit/s) and "Half Rate" (6 kbit/s). These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bitrates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Code Excited Linear Prediction. ...


GSM was further enhanced in 1997[7] with the GSM-EFR codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. Finally, with the development of UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels, and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. Enhanced Full Rate or EFR or GSM-EFR is a speech coding standard that was developed in order to improve the quite poor quality of GSM-Full Rate (FR) codec. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) is a Audio data compression scheme optimized for speech coding. ...


There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network - macro, micro, pico and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. The term base station can be used in the context of land surveying, wireless computer networking, and wireless communications. ... A yagi antenna Most simply, an antenna is an electronic component designed to send or receive radio waves. ...


Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 km or 22 miles. There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing advance. A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... In the GSM standard, timing advance corresponds to the number of milliseconds the signal from the mobile phone travels to the base station. ...


Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. A compact Clear Voice cellular repeater including a directional antenna, an amplifier and a monopole rebroadcast antenna. ...


The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK), a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Gaussian minimum shift keying or GMSK is a kind of continuous phase frequency-shift keying. ... Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is frequency modulation in which the modulating signal shifts the output frequency between predetermined values. ... Gaussian curves parametrised by expected value and variance (see normal distribution) A Gaussian function (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss) is a function of the form: for some real constants a > 0, b, and c. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ...


A nearby GSM handset is usually the source of the "dit dit dit, dit dit dit, dit dit dit" signal that can be heard from time to time on home stereo systems, televisions, computers, and personal music devices. When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset, the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain function as a detector. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices, such as car stereos and portable audio players. This is a form of RFI, and could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices[citation needed], however, the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify. In the study of diffraction and antenna design, the near field is that part of the radiated field nearest to the antenna, where the radiation pattern depends on the distance from the antenna. ... A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated wave. ... Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ...


Network structure

The structure of a GSM network

The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x527, 55 KB)This diagram shows the simplified structure of a GSM network. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x527, 55 KB)This diagram shows the simplified structure of a GSM network. ...

The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a GSM network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the Network Switching Subsystem. ... The term base station can be used in the context of land surveying, wireless computer networking, and wireless communications. ... The GSM Core network is the heart of a GSM system, the most common mobile phone system in the world. ... The GPRS system is used by GSM Mobile phones, the most common mobile phone system in the world (as of 2004), for transmitting IP packets. ... GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. ... “SMS” redirects here. ...

Subscriber identity module

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries. A Cingular Wireless mini SIM card. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Subsidy lock (cellular). ...


In the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia, many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee, utilize private services to remove the lock, or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee, some do it for free. The locking applies to the handset, identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). It is always possible to switch to another (non-locked) handset if such a handset is available. World map showing the location of Europe. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. ... A Cingular Wireless mini SIM card. ...


Some providers will unlock the phone for free if the customer has held an account for a certain time period. Third party unlocking services exist that are often quicker and lower cost than that of the operator. In most countries, removing the lock is legal. Cingular and T-Mobile provide free unlocking services to their customers after 3 months of subscription.[citation needed] “AT&T Wireless” redirects here. ... T-Mobile logo T-Mobile is a multinational mobile phone operator. ...


In countries like India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Belgium, etc., all phones are sold unlocked. However, in Belgium, it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. This was also the case in Finland until April 1, 2006, when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal, though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


GSM security

GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using shared-secret cryptography. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user - whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. Diffie-Hellman (D-H) key exchange is a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write) is the study of message secrecy. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... A Universal Subscriber Identity Module is an application for UMTS mobile telephony running on a UICC smartcard which is inserted in a 3G mobile phone. ... Non-repudiation is the concept of ensuring that a contract, especially one agreed to via the Internet, cannot later be denied by one of the parties involved. ...


GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. A large security advantage of GSM over earlier systems is that the Key, the crypto variable stored on the SIM card that is the key to any GSM ciphering algorithm, is never sent over the air interface. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms, and it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time in a ciphertext-only attack. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. A5/1 is a stream cipher used to provide over-the-air communication privacy in the GSM cellular telephone standard. ... A5/2 is a stream cipher used to provide voice privacy in the GSM cellular telephone protocol. ... The operation of A5/1, a LFSR-based stream cipher used to encrypt mobile phone conversations. ... A Cingular Wireless mini SIM card. ... In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack is a form of cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the mobile phone standard. ... The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a GSM network which is responsible for transmitting to and receiving radio signals from the mobile phone. ... The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a GSM network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the Network Switching Subsystem. ... The GSM Core network is the heart of a GSM system, the most common mobile phone system in the world. ... The GSM Core network is the heart of a GSM system, the most common mobile phone system in the world. ... A Cingular Wireless mini SIM card. ... Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database - part of the GSM mobile phone system - which stores information about all the mobiles that are currently under the jurisdiction of the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) to which it is attached. ... The International Mobile Equipment Identity (or IMEI) is a unique number associated with every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. ... GSM frequency ranges or frequency bands are the radio spectrum frequencies designated by the ITU for the operation of the GSM system for mobile phones. ... Teletraffic engineering is a necessary field in telecommunications network planning to ensure that network costs are minimised without compromising the quality of service delivered to the user of the network. ... GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones, usually with the intent to locate the user. ... GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world. ... Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standards define certain codes that (if implemented by the particular carrier) make it possible to query and set certain service parameters ( type of Call Forwarding) from mobile devices (GSM cell phones). ... Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard for a telephony messaging systems that allow sending messages that includes multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text) and not just text messages as in Short message service (SMS). ... “SMS” redirects here. ... WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... BTS (Base Transceiver Station). ... GSM and IS-95 are the two most prevalent mobile communication technologies. ... The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ... The Intelligent Network or I.N., as it is more commonly referred to, is a network architecture for both fixed and mobile telecommunication networks. ... Parlay is an open API for the telephone network (fixed and mobile. ... The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. ... IMSI[im-zee] is an acronym for International Mobile Subscriber Identity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... GSM-R (GSM-Railway) is a wireless communications platform developed specifically for railway communication and applications. ... This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per...

References

  1. ^ About GSM Association. GSM Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  2. ^ Two Billion GSM Customers Worldwide. 3G Americas (June 13, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  3. ^ Texas Instruments Executive Meets with India Government Official to outline Benefits of Open Standards to drive mobile phone penetration. Texas Instruments (July 12, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  4. ^ Brief History of GSM & GSMA. GSM World. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  5. ^ Nokia delivers first phase GPRS core network solution to Radiolinja, Finland. Nokia (January 24, 2000). Retrieved on 2006-01-08.
  6. ^ History and Timeline of GSM. Emory University. Retrieved on 2006-01-09.
  7. ^ ETSI GSM 06.51 4.0.1, December 1997

Literature

  • Siegmund M. Redl, Matthias K. Weber, Malcolm W. Oliphant: "An Introduction to GSM", Artech House, March 1995, ISBN 13:978-0890067857
  • Siegmund M. Redl, Matthias K. Weber, Malcolm W. Oliphant: "GSM and Personal Communications Handbook", Artech House, May 1998, ISBN 13: 978-0890069578
  • Friedhelm Hillebrand & al: "GSM and UMTS, The creation of Global Mobile Communications", John Wiley & Sons, 2002, ISBN 0470 84322 5

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • GSM Association - the group representing GSM operators (official site) - includes coverage maps for all members
  • 3GPP The current standardization body for GSM with free standards available.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Global system for mobile communications (673 words)
The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), formerly known as "Groupe Spécial Mobile" (French), is a world-wide standard for digital wireless mobile phones.
The standard was originated by CEPT and further developed by ETSI as a standard for European mobile phones, with the intention of developing a standard for adoption world-wide.
In Europe and other areas outside North America the GSM system initially used a frequency of 900MHz, shortly afterwards the PCN network used the 1800MHz frequency, nowadays the PCN networks are considered part of the GSM system and many phones are dual-band operating on 900/1800MHz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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