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Encyclopedia > Global Maritime Distress Safety System

The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally agreed-upon set of safety procedures, types of equipment, and communication protocols used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Rescue refers to operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury. ... Look up Distress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


GMDSS consists of several systems, some of which are new, but many of which have been in operation for many years. The system is intended to perform the following functions: alerting (including position determination of the unit in distress), search and rescue coordination, locating (homing), maritime safety information broadcasts, general communications, and bridge-to-bridge communications. Specific radio carriage requirements depend upon the ship's area of operation, rather than its tonnage. The system also provides redundant means of distress alerting, and emergency sources of power. Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...


Recreational vessels do not need to comply with GMDSS radio carriage requirements, but will increasingly use the DSC selective calling VHF radios and offshore vessels may elect to equip themselves further.

Contents

Components of GMDSS

The main types of equipment used in GMDSS are:


Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)

Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based search and rescue system, established by Canada, France, the United States, and Russia. These four countries jointly helped develop the 406 MHz Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), an element of the GMDSS designed to operate with Cospas-Sarsat system. These automatic-activating EPIRBs, now required on SOLAS ships, commercial fishing vessels, and all passenger ships, are designed to transmit to a rescue coordination center a vessel identification and an accurate location of the vessel from anywhere in the world. Newest designs incorporate GPS receivers to transmit highly accurate positions of distress. Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs), Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) are tracking transmitters that operate as part of the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system. ... Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based search and rescue system, established by Canada, France, the United States, and the former Soviet Union in 1979. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs), Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) are tracking transmitters that operate as part of the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system. ... The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ... GPS redirects here. ...


NAVTEX

Main article: Navtex

Navtex is an international, automated system for instantly distributing maritime navigational warnings, weather forecasts and warnings, search and rescue notices and similar information to ships. A small, low-cost and self-contained "smart" printing radio receiver installed in the pilot house of a ship or boat checks each incoming message to see if it has been received during an earlier transmission, or if it is of a category of no interest to the ship's master. The frequency of transmission of these messages is 518 kHz in English, while 490 kHz is use to broadcast in local language. A NAVTEX receiver prints an incoming message. ... A NAVTEX receiver prints an incoming message. ...


The messages are coded with a header code identified by the using alphabets to represent broadcasting stations, type of messages, and followed by two figures indicating the serial number of the message.


Inmarsat

Satellite systems operated by the Inmarsat, under contract to the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO), are also important elements of the GMDSS. Four types of Inmarsat ship earth station terminals are recognized by the GMDSS: the Inmarsat A, B, C and F77. The Inmarsat B and F77, an updated version of the A, provide ship/shore, ship/ship and shore/ship telephone, telex and high-speed data services, including a distress priority telephone and telex service to and from rescue coordination centers. The F77 is meant to be used with the Inmarsat C, since its data capability does not meet GMDSS requirements. The Inmarsat C provides ship/shore, shore/ship and ship/ship store-and-forward data and email messaging, the capability for sending preformatted distress messages to a rescue coordination center, and the Inmarsat C SafetyNET service. The Inmarsat C SafetyNET service is a satellite-based worldwide maritime safety information broadcast service of high seas weather warnings, NAVAREA navigational warnings, radionavigation warnings, ice reports and warnings generated by the USCG-conducted International Ice Patrol, and other similar information not provided by NAVTEX. SafetyNET works similarly to NAVTEX in areas outside NAVTEX coverage. Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Inmarsat plc is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ...


Inmarsat C equipment is relatively small and lightweight, and costs much less than an Inmarsat A, B or F77. Inmarsat A, B and F77 ship earth stations require relatively large gyro-stabilized antennas; the antenna size of the Inmarsat C is much smaller. Inmarsat also operates an EPIRB system, the Inmarsat L, which is similar to that operated by COSPAS-SARSAT. The INMARSAT L (also called INMARSAT E) EPIRB system is terminated by November 30th, 2006. The INMARSAT EPIRBs are replaced by COSPAS-SARSAT EPIRBs with built-in GPS. Immediate alerting is possible through the GEOSAR satellites of the COSPAS-SARSAT system.


In July 2002 IMSO notified IMO of the decision by Inmarsat to withdraw provision of Inmarsat A services as from 31 December 2007. On that date, Inmarsat A can no longer be used for any purpose. The last type approval by Inmarsat for a new model of maritime Inmarsat A mobile earth station was granted in 1991, since then no new Inmarsat A models have been approved. is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Under a cooperative agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), combined meteorological observations and AMVER reports can now be sent to both the USCG AMVER Center, and NOAA, using an Inmarsat C ship earth station, at no charge. . The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


SOLAS now requires that Inmarsat C equipment have an integral satellite navigation receiver, or be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will ensure accurate location information to be sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is ever transmitted.


High Frequency

The GMDSS includes High Frequency (HF) radiotelephone and radiotelex (narrow-band direct printing) equipment, with calls initiated by digital selective calling (DSC). Worldwide broadcasts of maritime safety information are also made on HF narrow-band direct printing channels. High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ...


Search and Rescue Transponder

Main article: Search and Rescue Transponder

The GMDSS installation on ships include one or more Search and Rescue Transponder (SART) devices which are used to locate survival craft or distressed vessels by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship's 3 cm radar display. The detection range between these devices and ships, dependent upon the height of the ship's radar mast and the height of the SART, is normally about 15 km (8 nautical miles). Note that a marine radar may not detect a SART even within this distance, if the radar settings are not optimized for SART detection. A standard SART, produced by Jotron, on board a Norwegian ferry Shipboard Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) installations include one or more Search and Rescue Transponder (SART) devices which are used to locate a survival craft or distressed vessel by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship... A standard SART, produced by Jotron, on board a Norwegian ferry Shipboard Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) installations include one or more Search and Rescue Transponder (SART) devices which are used to locate a survival craft or distressed vessel by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


On detected by a radar, the SART will produce a visual and aural indication.


Digital Selective Calling

The IMO also introduced Digital Selective Calling (DSC) on MF, HF and VHF maritime radios as part of the GMDSS system. DSC is primarily intended to initiate ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship radiotelephone and MF/HF radiotelex calls. DSC calls can also be made to individual stations, groups of stations, or "all stations" in one's reach. Each DSC-equipped ship, shore station and group is assigned a unique 9-digit Maritime Mobile Service Identity. VHF radio is radio transmission in the 30-300 MHz frequency range, as a means of short-range, line-of-sight verbal communication. ... VHF radio is radio transmission in the 30-300 MHz frequency range, as a means of short-range, line-of-sight verbal communication. ... A Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) is a series of nine digits which are transmitted over the radio path in order to uniquely identify ship stations, ship earth stations, coast stations, coast earth stations, and group calls. ...


DSC distress alerts, which consist of a preformatted distress message, are used to initiate emergency communications with ships and rescue coordination centers. DSC was intended to eliminate the need for persons on a ship's bridge or on shore to continuously guard radio receivers on voice radio channels, including VHF channel 16 (156.8 MHz) and 2182 kHz now used for distress, safety and calling. A listening watch aboard GMDSS-equipped ships on 2182 kHz ended on February 1, 1999. In May 2002, IMO decided to postpone cessation of a VHF listening watch aboard ships. That watchkeeping requirement had been scheduled to end on 1 February 2005. The radio frequency of 2182 kilohertz (kHz) is the international calling and distress frequency for voice maritime communication (radio telephony) on the marine MF bands. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


IMO and ITU both require that the DSC-equipped MF/HF and VHF radios be externally connected to a satellite navigation receiver. That connection will ensure accurate location information is sent to a rescue coordination center if a distress alert is ever transmitted. The FCC requires that all new VHF and MF/HF maritime radiotelephones type accepted after June 1999 have at least a basic DSC capability.


VHF digital selective calling also has other capabilities beyond those required for the GMDSS. The Coast Guard uses this system to track vessels in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Vessel Traffic Service. IMO and the USCG also plan to require ships carry a Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System, which will be DSC-compatible. Countries having a GMDSS A1 Area should be able to identify and track AIS-equipped vessels in its waters without any additional radio equipment. A DSC-equipped radio cannot be interrogated and tracked unless that option was included by the manufacturer, and unless the user configures it to allow tracking.


GMDSS telecommunications equipment should not be reserved for emergency use only. The International Maritime Organization encourages mariners to use that equipment for routine as well as safety telecommunications.


GMDSS Sea Areas

GMDSS sea areas serve two purposes: to describe areas where GMDSS services are available, and to define what GMDSS ships must carry. Prior to the GMDSS, the number and type of radio safety equipment ships had to carry depended upon its tonnage. With GMDSS, the number and type of radio safety equipment ships have to carry depend upon the areas in which they travel. GMDSS sea areas are defined by governments.


In addition to equipment listed below, all GMDSS-regulated ships must carry a satellite EPIRB, a NAVTEX receiver (if they travel in any areas served by NAVTEX), an Inmarsat-C SafetyNET receiver (if they travel in any areas not served by NAVTEX), a DSC-equipped VHF radiotelephone, two or more VHF handhelds, and a search and rescue radar transponder (SART).


Sea Area A1

An area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous digital selective calling (Ch.70/156.525Mc.) alerting and radiotelephony services are available.Such an area could extend typically 20 nautical miles (37 km) to 30 nautical miles (56 km) from the Coast Station.


Sea Area A2

An area, excluding Sea Area A1, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC (2187.5 kHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available.For planning purposes this area typically extends to up to 100 nautical miles (190 km) offshore,but would exclude any A1 designated areas.In practice,satisfactory coverage may often be achieved out to around 400 nautical miles (740 km) offshore.


Sea Area A3

An area, excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an INMARSAT geostationary satellite in which continuous alerting is available.This area lies between about latitude 76 Degree NORTH and SOUTH,but excludes A1 and/or A2 designated areas. A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite whose orbital speed equals the Earths rotational speed. ...


Sea Area A4

An area outside Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3 is called Sea Area A4. This is essentially the polar regions, north and south of about 76 degrees of latitude, excluding any other areas. This article is about the geographical term. ...


GMDSS Radio Equipment Required for U.S. Coastal Voyages

Presently, until an A1 or A2 Sea Area is established, GMDSS-mandated ships operating off the U.S. coast must fit to Sea Areas A3 (or A4) regardless of where they operate. U.S. ships whose voyage allows them to always remain within VHF channel 16 coverage of U.S. Coast Guard stations may apply to the Federal Communications Commission for an individual waiver to fit to Sea Area A1 requirements. Similarly, those who remain within 2182 kHz coverage of U.S. Coast Guard stations may apply for a waiver to fit to Sea Area A2 requirements.


History

Since the invention of radio at the end of the 19th century, ships at sea have relied on Morse code, invented by Samuel Morse and first used in 1844, for distress and safety telecommunications. The need for ship and coast radio stations to have and use radiotelegraph equipment, and to listen to a common radio frequency for Morse encoded distress calls, was recognized after the sinking of the liner RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic in 1912. The U.S. Congress enacted legislation soon after, requiring U.S. ships to use Morse code radiotelegraph equipment for distress calls. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), now a United Nations agency, followed suit for ships of all nations. Morse encoded distress calling has saved thousands of lives since its inception almost a century ago, but its use requires skilled radio operators spending many hours listening to the radio distress frequency. Its range on the medium frequency (MF) distress band (500 kHz) is limited, and the amount of traffic Morse signals can carry is also limited. // Within the timeline of radio, many people were involved in the invention of radio transmission of information as we know it today. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... UN redirects here. ... Medium frequency (MF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 300 kHz to 3000 kHz. ... For most of the 20th century, the radio frequency 500 kHz (known as 600 meters or 500 kc for most of the century, before kilohertz replaced kilocycle) was the international calling and distress frequency for ships on the high seas. ...


Not all ship-to-shore radio communications were short range. Some radio stations provided long-range radiotelephony services, such as radio telegrams and radio telex calls, on the HF bands (3-30 MHz) enabling worldwide communications with ships. For example, Portishead Radio, which was the world's busiest radiotelephony station, provided HF long-range, MF medium-range, and VHF short-range services;[1] in 1974, it had 154 radio operators who handled over 20 million words per year.[2] Such large radiotelephony stations employed large numbers of people and were expensive to operate. By the end of the 1980s, satellite services had started to take an increasingly large share of the market for ship-to-shore communications. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ...


For these reasons, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a United Nations agency specializing in safety of shipping and preventing ships from polluting the seas, began looking at ways of improving maritime distress and safety communications. In 1979, a group of experts drafted the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, which called for development of a global search and rescue plan. This group also passed a resolution calling for development by IMO of a Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) to provide the communication support needed to implement the search and rescue plan. This new system, which the world's maritime nations are implementing, is based upon a combination of satellite and terrestrial radio services, and has changed international distress communications from being primarily ship-to-ship based to ship-to-shore (Rescue Coordination Center) based. It spelled the end of Morse code communications for all but a few users, such as amateur radio operators. The GMDSS provides for automatic distress alerting and locating in cases where a radio operator doesn't have time to send an SOS or MAYDAY call, and, for the first time, requires ships to receive broadcasts of maritime safety information which could prevent a distress from happening in the first place. In 1988, IMO amended the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, requiring ships subject to it fit GMDSS equipment. Such ships were required to carry NAVTEX and satellite EPIRBs by 1 August 1993, and had to fit all other GMDSS equipment by 1 February 1999. US ships were allowed to fit GMDSS in lieu of Morse telegraphy equipment by the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... This article is about artificial satellites. ... An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ... Mayday is an emergency code word used internationally as a distress signal in voice procedure radio communications. ... The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Telecommunications Act of 1996[1] was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934, and leading to media consolidation. ...


Licensing of Operators

In the United States four different certificates are issued. A GMDSS Radio Maintainer's License allows a person to maintain, install,and repair GMDSS equipment at sea. A GMDSS Radio Operator's License is necessary for a person to use required GMDSS equipment. The holder of both certificates can be issued one GMDSS Radio Operator/Maintainer License. Finally, the GMDSS Restricted License is available for VHF operations only within 20 nautical miles (37 km) of the coast. To obtain any of these licenses a person must be a U.S. citizen or otherwise eligible for work in the country, be able to communicate in English, and take written examinations approved by the Federal Communications Commission. Like the amateur radio examinations, these are given by private, FCC-approved groups. These are generally not the same agencies who administer the ham tests. Written test elements 1 and 7 are required for the Operator license, and elements 1 and 7R for the Restricted Operator. For the Maintainer examination element 9 must be passed. However, to obtain this certificate an applicant must also hold a General radiotelephone operator license (GROL), which requires passing commercial written exam elements 1 and 3. Upon the further passing of optional element 8 the ship radar endorsement will then be added to both the GROL and Maintainer licenses.[3] It should be noted that to actually serve as an operator on most commercial vessels the United States Coast Guard requires additional classroom training and practical experience.[4] FCC redirects here. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... The General Radiotelephone Operator License, or GROL, is a commercial license, as opposed to an amateur radio certificate. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


Learning tools

Many tools exist for teaching GMDSS skills, including various types of simulator. Simulators are very useful because sending false distress communications on live equipment is unsafe and illegal. A good simulator should faithfully reproduce conditions under which GMDSS systems would actually be used at sea. All of the questions and answers asked on the written tests are also available in commercially prepared books.


See also

Nautical Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Portable VHF radio set Marine VHF radio is installed on all large ships and most motorized small craft. ... A standard SART, produced by Jotron, on board a Norwegian ferry Shipboard Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) installations include one or more Search and Rescue Transponder (SART) devices which are used to locate a survival craft or distressed vessel by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship... Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs), Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) are tracking transmitters that operate as part of the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system. ... Emergency position-indicating rescue beacons (EPIRB) are small radio transmitters that some satellites and search and rescue aircraft can use locate people or boats needing rescue. ... Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... In telecommunication, radio horizon is the locus of points at which direct rays from an antenna are tangential to the surface of the Earth. ...

Source

References

  1. ^ Johnson, B (1994). "English in maritime radiotelephony". World Englishes 13 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1994.tb00285.x. 
  2. ^ The story of Portishead Radio: Long range maritime radio communications: 1920 – 1995 (2001-04-06). Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  3. ^ FCC - Commercial Radio Operator Licenses
  4. ^ MarComms - GMDSS Training and Certification

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City...

  Results from FactBites:
 
OMM-JCOMM-GMDSS / GMDSS (252 words)
Ship distress and safety communications entered a new era on 1 February 1999 with the full implementation of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) - an integrated communications system using satellite and terrestrial radiocommunications to ensure that no matter where a ship is in distress, aid can be dispatched.
The regulations governing the GMDSS are contained in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974.
The GMDSS communications system under SOLAS complements the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR), 1979, which was adopted to develop a global SAR plan.
Global Maritime Distress Safety System - definition of Global Maritime Distress Safety System in Encyclopedia (1941 words)
Satellite systems operated by the Inmarsat, under contract to the International Maritime Satellite Organization (IMSO), are also important elements of the GMDSS.  Four types of Inmarsat ship earth station terminals are recognized by the GMDSS: the Inmarsat A, B, C and F77.
The GMDSS installation on ships include one or more search and rescue radar transponder (SART) devices which are used to locate survival craft or distressed vessels by creating a series of dots on a rescuing ship's 3 cm radar display.
The GMDSS provides for automatic distress alerting and locating in cases where a radio operator doesn't have time to send an SOS or MAYDAY call, and, for the first time, requires ships to receive broadcasts of maritime safety information which could prevent a distress from happening in the first place.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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